DrugBank ID: db00624
DrugCentral: testosterone
Synonymous :17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one | 4-androsten-17β-ol-3-one | testosteron | testosterona | testosterone | testostérone | testosteronum | virosterone

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of testosterone gene in 35 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32331343 In addition to this first aspect, the recent evidence of an increased frequency of venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 (a clinical element associated with a worse prognosis) calls the attention on the safety of treatment with testosterone, in particular in hypogonadal men with greater genetic predisposition.
32340551 The results show high to a moderate binding affinity for the phytoestrogens (Diadiazin, Genistein, Formontein, and Biochanin A), chlorogenic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, hydroxytyrosol, cis-p-Coumaric acid, cinnamaldehyde, thymoquinone, and some physiological hormones such as estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, and cholesterol to the HSPA5 SBDβ.
32369678 Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32419720 The relative lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers (digit ratio; 2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic (males < females) proxy of fetal sex steroids (low 2D:4D indicates high prenatal testosterone/low prenatal estrogen). […] At the national level, high mean 2D:4D (indicating low prenatal testosterone/high prenatal estrogen) is associated with high CFRs and percent male mortality.
32436355 Epidemiological data showing a differential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on women and men has suggested a potential role for testosterone (T) in determining gender-disparity in the SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes. […] Several biochemical risk factors (i.e., blood count and leucocyte formula, C- Reactive Protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), Ferritin, D-Dimer, Fibrinogen, Interleukin 6 (IL-6)) as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) were determined.
32455629 Discordant patterns of testosterone versus estradiol impacts on SARS-CoV-2 targets suggest a plausible molecular explanation of the apparently higher male mortality during the coronavirus pandemic. […] Estradiol, in contrast with testosterone, affects the expression of the majority of human genes (203 of 332; 61%) encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets, thus potentially interfering with functions of 26 of 27 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins.
32469251 Objective: Although sex-disaggregated data for COVID-19 show equal numbers of cases between men and women, there seem to be sex differences in mortality rate and vulnerability to the disease: more men than women are dying. Methods: We have explored the potential role of estrogens in this COVID-19 gendered impact. Results: Estrogens stimulate the humoral response to viral infections, while testosterone and progesterone give an immune suppression of both innate and cell-mediated immune responses.
32470767 The relative lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers (digit ratio; 2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic (males < females) proxy of fetal sex steroids (low 2D:4D indicates high prenatal testosterone/low prenatal estrogen). […] At the national level, high mean 2D:4D (indicating low prenatal testosterone/high prenatal estrogen) is associated with high CFRs and percent male mortality.
32524732 Therefore, androgens, particularly testosterone (T), could be suspected as playing a critical role in driving this excess of risk. […] Authors searched PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google, and Institutional websites for medical subheading terms and free text words referred to “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “testosterone”, “male hypogonadism”, “gender” “immune system”, “obesity”, “thrombosis” until May 19th 2020.
32620366 This could help understand the susceptibility of urological patients, especially those receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and testosterone replacement therapy.
32621617 A higher serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and a lower ratio of testosterone (T) to LH were observed in the COVID-19 group.
32651900 In addition, the endogenous androgen milieu and its receptors are associated with ACE2 activation reflecting that enhanced testosterone levels may trigger the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
32660890 Sex hormones play an important role in the immune response with estrogen seen as immune boosting and testosterone as immunosuppressing.
32661947 Testicular function in COVID-19 patients requires careful investigation for the unclear association with testosterone deficiency and the possible consequences for reproductive health.
32681716 Provide a review of the research literature, propose hypotheses, and therapies based on the potential link between testosterone (T) and COVID-19 induced mortality in elderly men.
32685170 Whatever the nature of testosterone and COVID-19 relationships, we recommend an andrological examination, sperm parameters, and hormonal evaluation at the time of the COVID-19 is diagnosed, and several months later.
