DrugBank ID: db11300
DrugCentral: thrombin
Synonymous :coagulation factor ii | thrombin bovine | thrombin, topical (bovine)

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of thrombin gene in 66 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32172226 Thrombin time in critical SARS-CoV-2 patients was also shorter than that in controls.
32181911 A comparison of the hematological parameters between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in interleukin-6 (IL-6), d-dimer (d-D), glucose, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (P < .05).
32267998 Additionally, it has become clear that this is not a bleeding diathesis but rather a predominantly pro-thrombotic DIC with high venous thromboembolism rates, elevated D-dimer levels, high fibrinogen levels in concert with low anti-thrombin levels, and pulmonary congestion with microvascular thrombosis and occlusion on pathology in addition to mounting experience with high rates of central line thrombosis and vascular occlusive events (e.g. ischemic limbs, strokes, etc.) observed by those who care for critically ill COVID-19 patients (1-7).
32335281 This brief article discusses the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin for the treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of its pharmacological action, including binding angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting thrombin, inhibiting the hyperproduction of airway exudates, and inducing endogenous interferon.
32345864 Ten patients underwent surgery on the day after admission, whereas 3 patients had suspended their use of direct thrombin inhibitors and needed surgery to be delayed until the third day after admission.
32360484 Supportively, through transcriptomic analysis of gene expression after MXSG administration in rat model of LPS-induced pneumonia, the thrombin and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway were suggested to be essential pathways for MXSG mediated anti-inflammatory effects.
32395487 Patients in the ProLOS group showed lower neutrophil counts [median (IQR): 2.50 (1.77-3.23) ×109/L vs. 2.90 (2.21-4.19) ×109/L; P=0.048], higher partial thrombin time (PT) (13.42±0.63 vs. 13.10±0.48 s; P=0.029), lower D-Dimer [0.26 (0.22-0.46) vs. 0.44 (0.32-0.84) mg/L; P=0.012].
32485894 Increased 3D structural similarity between the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, the HCV protease and α-thrombin was found. […] According to docking analysis the most promising results were found for HCV protease, DPP-4, α-thrombin and coagulation Factor Xa known inhibitors, with several of them exhibiting estimated free binding energy lower than -8.00 kcal/mol and better prediction results than reference compounds.
32490889 Our results evidenced the potential use of coagulation modifiers in COVID-19 treatment due to the structural similarity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and human coagulation factors thrombin and Factor Xa.
32548551 In preclinical studies, activated protein C (APC) provides negative feedback downregulation of excessive inflammation and thrombin generation, attenuates damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in many organs including lungs, and reduces death caused by bacterial pneumonia.
32550069 Patients’ resistance to prophylactic doses of heparin could be due to low levels of anti-thrombin and high levels of fibrinogen, which would reinforce the use of therapeutic doses of heparin in the early stages of hospitalization.
32551814 Hypercoagulability and systemic thrombotic complications necessitate anticoagulant and thrombolytic interventions, which provide opportunities to prevent or reduce “excessive” thrombin generation, while preserving “adaptive” hemostasis and bring additional benefit via their anti-inflammatory effect in the setting of COVID-19.
32558620 Although thrombosis initiated by the innate immune system is hypothesized to limit SARS-CoV-2 dissemination, aberrant activation of this system can cause endothelial injury resulting in loss of thromboprotective mechanisms, excess thrombin generation, and dysregulation of fibrinolysis and thrombosis.
32581015 Thrombin Time (TT), Prothrombin Time (PT), Fibrinogen (FIB), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APPT), and D-Dimer have been detected as parameters to study in every COVID-19 patient.
32586214 However, in patients with COVID-19 the subsequent endothelial inflammation, complement activation, thrombin generation, platelet and leukocyte recruitment, and the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses culminate in immunothrombosis, ultimately causing (micro)thrombotic compli¬cations such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and stroke.
32596339 To investigate the value of coagulation indicators D-dimer (DD), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen (Fg) in predicting the severity and prognosis of COVID-19.
