DrugBank ID: db03904
DrugCentral: urea
Synonymous :carbamide | carbonyldiamide | harnstoff | karbamid | urea | urée

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of urea gene in 154 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32229732 Twelve (10.8%) patients showed mild increase of blood urea nitrogen or creatinine (<26 μmol/L within 48 h), and 8 (7.2%) patients showed trace or 1+ albuminuria in 111 COVID-19-confirmed patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
32237148 There were 38.5% of control patients had higher procalcitonin (PCT) levels than 0.5ng/ml, which was significantly higher than that percentage of COVID-19 patients (X2 =22.636, P <0.05), and COVID-19 patients were also more likely to have decreased or normal urea and creatinine levels than control patients (X2 =24.930, 8.480, P <0.05). […] Younger age, exposure to Wuhan, fever, cough, and slight changes in routine blood work-up parameters, urea and creatinine were important features discriminating COVID-19 from control patients.
32247631 The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen and estimated glomerular filtration under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 were 14.4, 13.1 and 13.1%, respectively. […] Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed that elevated baseline serum creatinine (hazard ratio: 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-3.26), elevated baseline blood urea nitrogen (3.97, 2.57-6.14), AKI stage 1 (1.90, 0.76-4.76), stage 2 (3.51, 1.49-8.26), stage 3 (4.38, 2.31-8.31), proteinuria 1+ (1.80, 0.81-4.00), 2+∼3+ (4.84, 2.00-11.70), and hematuria 1+ (2.99, 1.39-6.42), 2+∼3+ (5.56,2.58- 12.01) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death after adjusting for age, sex, disease severity, comorbidity and leukocyte count.
32249089 The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset.
32259132 Patients with positive RT-PCR had significantly higher neutrophil (NEU) count (p = 0.0001), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.04), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.0001), and Urea (p = 0.001) levels in serum. […] ALT (AUC = 0.879), CRP (AUC = 0.870), NEU (AUC = 0.858), LDH (AUC = 0.835), and Urea (AUC = 0.835) had very good accuracy in predicting cases with positive RT-PCR for COVID-19, respectively.
32275643 The parameters including homocysteine, urea, creatinine and serum cystatin C were significantly higher in imaging progression patients (all p < 0.05), while eGFR decreased (p < 0.001).
32277023 The interference factors causing false-positive reactivity in the two methods were analyzed, and the urea dissociation test was employed to dissociate the SARS-CoV-2 IgM-positive serum using the best dissociation concentration.Results: Two methods detected positive SARS-CoV-2 IgM in 22 middle-high level RF-IgM-positive sera and 14 sera from COVID-19 patients; the other 50 sera were negative. […] When urea dissociation concentration was 6 mol/L, SARS-CoV-2 IgM were positive in 1 middle-high level RF-IgM-positive sera and in 14 COVID-19 patient sera detected using GICA. […] When urea dissociation concentration was 4 mol/L and the avidity index (AI) lower than 0.371 was set to negative, SARS-CoV-2 IgM were positive in 3 middle-high level RF-IgM-positive sera and in 14 COVID-19 patient sera detected using ELISA.Conclusion: Middle-high level of RF-IgM could lead to false-positive reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgM detected using GICA and ELISA, and urea dissociation tests would be helpful in reducing false-positive results of SARS-CoV-2 IgM.
32296824 We found that old age, and higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, the coefficient of variation of red blood cell distribution width, blood urea nitrogen, direct bilirubin, lower albumin, are associated with severe COVID-19.
32360479 Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte count, elevated PCT, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2R, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, NT-proBNP, creatinine, and urea nitrogen.
32371611 We aimed to assess the association between Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, and to compare the predictive ability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 (CURB65) score.
32418377 There were 29.9% (26/87) and 12.6% (11/87) patients who had already showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) at admission.
32425003 The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization.
32434806 Reported risk factors include elevated baseline serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen, acute kidney injury, proteinuria, and hematuria.
32446795 Patients with diabetes had significantly higher leucocyte and neutrophil counts, and higher levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB at admission compared with those without diabetes.
32511971 Through the analysis of laboratory examination information of patients with COVID-19 from 35 articles (5912 patients), we demonstrated that severe cases possessed higher levels of leukocyte (1.20-fold), neutrophil (1.33-fold), CRP (3.04-fold), PCT (2.00-fold), ESR (1.44-fold), AST (1.40-fold), ALT (1.34-fold), LDH (1.54-fold), CK (1.44-fold), CK-MB (1.39-fold), total bilirubin (1.14-fold), urea (1.28-fold), creatine (1.09-fold), PT (1.03-fold) and D-dimer (2.74-fold), as well as lower levels of lymphocytes (1.44-fold), eosinophil (2.00-fold), monocyte (1.08-fold), Hemoglobin (1.53-fold), PLT (1.15-fold), albumin (1.15-fold), and APTT (1.02-fold).
32526275 Elevated procalcitonin (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.90), urea nitrogen (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.43), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.21) and D-dimer (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.12-3.58) at baseline were also associated with risk for disease progression.
32527342 In addition to the difference of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reaction protein (CRP) in AKI group were significantly higher than those in non-AKI group [WBC (×109/L): 5.75 (4.13, 7.83) vs. 
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32540837 Those intubated exhibited increased disease severity with significantly elevated levels of serum Procalcitonin, C reactive protein (CRP), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Mean glucose, Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32541471 And the renal function (measured as blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urine protein) returned to normal.
32559180 Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).
32569494 The patients with at least one ocular manifestation had significantly higher blood urea levels at the time of admission compared to those with no obvious ocular involvement (median: 41.5, IQR: 28-66.3 vs. median: 33, IQR: 23.8-51.8, P = .023). […] Moreover, a significant difference was observed in the total white blood cell count, lymphocyte percent, neutrophil count, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and blood urea level between patients with positive and negative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 virus.