32726128 Testosterone on the contrary enhances the levels of the two most critical molecules, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2 (TMPRSS2), transcriptionally and posttranslationally, thereby increasing viral load and delaying viral clearance in men as compared with women.
32753145 Moreover, age-associated decreases in sex steroid hormones, namely, estrogen and testosterone, may mediate proinflammatory increases in older adults that could increase their risk of COVID-19 adverse outcomes. […] In this article, we explore the possible anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen and testosterone and the anabolic effect of testosterone, with particular attention to the potential therapeutic role of hormone replacement therapy in older men and women with COVID-19.
32814369 Low testosterone and dihydrotestosterone with raised luteinizing hormone has been reported as well as preterm delivery in pregnant women; however, data regarding vertical transmission remains contradictory and inconclusive.
32824674 Sex hormones, such as estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, might be implicated in the age-dependent and sex-specific severity of COVID-19. […] High testosterone levels could upregulate transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), facilitating the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). […] Conversely, other studies suggest that the immune modulating properties of androgens could protect from the unfavorable cytokine storm, and that low testosterone levels might be associated with a worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19.
32838280 PCOS women had a higher BMI (p < 0.001), systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p < 0.05) blood pressure, waist circumference (p < 0.0001), testosterone (p < 0.0001), free androgen index (p < 0.0001) and CRP (p < 0.0001).
32883151 To investigate effect of serum total testosterone and its relationship with other laboratory parameters on the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected male patients. […] As serum total testosterone level at baseline decreases, probability (%) to be in the ICU significantly increases (p = 0.001). […] As serum total testosterone level at baseline decreases, probability (%) of mortality significantly increases (p = 0.002). […] In the patients who had pre-COVID-19 serum gonadal hormones test (n: 24), serum total testosterone level significantly decreased from pre-COVID-19 level of 458 ± 198 ng/dl to 315 ± 120 ng/dl at the time of COVID-19 in the patients (p = 0.003). […] COVID-19 might deteriorate serum testosterone level in SARS-CoV-2 infected male patients. […] Low serum total testosterone level at baseline has a significant increased risk for the ICU and mortality in patients with COVID-19.
32948238 In addition, differences in sex hormone milieus could also be a determinant of viral infections as estrogen has immunoenhancing effects while testosterone has immunosuppressive effects.
32957066 Other complementary stress marker candidates are testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfonated analogue DHEA-S, alpha-amylase, secretory immunoglobulin A, and chromogranin A.
32996784 In the current study, using primary isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells from normal males vs. females as a model, we explored the effect of estrogen vs. testosterone in modulating the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cell entry point for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] In addition, ASM cells exposed to estrogen and testosterone for 24 h showed that testosterone significantly upregulates ACE2 expression in both males and females, whereas estrogen downregulates ACE2, albeit not significant compared to vehicle.
33063792 Dexamethasone binds to drug site 7, which is also the binding site for commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and testosterone, suggesting potentially problematic binding competition.
33080435 Impaired spermatogenesis via COVID-19 decreases the level of testosterone by disturbing cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 and further, attenuates the sperm count.
33091758 Sexual hormones affect the immune system, so estrogen strengthens the immune system, and testosterone suppresses it.
33117437 The precise pathophysiology behind this gender difference in mortality outcomes remains unclear at this stage, although it is worth exploring a possible role of testosterone as one of the contributory factors. […] The observed role of androgens in transcription of transmembrane protease serine-2, which facilitates COVID-19 anchoring to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cell surface receptors, seems to suggest that higher testosterone levels might be detrimental for outcomes. […] The increased COVID-19 case fatality in this cohort might perhaps reflect an underlying pro-inflammatory state, with low testosterone levels being either a surrogate marker of a poor metabolic state or playing a more active role in propagation of inflammation and thrombosis.
33133492 Male hypogonadism, defined as an inadequate production of testosterone (T), is associated with a greater morbidity and mortality.