32607467 Angiotensin II increases thrombin formation and impairs fibrinolysis.
32619329 As an indirect marker of thrombin and plasmin activation, D-dimer has been suggested to guide anticoagulant treat in COVID-19 patients [2, 3]. […] Hence, we speculated that measuring direct markers of thrombin, plasmin and so on, may provide more therapeutic targets in COVID-19 patients with coagulopathy.
32639031 Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), in particular by the serine protease thrombin, is a critical element in platelet aggregation and coagulation.
32641511 Affinity selection of the library with thrombin, a common protease, revealed a number of enriched features which ultimately led to the discovery of a 1 nM inhibitor of thrombin.
32660924 Bivalirudin, a member of the direct thrombin inhibitor drug class, offers potential advantages during ECMO, including to its ability to exert its effect by directly attaching to and inhibiting freely circulating and fibrin-bound thrombin.
32668058 We aimed to assess fibrinolytic activity and thrombin generation in 78 Covid-19 patients. […] We measured fibrinolytic parameters (tissue plasminogen activator, PAI-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, alpha2 anti-plasmin, and tissue plasminogen activator-modified ROTEM device), thrombin generation, and other coagulation tests (D-dimer, fibrinogen, factor VIII, antithrombin). […] We observed two key findings: a high thrombin generation capacity that remained within normal values despite heparin therapy and a hypofibrinolysis mainly associated with increased PAI-1 levels.
32687449 Viral coagulopathy is not novel given similar observations with SARS classic, including the consumption of platelets, generation of thrombin, and increased fibrin degradation product exhibiting overt disseminated intravascular coagulation-like syndrome.
32695551 1.06 (1.01-1.13), p = 0.000; thrombin time (TT) 16.35 (15.69-17.47) s vs. 
32759504 Here, we investigated how complement interacts with the platelet/neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)/thrombin axis, using COVID-19 specimens, cell-based inhibition studies, and NET/human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) cocultures. […] Thrombin or NETosis inhibition or C5aR1 blockade attenuated platelet-mediated NET-driven thrombogenicity.
32762118 Despite detectable anti-activated factor X activity in the majority of patients, ex vivo thrombin generation was normal, and in vivo thrombin generation elevated as evidenced by elevated levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimers. […] COVID-19 patients are characterized by normal in vitro thrombin generation and enhanced clot formation and decreased fibrinolytic potential despite the presence of heparin in the sample.
32764118 In vitro, estrogen increased Mas receptor expression and attenuated endothelial leak in response to thrombin; this effect was alleviated by Mas receptor blockade.Improved lung endothelial barrier function protects female mice from ALI-induced lung edema.
32790951 We read with much interest the recent observational study of Nougier et al., which aimed at studying thrombin generation (TG) and fibrinolysis profiles of COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) or to an internal medicine ward and receiving various schemes of prophylactic heparin.[ […] 1] They reported that thrombin potential remained within normal range despite heparin and that fibrinolysis was decreased in relation with increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen plasma levels.
32799852 Patients in non-0 (n = 92) vs. 0 blood group (n = 72) had significantly different values of activated pro-thrombin time, D-dimer, and thrombotic indexes as Von Willebrand factor and Factor VIII (p < 0.05).
32860301 The authors stress on the large variability observed between different anti-Xa kits available on the market, they contest our results of thrombin generation assay (TGA) in patients with COVID-19 receiving standard- or high-dose prophylaxis and question the relevance of thromboelastography as a global haemostasis assay.
32870433 Thrombin is a trypsin-like serine protease with multiple physiological functions. […] Nevertheless, thrombin also plays a major role in inflammation by activating protease-activated receptors. […] In addition, thrombin is also involved in angiogenesis, fibrosis, and viral infections. […] Considering the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic, thrombin inhibitors may exert multiple potential therapeutic benefits including antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. […] In this review, we describe the clinical features of COVID-19, the thrombin’s roles in various pathologies, and the potential of argatroban in COVID-19 patients. […] Argatroban is a synthetic, small molecule, direct, competitive, and selective inhibitor of thrombin.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32892505 The aim was to further characterize thrombin generation using a novel analyser (ST Genesia, Diagnostica Stago, Asnières, France) and a panel of haematological analytes in patients with COVID-19. […] Thrombin generation, in critical patients, was right shifted without significant differences in peak, velocity index or endogenous thrombin potential. […] Importantly, disease severity did not increase thrombin generation (including thrombin-antithrombin complexes and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) when comparing both cohorts; counter-intuitively critical patients were hypocoaguable. tPA, TFPI and VEGF were increased in critical patients, which are hypothesized to reflect endothelial dysfunction and/or contribution of heparin (which may cause endothelial TFPI/tPA release).