32573995 Results Compared to patients who could be finally discharged, those who died during hospital stay displayed significantly higher values of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI), prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and leukocytes (especially neutrophils), whilst values of albumin, hemoglobin and lymphocytes were significantly decreased.
32575073 From baseline to day 14, significant decreases of three biomarkers (C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, albumin) and dramatic increases of three biomarkers (lymphocytes, platelets, blood urea nitrogen) were observed in older patients.
32600484 Through multivariable logistic regression, we found that decreased lymphocyte ratio (Lymr, %) (odds ratio, OR 0.574, P < 0.001), elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR 1.513, P = 0.009), and raised D-dimer (DD) (OR 1.334, P = 0.002) at admission were closely related to death.
32607398 Therefore, to avoid the increment of OS, we suggest using Leucomethylene Blue through the following protocol: The IV cocktail contains 50 mg MB (1mg/kg, 50-kg weight), 1000-2000 mg vitamin C, 500-1000 mg N-Acetylcysteine (or glutathione or cysteine or α-lipoic acid) and 10-20 gr urea (optional) in 100 ml dextrose 5%.
32612961 The severe and critically severe groups had elevated levels of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, platelets, C-reaction protein (CRP), lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), troponin-I, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32623470 ACEI/ARB use was independently associated with the following biochemical variations: phosphorus >40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.35, 95% CI, 1.83-6.14), creatinine >10.1 mg/L (OR, 3.22, 2.28-4.54), and urea nitrogen (UN) >0.52 g/L (OR, 2.65, 1.89-3.73).
32626680 Older age, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, decreased albumin, elevated serum cytokines (IL2R, IL6, IL8, IL10, and TNF-α) levels, and a decreased lymphocyte count indicated poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32626733 After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations in the kidney tissue and the serum levels of creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32641511 The three-cycle library features functional moieties such as guanidine, which interacts strongly with aspartate of the protease catalytic triad, as well as mild electrophiles such as sulfonamide, urea, and carbamate.
32651993 9.3mg/L) and blood urea nitrogen (7.2mmol/L vs. […] The survival curve analysis showed that higher C-reactive protein (≥5mg/L) plus any other abnormalities of lymphocyte, blood urea nitrogen or lactate dehydrogenase significantly predicted poor prognosis of COVID-19 infected elderly patients. […] This study revealed that the risk factors for the death in these elderly patients included comorbidities, increased levels of C-reactive protein and blood urea nitrogen, and lymphopenia during hospitalization.
32656888 Multivariable regression showed that neutrophil count greater than 4.47 × 109 /L (OR, 58.35; 95%CI: 2.16-1571.69; P = .016), hypersensitivity C-reactive protein greater than 86.7 mg/L (OR, 14.90; 95%CI: 1.29-171.10; P = .030), creatine kinase greater than 101 U/L (OR, 161.62; 95%CI: 6.45-4045.20; P = .002), and blood urea nitrogen greater than 6.7 mmol/L (OR, 11.18; 95%CI: 1.36-91.62; P = .024) were risk factors for in-hospital death. […] The risk factors of neutrophil count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and blood urea nitrogen could help clinicians to early identify COVID-19 severe patients with poor outcomes on admission.
32661499 The severity of COVID-19 was negatively correlated with serum iron levels before and after treatment and was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, urea nitrogen, and myoglobin levels.
32662525 Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases.
32662893 We aimed to examine independent predictive factors for the severity and survival of COVID-19 disease, from routine blood parameters, especially the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio.
32672430 ROC curves demonstrate that age, heart rate, respiratory rate, dyspnea, lactate, AaDO2, AaDO2 augmentation, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose level, international normalized ratio (INR), blood urea and IL-6 are useful predictors of ICU admission.
32677721 All of the patients had an elevated concentration of C-reactive protein and an increase in blood urea levels.
32697506 We aimed to assess the association between Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, and to compare the predictive ability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 (CURB65) score.
32699707 Amongst the patients admitted in ICU, there were significant differences in the total leukocyte count (P = 0.001), neutrophils and lymphocytes (P =< 0.001), monocytes (P = 0.027), urea (P =< 0.001), creatinine (P = 0.002), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) increasing with disease severity, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) decreasing with mortalities.
32701249 Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
32706420 Here, we carried out qualitative assessment of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody avidity using an urea (6M) dissociation test performed on a lateral flow immunochromatographic IgG/IgM device. […] Sera losing IgG reactivity after urea treatment (n = 28) were drawn significantly earlier (P = .04) after onset of symptoms than those which preserved it (n = 48).
32709637 Patients who died were older (mean difference ±SEM, 13.76±3.12 years; p<0.0001) with a higher NEWS2 score (median 6, IQR 2.5-7.5 vs median 2, IQR 2-6) and worse renal function (median differences: urea 2.7 mmol/L, p<0.01; creatinine 4 μmol/L, p<0.05; eGFR 14 mL/min, p<0.05) on admission compared with survivors.
32711001 No considerable difference was observed regarding the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the three groups (p > 0.05).
32712332 This study aimed to test whether levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in combination with D-dimer were predictors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.
32721038 There was mild liver function injury (aspartate aminotransferase, 65.8 ± 12.7 vs 67.4 ± 9.3 U/L, P = 0.246; alanine aminotransferase, 66.4 ± 13.2 vs 69.6 ± 12.7 U/L, P = 0.352), and normal renal function was intact (blood urea nitrogen 6.4 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 2.8 mmol/L P = 0.358; creatinine 85.7 ± 37.2, 91.2 ± 32.6 μmol/L, P = 0.297).
32723027 After excluding prior kidney diseases, some patients showed abnormal urinalysis (32.11%), elevated blood creatinine (15.04%) and blood urea nitrogen (19.11%).