33150723 In terms of hormonal profiles, the levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol were 5.20 [4.23] mIU/mL, 3.95 [1.63] mIU/mL, 3.65 [1.19] ng/mL, and 39.48 [12.51] pg/mL, respectively.
33152165 Differences in sex-related hormone levels were compared between groups and linear regression analysis was used to compare the associations of testosterone (T) and estradiol with various clinical and laboratory factors.
33191186 We sought to determine if testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is associated with worse clinical outcomes. […] COVID-19 Infection in Men on Testosterone Replacement Therapy.
33210622 Biological factors include - an absence of X-chromosomes (a powerhouse for immune-related genes), a high level of testosterone that inhibits antibody production, and the presence of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors that facilitate viral replication.
33210743 Patients’ ages, COVID-19 PCR results, presence of pneumonia, total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were recorded. […] There was no difference between the FSH, LH and testosterone values of the COVID-19 PCR positive and negative patients (p = 0.80, vp = 0.62, p = 0.56 respectively). […] Testosterone levels were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (p = 0.01). […] When FSH, LH and testosterone values were separated as low, normal and high, there was no difference in FSH and LH values (p = 1, p = 0.2). […] Testosterone levels were found significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (p < .001). […] Testosterone levels seem to decrease during acute COVID-19 infection, especially in the patient group with viral pneumonia.
33252294 Estradiol protects the vascular system, mediating with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas testosterone enhances the levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2, thus delaying viral clearance in men as compared to women.
33254589 Current data suggest a direct correlation between the lower level of serum testosterone, inflammatory cytokines, disease severity, and poor clinical outcomes among male patients with COVID-19. […] The gradual decline in total and free testosterone levels has a direct correlation with serious pulmonary complications requiring advanced care (ICU, ventilators, ECMO, etc.). […] Testosterone induces ACE-2 expression, a critical pulmonary protective enzyme. […] Low testosterone levels in males have a direct correlation with the high probability of ICU admission and the worse disease outcome (ARDS, duration of ICU stay, mortality). […] On the contrary, however, high testosterone levels can lead to thrombosis which is also one of the fatal manifestations in COVID-19 patients. […] A critical evaluation of the serum testosterone and its relevance to COVID-19 is warranted to re-evaluate strategies to effectively triage, prioritize, and manage high-risk patients for ICU admission, survival outcomes, targeted solutions, and operational algorithms.
33330557 Studies have found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the testis and male reproductive tract and are regulated by testosterone.
33351362 At the same time, obtaned scientific data on the relationship of severe forms and mortality of COVID-19 with low testosterone levels leads to a hypothesis about the possibility of a positive effect not of androgen devrivation therapy but of androgen replacement therapy in case of hypogonadism have diagnosed.
33388025 Several data support the existence of a bivalent role of testosterone (T) in driving poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19.
33415647 The reduced level of testosterone production in COVID-19 is associated with altered secretion of gonadotropins.
33439057 Men show higher vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) and present with depleted testosterone levels. […] Reports pertaining to high luteinizing hormone (LH), while diminished levels of in COVID-19 patients negate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis mediated lowering of testosterone. […] Moreover, blockage of ACE2 aided angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7) conversion may also affect testosterone synthesis. […] This commentary concisely presents the possible mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect testosterone levels, which possibly result in compromised male reproductive health.
33468445 The aim of this study was to compare male reproductive hormones such as total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulant hormone (FSH), and prolactin between patients with COVID-19, age-matched cases with non-COVID-19 respiratory tract infection, and age-matched controls. […] The proportion of patients with testosterone deficiency in group 1, group 2, and group 3 was 74.2%, 53.3%, and 37.8%, respectively (P < .0001). […] Limitations include the analysis limited to one general hospital, only a single measurement of TT was available, free and bioavailable testosterone levels were not evaluated.
33558864 Nonetheless, COVID-19 may have detrimental effects on male reproduction by inducing orchitis and/or decreasing testosterone levels, sperm counts, and motility.