32899532 COVID-19 patients had moderately high levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasmin-alpha2-plasmin inhibitor complex but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 level.
32905282 Careful attention to his daily platelet count suggested the possibility of immune mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) which was confirmed by laboratory testing and resolved when anticoagulation was switched to a direct thrombin inhibitor.
32918208 FXa is known to activate prothrombin to thrombin, which eventually leads to the formation of cross-linked blood clots. […] While this process is important in maintaining hemostasis, excessive thrombin generation results in a host of thrombotic conditions.
32922211 Specialized hemostasis-related tests (soluble fibrin complexes, tests assessing fibrinolytic capacity, viscoelastic tests, thrombin generation) may have an interest to assess the thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19.
32938299 Functionally, platelets were hyperactivated in COVID-19 subjects presenting non-severe and severe symptoms, with aggregation occurring at suboptimal thrombin concentrations.
32945081 In particular, procoagulant platelets support thrombin generation and mediate thromboinflammation. […] We observed that platelets isolated from COVID-19 patients had a reduced ability to become procoagulant compared to those from matched healthy donors, as evidenced by reduced mitochondrial depolarization and phosphatidylserine exposure following dual stimulation with thrombin and convulxin.
32946915 Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the coagulation disorders via increased generation of the thrombin and stops fibrinolysis further leads to hypercoagulopathy.
32994678 Comparative molecular docking and vixualization analysis of the human thrombin with the SARS CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein and the human ACE-2 receptors is of interest. […] Results also shows that thrombin binds with SER494 in the spike protein, and GLU37 in the ACE2 receptor.
33016666 Taking also into considerations its anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, a bioavailable form of quercetin, like Quercetin Phytosome®, should be considered a possible candidate to clinically face COVID-19.
33030036 Clotting assays (PiCT, aPTT, PT and TT), anti-Xa and anti-IIa and thrombin generation studies were carried out. […] In the thrombin generation assay, FMH and UFH produced comparable inhibition of thrombin generation as measured by various parameters.
33030047 We found the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer were significantly higher in the severe group (P < 0.05), and the highest area under the curve (AUC) is 0.91 for D-dimer, while the AUC of PT and TT were 0.80 and 0.61 respectively.
33034398 On the basis of the clinical COVID-19 manifestations, the multifaceted aspect of quercetin as both antiinflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, should be taken into consideration.
33119703 We analyzed the coagulation function in COVID-19 patients through the data including thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), α2-plasmininhibitor-plasmin Complex (PIC), thrombomodulin (TM), t-PA/PAI-1 Complex (t-PAIC), prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (DD), and platelet (PLT).
33124941 These responses result in increased signaling by thrombin (proteinase-activated) and purinergic receptors, which promote platelet activation and exert pathological effects on other cell types (e.g., endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts), further enhancing inflammation and injury. […] Inhibitors of thrombin and purinergic receptors may thus have therapeutic effects by blunting platelet-mediated thromboinflammation and dysfunction in other cell types.
33126772 Severe patterns of COVID-19 ARDS are characterized by a thrombin burst and the consequent coagulation activation.
33196292 We measured biomarkers of endogenous coagulation and fibrinolytic activity by immunoassays, thrombin, and plasmin generation potential by fluorescence and fibrin formation and lysis by turbidity. […] Patients with COVID-19 had increased thrombin generation potential despite prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas patients with sepsis did not. […] The collective perturbations in plasma thrombin and plasmin generation permitted enhanced fibrin formation in both COVID-19 and sepsis. […] Unexpectedly, the lag times to thrombin, plasmin, and fibrin formation were prolonged with increased disease severity in COVID-19, suggesting a loss of coagulation-initiating mechanisms accompanies severe COVID-19.