32725596 The patient exhibited the highest prevalence of abnormal indices of clinical features and immune responses at the first admission, including fever (38.3 ℃), decreased lymphocytes (0.83 × 109/L) and serum potassium (3.1 mmol/L), as well as elevated serum creatinine (115 µmol/L), urea (8.6 mmol/L), and C-reactive protein (80 mg/L).
32739424 Higher levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were associated with a significant increase in fatality [Scr: mean difference (MD): 20.19 μmol/L, 95 % CI: 14.96-25.42, P < 0.001; BUN: MD: 4.07 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 3.33-4.81, P < 0.001] and severe infection (Scr: MD: 7.78 μmol/L, 95 % CI: 4.43-11.14, P < 0.00001, BUN: MD: 2.12 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 1.74-2.50, P < 0.00001) in COVID-19 patients.
32746929 Our meta-analyses showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil, hemoglobin, platelet, albumin, serum sodium, lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR), leukocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LeCR), leukocyte to IL-6 ratio (LeIR), and an increase in the neutrophil, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, glucose level, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the severe group compared with the non-severe group.
32754610 Serum creatinine (Scr) was not abnormally elevated in all of the patients, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was abnormally elevated in only 25.0% of the patients.
32765952 Increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), myoglobin, creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were highly associated with severe COVID-19.
32766541 Age, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), percentage of lymphocytes (LYM%), procalcitonin (PCT), serum urea, C reactive protein and D-dimer (DD), were identified associated with mortality by LASSO binary logistic regression.
32768975 In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P < 0.01).
32781796 Arginine (L-arginine), is an amino acid involved in a number of biological processes, including the biosynthesis of proteins, host immune response, urea cycle, and nitric oxide production.
32810523 Independent risk factors for in-hospital death for patients with ESKD were increased age, being on a ventilator, lymphopenia, blood urea nitrogen and serum ferritin.
32813298 Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), D-dimer, myoglobin, T-pro brain natriuretic peptide (T-pro-BNP) and urea nitrogen (BUN) in patients with anaemia were significantly higher than those without.
32820210 Seven laboratory features selected in the model were: prothrombin activity, urea, white blood cell, interleukin-2 receptor, indirect bilirubin, myoglobin, and fibrinogen degradation products.
32830949 In this work, Ti3C2Tx , a two-dimensional transition-metal carbide (MXene) that is known to efficiently adsorb urea, was used to remove creatinine and uric acid from an aqueous solution and dialysate, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 45.7 and 17.0 mg/g, respectively.
32837729 On 1 April 2020, the patient’s status deteriorated and she was diagnosed with acute kidney injury as a complication of sepsis, with a urea level of 240 mg/dL (reference range 5-50 mg/dL) and creatinine level of 7.69 mg/dL (reference range 0.4-1.3 mg/dL).
32838181 The analyzed outcome variables were as follows: (a) clinical improvement (O2 saturation and O2 supply); (b) biochemical improvement (fibrinogen, D-dimer, urea, ferritin, LDH, IL-6, and CRP); (c) radiological improvement. […] Biomarkers of inflammation decreased (fibrinogen, D-dimer, urea, ferritin, LDH, IL-6, and CRP).
32838236 Urea nitrogen concentration at admission was associated with the presence of CT abnormalities (P = 0.046, OR 7.149, 95% CI 1.038 to 49.216).
32840917 The concentrations of serum urea, Uric Acid (UA), Creatinine (CREA), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and urine protein (Pro) have been tested in this study. […] Higher levels of urea (female 7.00 ± 3.31, male 8.87 ± 5.18) Pro (female7/7, male 12/13), hs-CRP (female 2/7, male 5/13) ESR (female 94.43 ± 33.26, male 67.85 ± 22.77) were found in severe patients compared with the mild (urea: female 3.71 ± 1.00, male 4.42 ± 1.14; Pro: female 3/46, male 12/70; hs-CRP: female 1/46, male 3/70; ESR: female 43.32 ± 33.24, male 21.64 ± 21.82). […] CREA and PCT did not show a significant difference between mild and severe patients, but the difference among the five biological markers (urea, Pro, hs-CRP, ESR, and UA) between mild and severe patients we tested was small (P < .05). […] Severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of urea and Pro, while their UA levels were lower, reflecting poor kidney function in severe patients.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32850926 Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10.
32851093 Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05).
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32879731 Meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe COVID-19 cases showed that CK-MB (SMD = 0.68,95%CI: 0.48;0.87; P-value:< 0.001), troponin I (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI:0.42;1.00; P-value:< 0.001), D-dimer (SMD = 0.54,95%CI:0.31;0.77; P-value:< 0.001), prothrombin time (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI:0.23;0.73; P-value: < 0.001), procalcitonin (SMD = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.34;1,11; P-value:< 0.001), interleukin-6 (SMD = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.25;1.61;P-value: 0.007),C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = 1.34, 95%CI:0.83;1.86; P-value:< 0.001), ALAT (SMD = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34;0,71; P-value:< 0.001), ASAT (SMD = 0.96, 95%CI: 0.58;1.34; P-value: < 0.001), LDH (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.75;1.98; P-value:< 0.001), CK (SMD = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.10;0.87; P-value:0.01), total bilirubin (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value: < 0.001), γ-GT (SMD = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.83;1.22; P-value: < 0.001), myoglobin (SMD = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.81;1.47; P-value:< 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.18;0.47;P-value:< 0.001) and Creatininemia (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.01;0.35; P-value:0.04) were significantly more elevated in severe cases, in opposition to lymphocyte count (SMD = -0.57, 95%CI:-0.71; - 0.42; P-value: < 0.001) and proportion of lymphocytes (SMD = -0.81, 95%CI: - 1.12; - 0.49; P-value:< 0.001) which were found to be significantly lower in severe patients with other biomarker such as thrombocytes (SMD = -0.26, 95%CI: - 0.48; - 0.04; P-value:0.02), eosinophils (SMD = - 0.28, 95%CI:-0.50; - 0.06; P-value:0.01), haemoglobin (SMD = -0.20, 95%CI: - 0.37,-0.03; P-value:0.02), albuminemia (SMD-1.67,95%CI -2.40; - 0.94; P-value:< 0.001), which were also lower.
32891904 The median SOFA score, serum lactate levels, renal function parameters (creatinine, urea) and all inflammation markers (IL-6, PCT, CRP) were lower in the COVID-19 group (all: p < 0.05).
32894024 ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; aOR: adjusted odds ratio; ALT: alanine transferase; ALIMA: Alliance for International Medical Action; AST: aspartate transaminase; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; CNS: central nervous system; CUBE: chambre d’urgence biosécurisée pour épidémie; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; Ct: cycle threshold; DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo; ETC: ebola treatment centre; ETU: ebola treatment unit; EBOV: ebola virus; EVD: ebolavirus disease; FEAST: fluid expansion as supportive therapy; GP: glycoprotein; IV: intravenous; MEURI: monitored emergency use of unregistered interventions; NETEC: National Ebola Training and Education Centre; NP: nucleoprotein; ORS: oral rehydration solution; PALM: Pamoja Tulinde Maisha; PREVAIL: Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia; PPE: personal protective equipment; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PEP: post-exposure prophylaxis; RDTs: rapid diagnostic tests; RT: reverse transcriptase; RNA: ribonucleic acid; UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund; USA: United States of America; WHO: World Health Organization.
32907855 The final 4C Mortality Score included eight variables readily available at initial hospital assessment: age, sex, number of comorbidities, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, level of consciousness, urea level, and C reactive protein (score range 0-21 points).
32913691 Among the survivors versus non-survivors of COVID-19, there were significant differences in total leukocyte count (p<0.001), neutrophil count, (p<0.001), lymphocyte count (p<0.001), urea (p<0.001), serum bicarbonate (p=0.001), CRP levels (p<0.001), LDH (p=0.013), and D-dimer (p<0.001) at admission. […] At discharge, the laboratory values of non-surviving patients showed significant leukocytosis (p<0.001), neutrophilia (p<0.001), lymphocytopenia (p<0.001), decreased monocytes (p<0.001), elevated urea and creatinine (p<0.001), hypernatremia (p<0.001), decreased serum bicarbonate levels (p<0.001), elevated CRP level (p=0.040), LDH (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.001), and D-dimer (p<0.001). […] However, the laboratory values of non-surviving patients had shown a lower hemoglobin (p=0.016), increased mean cell volume (p<0.001), significantly increased total leukocyte count (p<0.001), increased urea and creatinine (p<0.001), hypernatremia (p<0.001), increased bicarbonate (p=0.025), elevated D-dimer levels (p=0.043), and elevated PCT (p=0.021) on discharge.
32919217 ICU patients had lower lymphocytes, percentage of large unstained cell (%LUC), hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin, but higher leucocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-lymphocytes ratio (PLR), urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer when compared with non-critically ill patients (p < 0.001).
32923449 The Multi-lobular infiltration, hypo-Lymphocytosis, Bacterial coinfection, Smoking history, hyper-Tension and Age (MuLBSTA) Score and Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 (CURB65) score were used to assess the death and intensive care unit (ICU) risks in all patients.
32933530 CRP > 80 mg/L (p < 0.05), albumin < 35 g/L (p < 0.05), peri-operative Glasgow Prognostic Score (poGPS) (p < 0.05), lymphocytes < 1.5 109/l (p < 0.05), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (p ≤ 0.001), haematocrit (< 0.40 L/L (male)/ < 0.37 L/L (female)) (p ≤ 0.01), urea > 7.5 mmol/L (p < 0.001), creatinine > 130 mmol/L (p < 0.05) and elevated urea: albumin ratio (< 0.001) were also associated with 30-day mortality.
32945705 Six biological abnormalities were identified as potential risk markers independently related to the severity: elevated urea nitrogen (>8.0 mmol/L, OR = 9.3 [2.7-31.7], p < .00001), elevated CRP (>42mg/L, OR = 7.5 [2.4-23.3], p = .001), decreased natremia (<133. 6 mmol/L, OR = 6.0 [2.0-17.4], p = .001), decreased albumin (<33.5 g/L, OR = 5.2 [1.7-16.6], p = .003), elevated LDH (>367 IU/L, OR = 4.9 [1.7-14.2], p = .003) and elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>7.99, OR = 4.2, [1.4-12.2], p = .009).
32945707 Among the results of laboratory tests, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, urea nitrogen and D-dimer (NLAUD) show greater differences and have better regression coefficients (β) when using hierarchical comparisons in a multivariate logistic regression model. […] Predictors of mortality based on better regression coefficients (β) included NLR (OR = 31.2, 95% CI 6.7-144.5, p < .0001), lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 73.4, 95% CI 11.8-456.8, p < .0001), albumin (OR < 0.1, 95% CI <0.1-0.2, p < .0001), urea nitrogen (OR = 12.0, 95% CI 3.0-48.4, p = .0005), and D-dimer (OR = 13.6, 95% CI 3.4-54.9, p = .0003).
32946031 At multivariate models, delirium was independently and positively associated with age [odds ratio (OR) 1.093, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.046-1.143, p < 0.001], use of antipsychotic drugs (OR 4.529, 95% CI 1.204-17.027, p = 0.025), serum urea and lactate-dehydrogenase at admission.