33200086 We report temporal changes of plasma levels of an extended set of laboratory parameters during the ICU stay of the 21 COVID-19 patients included in the monocentre cohort: CRP, platelet count, prothrombin time; Clauss fibrinogen and clotting factors II, V and VIII levels, D-dimers, antithrombin activity, protein C, free protein S, total and free tissue factor pathway inhibitor, PAI-1 levels, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, ADAMTS-13 (plasma levels); and of two integrative tests of coagulation (thrombin generation with ST Genesia) and fibrinolysis (global fibrinolytic capacity - GFC).
33217881 Disease severity indexes, biochemical, hematological and haemostatic parameters, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and extrinsically activated rotational thromboelastometry assay (EXTEM) were recorded on days 1, 3, 7.
33224575 In addition, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 present in patients with severe COVID-19 are associated with coagulation activation and thrombin generation resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation or thrombotic microangiopathy.
33239231 Fifth, AAT inhibits thrombin, and venous thromboembolism and in situ microthrombi and macrothrombi are increasingly implicated in COVID-19.
33300981 We performed a retrospective study of inflammatory and coagulation parameters, including prothrombin fragment 1.2 (PF1.2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TATs), fibrin monomers, and D-dimer, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
33302737 Thrombin is the key regulator of coagulation and fibrin formation. […] In severe COVID-19, a dysfunctional of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms leads to a progressive increase of thrombin activity, which is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development and a poor prognosis. […] Protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR1) is the main thrombin receptor and may represent an essential link between coagulation and inflammation in the pathophysiology of COVID-19.
33332362 In a retrospective single-center analysis at the University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, we investigated 31 adult COVID-19 patients between April 6th and May 13th, 2020 and with at least one laboratory assessment of the coagulation markers prothrombin time/Quick, thrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimers.
33389440 The high specificity of aptamers with small-molecule targets (metal ions, dyes and theophylline; ATP) is within 1 pM and 1 μM range, whereas with the proteins (thrombin, CD4 and antibodies) it is in the nanomolar range (which is equivalent to monoclonal antibodies).
33414384 Platelets of 8 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not requiring intensive care support and without pre-existing conditions were compared to platelets of healthy controls (11 donors) with and without in vitro stimulation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP).
33417674 115 ± 26 U [-21 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -51 to 21); P = 0.374]; AUC in thrombin receptor activating peptide 6 test, 114 ± 61 U vs. 
33421462 The development of lung coagulopathy involves thrombin generation and fibrinolysis inhibition.
33423804 Dysregulated innate immune response in the lung due to viral-entry mediated angiotensin-I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor downregulation causes endothelial injury in the pulmonary vasculature, inflammatory cytokine release, increased thrombin generation and impaired fibrinolysis.
33480807 Further, direct thrombin inhibitors and platelet inhibitors in a patient-specific manner should also be considered.
33509706 Velocity curves were consistent with increased generation of thrombin. […] In patients with COVID-19, TEG demonstrates a complex and prolonged hypercoagulable state including fast initiation of coagulation and clot reinforcement, low fibrinolysis, high potential of thrombin generation, and high fibrinogen and platelet contribution.
33537537 Patients with COVID-19 with higher respiratory support had increased in vivo activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, as reflected by higher plasma levels of d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin, and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes as compared to patients with no to minimal respiratory support and healthy controls. […] Moreover, the patients with COVID-19 with higher respiratory support exhibited substantial ex vivo thrombin generation and lower ex vivo fibrinolytic capacity, despite higher doses of anticoagulant therapy compared to less severely ill patients.
33544518 Thrombin generation (TG) with and without thrombomodulin (TM) was evaluated in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity and thromboprophylaxis regimen, in order to understand the prothrombotic profile. […] Overall, patients with COVID-19 showed a TG profile comparable to that of healthy subjects (i.e. comparable peak height, endogenous thrombin potential [ETP] with and without TM).
33544720 These top-ranked drugs include ACE-inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (e.g., anti-IFNγ, anti-TNFα, anti-IL12, anti-IL1β, anti-IL6), and thrombin inhibitors.