32965368 There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria.
32969605 Ten independent risk factors associated with cardiovascular complications were identified in training set: male (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 2.85), age ≥ 60 years old (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.2), cough (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.16, 3), chronic heart disease (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.46), lymphocyte count ≤1.1 × 109 /L at admission (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.47), blood urea nitrogen ≥7 mmol/L at admission (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2 at admission (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.83), activated partial thromboplastin time ≥37 s (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 6.86), D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.36) and procalcitonin ≥0.5 μg/L (OR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.14).
32979419 22.3%; P < 0.001]); had higher levels of white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood urea nitrogen, and had a higher proportion of patchy ground-glass opacity in chest computed tomography findings (52.7% vs. 
32984786 On the 20 more representative biochemical markers (>250 iterations), only CRP >90 mg/L (odds ratio [OR] 6·87, 95% CI, 2·36-20·01) and urea nitrogen >0·36 g/L (OR 3·91, 95% CI, 1·15-13·29) were independently associated with the risk of ARF. […] Urea nitrogen >0·42 g/L was the only marker associated with the risk of COVID-19 related death.
32989838 The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed that the AUC of NLR, interleukin-6, pneumonia severity index (PSI) score, and Confusion-Urea-Respiratory Rate-Blood pressure-65 (CURB-65) score were 0.883, 0.852, 0.824, and 0.782, respectively.
32999777 Elevated urea, creatinine, and sodium were also significantly deranged laboratory markers amongst the invasively ventilated group. […] A multinomial regression model signified D-dimer (OR: 16.301), hypernatremia (OR: 12.738), creatinine (OR: 12.589), urea (OR: 12.576), and LDH (OR: 12.245) most significantly associated with death, while those for invasive ventilation were D-dimer (OR: 8.744), hypernatremia (OR: 4.532), PCT (OR: 3.829), neutrophilia (OR: 3.804), leukocytosis (OR: 3.330), and serum urea (OR: 3.312). […] Kaplan-Meier curves conclude total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, urea, creatinine, sodium, CRP, LDH, PCT, and D-dimer all significantly contributing to an early death. […] Conclusion The most significant marker for mortality was D-dimer, followed by serum sodium, urea/creatinine, LDH, ICU stay, and invasive ventilation.
33011717 The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
33015108 Compared with severe patients, critical patients were older, more likely to exhibit low platelet counts and high blood urea nitrogen, and were in hospital for longer.
33026202 Kidney function parameters progressively deteriorated towards a severe acute kidney failure on the 15th day, with creatinine values of 6.6 mg/dl and urea of 210 mg/dl.
33028914 A COVID-19 severity score ranging from 0 to 10, consisting of age, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, blood urea nitrogen, C-Reactive protein, and the international normalized ratio was developed.
  1. Analysis of blood test results: The lymphocyte count and plasma albumin of the moderate-to-severe group were significantly lower than those of the moderate group (t-values were 4.16, 4.11, respectively, P < 0.05), and the blood glucose and urea of the moderate-to-severe group were significantly higher than those of the moderate group (t-value were 3.27, 4.19, respectively, P < 0.05). […] Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the combination of common underlying diseases, respiratory frequency, lymphocyte count, blood glucose, albumin, urea level, inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6), and imaging manifestations collectively contributed to the potential risk factors for the development of COVID-19 from moderate condition to severe condition.
33043313 The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, 11.66%, respectively.
33045571 Patients with severe disease had reduced neutrophils and lymphocytes; severe coagulation dysfunction; altered content of biochemical factors (such as urea, lactate dehydrogenase); elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte, and derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, high sensitivity C-reactive protein-prealbumin ratio (HsCPAR), systemic immune-inflammation index, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein-albumin ratio (HsCAR); and low lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio.
33046323 In 41 studies with 10,335 COVID-19 patients, the serum creatinine (sCr) in severe cases was much higher than that in non-severe cases (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.29-0.39), with a similar trend for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (SMD = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.51-0.81), hematuria (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.19), and proteinuria (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58-5.38).
33048116 Laboratory findings based on 75 deceased and 357 discharged patients revealed that, at the acute stage, fatality could be predicted by older age and abnormal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, lymphocyte count, and procalcitonin (PCT) level.
33060676 However, re-positive rate was found to be correlated to illness severity, according the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) severity-of-disease classification system, and the confusion, urea, respiratory rate and blood pressure (CURB-65) score.
33062437 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of MEWS, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA), quick Sequential Organ Function Assessment (qSOFA), Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), Combination of Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure, and Age ≥65 (CURB-65), and the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Criteria (SIRS) for in-hospital mortality.
33067522 To this end, we develop a machine learning model using five serum chemistry laboratory parameters (c-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, serum calcium, serum albumin, and lactic acid) from 398 patients (43 expired and 355 non-expired) for the prediction of death up to 48 h prior to patient expiration.
33076559 )-oxazolone (Oz), guanidinoformimine (Gf), guanidinohydantoin/iminoallantoin (Gh/Ia), spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih), urea (Ua), 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NI), spirodi(iminohydantoin) (5-Si and 8-Si), triazine, the M+7 product, other products by peroxynitrite, alkylated guanines, and 8,5’-cyclo-2’-deoxyguanosine (cG).
33087114 /L, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 3.53, fibrinogen > 4 g/L, d-dimer > 0.55 μg/mL, blood urea nitrogen > 7.1 mM, elevated aspartate transaminase, elevated alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin > 21 μM, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score ≥ 2 were identified as risk factors for critical illness.
33089115 Compared to influenza, patients with COVID-19 exhibited a continued increase in white blood cell count, rapid decline of hemoglobin, more rapid increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and D-dimer, and higher level of alanine transaminase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and fibrinogen.
33090710 Multivariate analysis showed increased Hazards Ratio of disease progression associated with older age, lymphocyte count <1.1 × 10⁹/L, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)> 9.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase >250 U/L and procalcitonin >0.1 ng/mL at admission.
33098478 Logistic regression identified a model combining baseline CAEI, blood urea nitrogen, and gender as most significant predictor of AKI.
33108316 The machine learning model with the best discrimination performance was selected and compared against the CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and 65 years of age or older) score using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
33116052 Significant associations were identified for age, ethnicity, deprivation, body mass index, prior dependency, immunocompromise, lowest systolic blood pressure, highest heart rate, highest respiratory rate, Pao2/Fio2 ratio (and interaction with mechanical ventilation), highest blood lactate concentration, highest serum urea, and lowest platelet count over the first 24 hours of critical care.
33141836 On the other hand, in addition to comorbidities, the most important mortality predictors in studies with older patients were albumin (p-ES = -3.1), total bilirubin (p-ES = 0.7), AST (p-ES = 1.8), ALT (p-ES = 0.4), urea nitrogen (p-ES), C-reactive protein (p-ES = 2.7), LDH (p-ES = 2.4) and ferritin (p-ES = 1.7).
33143821 Blood sample was collected in plain tube for biochemical features like serum albumin, ferritin, AST, LDH, CRP and urea, which were analysed in Pathology Department of the Hospital. […] Median (IQR) value of serum ferritin, LDH, albumin, AST, CRP and urea were 176.5 (252) ng/ml, 284 (96) IU/L, 42 (7) g/L, 28 (22) U/L, 3.9 (11) mg/L and 4.25 (1.6) mmol/L, respectively.
33171297 We found that patients who did not survive (n=25) compared to surviving patients (n=118) were older (p=0.004), showed higher RDW (p=0.001), urea (p<0.001), APACHE-II (p<0.001) and SOFA (p<0.001), and lower platelet count (p=0.007) and pH (p=0.008). […] Multiple binomial logistic regression analysis showed that RDW was associated with 30-day mortality after controlling for: SOFA and age (OR=1.659; 95% CI=1.130-2.434; p=0.01); APACHE-II and platelet count (OR=2.062; 95% CI=1.359-3.129; p=0.001); and pH and urea (OR=1.797; 95% CI=1.250-2.582; p=0.002).
33173853 Patients treated with eculizumab experienced a significantly more rapid decrease in lactate, blood urea nitrogen, total and conjugated bilirubin levels and a significantly more rapid increase in platelet count, prothrombin time, and in the ratio of arterial oxygen tension over fraction of inspired oxygen versus patients treated without eculizumab.
33174922 Observations show that the kidney damage caused by the new virus mutation is mainly tubular, with impairment of glomerular filtration and high levels of urea and creatinine.
33176886 Physiological data collected by the day of CRRT start will be vital signs, the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) index, and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, white blood cell count levels and Peak D-dimer levels. […] The percentage of clotted dialyzers within 72 hours in each of the studied groups (Primary outcome) Secondary outcomes: Number of dialyzers used in the first 72 hours of dialysis protocol, Mortality in the first 72 h of dialysis protocol, Bleeding events (Major or minor) in the first 72 h of dialysis protocol, Thrombocytopenia (less than 50.000 platelets) proportion in the first 72 h of dialysis protocol, Dialysis efficiency (Urea sieving) - variation in urea sieving between the first, second and third days of dialysis protocol, Continuous renal replacement therapy pressures (Arterial, Venous, dialysate and pre-filter pressure) in the first 72 h of dialysis protocol, in-hospital mortality.
33180431 Test percentage changes were decreased for CBC 37%, sedimentation 45%, aPTT 30%, PT 37%, CRP 28%, ProCT 10%, ferritin 29%, CK-MB 27%, blood gases 47%, ALT 43%, AST 42%, urea 42%, creatinine 42%, triglycerides 45%, sodium 42%, potassium 41%, chloride 21%, urine culture 58%, and blood culture 44%.
33196669 The pooled prevalence of AKI, increased serum creatinine (Scr), increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), increased D-dimer, proteinuria and hematuria in patients with COVID-19 were 16.2%, 8.3%, 6.2%, 49.8%, 50.1% and 30.3% respectively.
33201896 We included 207 studies and found high or moderate certainty that the following 49 variables provide valuable prognostic information on mortality and/or severe disease in patients with COVID-19 infectious disease: Demographic factors (age, male sex, smoking), patient history factors (comorbidities, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cardiac arrhythmia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dementia, cancer and dyslipidemia), physical examination factors (respiratory failure, low blood pressure, hypoxemia, tachycardia, dyspnea, anorexia, tachypnea, haemoptysis, abdominal pain, fatigue, fever and myalgia or arthralgia), laboratory factors (high blood procalcitonin, myocardial injury markers, high blood White Blood Cell count (WBC), high blood lactate, low blood platelet count, plasma creatinine increase, high blood D-dimer, high blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high blood C-reactive protein (CRP), decrease in lymphocyte count, high blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), decrease in blood albumin, high blood interleukin-6 (IL-6), high blood neutrophil count, high blood B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high blood urea nitrogen (BUN), high blood creatine kinase (CK), high blood bilirubin and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), radiological factors (consolidative infiltrate and pleural effusion) and high SOFA score (sequential organ failure assessment score).
33205724 Mortality was associated with older age (mean (standard deviation) 55 (12) years v. 46 (14) years; p<0.01); the presence of hypertension or hypertension along with diabetes and/or obesity; lower partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio; and higher urea level, white cell count, neutrophil count, and C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels, and high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio.
33208293 Univariate analysis revealed that increased lung involvement, blood urea nitrogen, LDH and NLR, and decreased platelet count were significantly associated with death.
33234728 On their admission, the patient’s serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were elevated to between 36.13% and 16.80%, respectively. […] Consequently, their clinical records and laboratory findings, such as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine, and Comorbidities, were collected.
33235588 Serum Bilirubin, Serum Alkaline phosphatases, Serum Albumin, Serum Urea, Serum Potassium were essentially in typical tolls in 392(100%) patients.
33244256 Urea and creatinine are the best predictors of mortality in the level 1 cohort.
33244949 Risk factors independently associated with 28-day mortality were advanced age (≥78 years: odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.91 [10.67-141.93], P<0.001; 70-77 years: 17.30 [5.40-55.38], P<0.001; 60-69 years: 3.20 [1.00-10.20], P=0.049), PaO2/FiO2<200 at presentation (3.50 [1.70-7.20], P=0.001), need for CPAP/NIV in the first 24 hours (8.38 [3.63-19.35], P<0.001), and blood urea value at admission (1.01 [1.00-1.02], P=0.015).
33247642 Fever duration, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated blood urea, transaminitis and higher Brixia score on chest X-ray were also more in severe COVID-19 compared to mild and moderate categories. […] Higher age, more comorbidities, fever, breathlessness and chest pain; longer duration of fever, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, elevated serum urea, creatinine, transaminases and hyperglycemia, and higher radiographic Brixia score were observed in non-survivors compared to survivors.
33268425 Normal and elevated ureas were significantly higher, 22.3% and 40.6% risk, respectively, compared with 7.3% for those with low urea. […] In this nationwide study of patients admitted with COVID-19, elevated levels of CRP, leucocytes, procalcitonin, urea, troponins and D-dimer, and low levels of eGFR were associated with higher standardised absolute risk of death/ICU admission within 30 days.
33283182 During acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with COVID-19-associated AKI, we measured urea Kt/V adequacy and calculated the daily urea nitrogen generation rate while quantifying daily protein intake. […] As a comparator, we obtained urea kinetic parameters from our database of ambulatory patients receiving maintenance PD. 8 patients with COVID-19-associated AKI undergoing acute PD. […] Urea nitrogen generation rate in relation to daily protein intake. […] Urea nitrogen generation rate from urea kinetics was related to measured daily dietary protein intake in these patients and we compared it with this relationship in ambulatory maintenance PD patients for whom both parameters were calculated from urea kinetics. […] Urea nitrogen generation rate in patients with AKI was 10.2 ± 5 g/d, which is more than 2-fold higher than for stable outpatients receiving maintenance PD (4.7 ± 3 g/d) despite similar dietary protein intake (74.8 ± 11 vs 67.2 ± 29 g/d, respectively). […] Urea nitrogen generation rate in these patients with AKI corresponds to 315 g/d of ongoing muscle breakdown and cumulative 2.5 kg of muscle breakdown during the early course of AKI. […] Small number of participants and assumptions in comparing urea nitrogen generation rate with protein intake. […] In highly catabolic patients, an endogenous source of urea generation such as muscle protein breakdown seems to be the most likely explainable cause for our findings.
33293361 Clinical variables measured as part of usual care at presentation to the hospital were recorded, including the Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure and Age Above or Below 65 Years (CURB-65), National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and Quick Sequential (Sepsis-Related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores.
33295455 It was found that baseline heart rate, presence of hypertension and diabetes, white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, high sensitive C reactive protein, D-dimer, hs-cTnI, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc increased from group I to group IV, and they were significantly higher in all patients in group IV (p < 0.05).
33296405 Increased age, decreased oxygen saturation (≤ 93%), elevated levels of C-reactive protein (≥ 130 mg/L), blood urea nitrogen (≥ 18 mg/dL), and blood creatinine (≥ 1.2 mg/dL) were identified as primary risk factors, validating clinical findings.
33308159 Prothrombin time, prothrombin international normalized ratio, nucleated red blood cell count/percentage, high fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, plasma uric acid, plasma urea nitrogen, cystatin C, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, myoglobin, creatine kinase (isoenzymes), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, triglyceride were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and eosinophil count, basophil percentage, platelet count, thrombocytocrit, antithrombin III, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, total carbon dioxide, acidity-basicity, actual bicarbonate radical, base excess in the extracellular fluid compartment, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1/ B were significantly decreased in non-survivors compared with survivors (P < 0.05), only in the last tests.
33314316 Compared with healthy cases, the differences in general biochemical results in patients with COVID-19 were statistically significant (p < 0.01), the value differences in direct bilirubin (DBIL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), and nitrogen (urea) were statistically significant among different severity of COVID-19 (p < 0.05).
33334314 Lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, D-dimer, procalcitonin, and ferritin levels were included in the risk score system and were assigned a score of 25, 15, 34, 20, and 24, respectively.
33342313 White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU), platelet large cell ratio, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (d-NLR), aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatine kinase (CK) myocardial band (CK-MB), procalcitonin (PCT) values were high whereas lymphocyte (LYM), eosinophil, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate values were low in the ICU group when compared with non-ICU. […] WBC, NEU, red cell distribution width, alanine transaminase, creatinine, urea, CK-MB, CK, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin, D-dimer, PCT and international normalized ratio values increased while RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and total bilirubin values decreased in a significant proportion of patients in both groups based on the normal reference ranges.
33342993 RESULTS In patients with severe COVID-19, compared with the common group, lymphocyte count and albumin levels were lower, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea, blood creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and prothrombin time (PT) were elevated (all P<0.05).
33343270 In comparison to those without DM, diabetic patients with COVID-19 were more likely to have other comorbidities, elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), elevated blood sugar (BS), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
33365277 Our analysis revealed that age ≥ 65 years, male sex, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea, dizziness, respiratory rate > 20 bpm, heart rate > 100 bpm, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, neutrophils > 6.3×109/L, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 250 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase > 40 U/L, total bilirubin > 26 μmol/L, albumin < 35 g/L, blood urea nitrogen > 9.5 mmol/L, estimated glomerular filtration rate < 90 ml/min/1.73, elevated cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide ≥ 900 pg/ml, C-reactive protein ≥ 25 mg/L, procalcitonin ≥ 0.05 ng/ml and ferritin > 400 μg/L were associated with death in patients with COVID-19.
33368389 Risk factors and laboratory tests that might enable the prediction of prognosis defined as being transferred to the intensive care unit and/or exitus have been investigated. ( < %89), urea ( > 40 mg/dL), procalcitonin ( > 0.21 ug/L), CKMB ( > 2.6 ng/L) were 0.715, 0.685, 0.644, 0.632, 0.627, and 0.617, respectively. values could predict mortality.
33378060 Results showed the following: dyspnea; increased white blood cell count; decreased platelets; lowered albumin levels; increased urea nitrogen; increased levels of myocardial enzymes Creatine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase, MB Form (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased lactate, and lowered blood calcium tests.
33383223 The urea dissociation test was employed to rule out false-positive reactivity in the two antibody detection methods. […] Using the urea (6 mol/L) dissociation test, two of the twelve stored samples that had shown IgM positivity were confirmed to be positive. […] After treatment with 4 mol/L urea, the IgM-positive samples became negative, whereas the IgG positivity persisted. […] All of the rRT-PCR-positive controls were found to retain IgM or IgG positivity following the urea treatment.
33400721 The overall effects indicated that preexisting CKD (OR = 3.28), complication of AKI (OR = 11.02), serum creatinine (SMD = 0.68), abnormal serum creatinine (OR = 4.86), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 1.95), abnormal blood urea nitrogen (OR = 6.53), received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (OR = 23.63) were significantly increased in severe group than that in nonsevere group. […] Additionally, the complication of AKI (OR = 13.92) and blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 1.18) were remarkably elevated in the critical group than that in the severe group.
33417287 A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, whilst urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache.
33421989 Age, high CCI, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and thrombocytopenia within ±24-h of admission were independently associated with death within the first week in the multivariate analysis. […] Conditional upon surviving the first week, male sex, age, high CCI, elevated CRP, LDH, creatinine, urea and neutrophil count were independently associated with death within 30 days.
33424133 In the external validation test of the LR-5 model using 72 cases of COVID-19 from Brunei, leukomonocyte (%) turned to show the highest fivefold AUC (0.917), followed by urea (0.867), age (0.826), and SPO2 (0.704).
33432296 Patients with DM admitted with lower oxygen saturation, elevated temperature, and higher urea are more susceptible to progress to more severe COVID-19 and poor prognosis.
33432912 We suggest expansion of the use of point-of-care serum creatinine and salivary urea nitrogen testing in community health settings, as funding and availability allow.
33448423 Low blood pressure and elevated white blood cell count, neutrophil count, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate were statistically significantly associated with bacteremia.
33469395 This aim of this study was to test whether blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BCR) is a predictor for mortality in patients with COVID-19.
33472631 A supplemented model adding eight routinely collected blood and physiological parameters (supplemental oxygen flow rate, urea, age, oxygen saturation, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio) improved discrimination (AUC = 0.735; 95% CI 0.715, 0.757), and these improvements were replicated across seven UK and non-UK sites.
33504775 We then construct the multimodal AI-severity score that includes 5 clinical and biological variables (age, sex, oxygenation, urea, platelet) in addition to the deep learning model.
33525218 Mortality was associated with older age(Odds ratio=1.148, 95%CI=1.032-1.276), lower calcium level (Odds ratio=0.087, 95%CI=0.010-0.788), lower serum albumin (Odds ratio=0.036, 95%CI=0.002-0.655), as well as increased level of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (Odds ratio=1.468, 95%CI=1.086-1.985), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (Odds ratio=1.004, 95%CI=1.000-1.007), and urea (Odds ratio=1.023, 95%CI=1.006-1.039). […] Conclusion Our study identified that decreased levels of O2saturation, platelet count, calcium, albumin, and increased NLR, LDH, urea, and old age were correlated with mortality.
33529260 Increase in SGOT, SGPT and blood urea suggests the functional deficiencies of liver, heart, and kidney in patients who succumbed to the disease when compared to the group of recovered patients.
33529907 Hemogram, NLR, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, troponin, and coagulation parameters were analyzed.
33539308 The ten most influential variables in generating high performing models were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, age, pulse oximetry, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, troponin, respiratory rate, and Charlson comorbidity score.
33545796 There were also significant differences between the patients in terms of the laboratory examination results including elevated urea nitrogen, creatinine, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, troponin I, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets, lymphocyte absolute value, and eosinophil absolute value (<0.05). […] There were also significant differences in the laboratory examination results between the patients including elevated urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, white blood cells, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets and eosinophil absolute value (P<0.05).
33552406 There were significant differences in mean hemoglobin (p = 0.028), total leukocyte count (p = 0.005), Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.001), serum urea and creatinine (p = 0.002), serum potassium (p = 0.009), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), Lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.005), and Ferritin (p = 0.042) of the hypoxemic patients versus non-hypoxemic group.
33553217 Short-time changes in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and urea-to-creatinine ratio emerged as stand-alone parameters able to identify patients with aggressive disease at an early stage.
33561834 Independent factors included age (HR for per year increment: 1.05), severity at admission (HR for per rank increment: 2.91), dyspnea (HR: 2.18), cardiovascular disease (HR: 3.25), and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (HR: 4.53), total bilirubin (HR: 2.56), blood glucose (HR: 2.56), and urea (HR: 2.14), which were finally selected into the nomogram.
33565617 Analysis with varying concentrations of urea allows to determine distinct differences in avidity maturation, though the total process remains at an unusually low level. […] They can be recognized by their pattern of response and through differential treatment with urea.
33589865 Moreover, eosinophil levels significantly and positively correlated with platelet and D-dimer levels but significantly and inversely correlated with serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase.