DrugBank ID: db00421
DrugCentral: spironolactone
Synonymous :espironolactona | spironolactone | spironolactonum | spironolattone

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of spironolactone gene in 15 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32513289 Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat.
32686993 Among the predicted drugs compounds, clemizole, monorden, spironolactone and tanespimycin showed high binding energies; among the studied repurposing compounds, remdesivir, simeprevir and valinomycin showed high binding energies; among the predicted acidic compounds, acetylursolic acid and hardwickiic acid gave high binding energies; while among the studied anthraquinones and glycosides compounds, ellagitannin and friedelanone showed high binding energies against 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (nsp13), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), 2’-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) of SARS-CoV-2 and DNA-PK and CK2alpha in human.
32721806 Among therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2, we hypothesized that spironolactone, a long used and safe mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors antagonist, with effective anti-hypertensive, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-androgenic properties may offer pleiotropic actions in different sites to protect from COVID-19. […] Current data shows that spironolactone may concurrently mitigate abnormal ACE2 expression, correct the balances membrane-attached and free circulating ACE2 and between angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), suppress androgen-mediated TMPRSS2 activity, and inhibit obesity-related RAAS dysfunctions, with consequent decrease of viral priming. […] Hence, spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2, and has sufficient plausibility to be clinically tested, particularly in the early stages of COVID-19.
32993622 Other drugs that are more likely to present clinical effects despite the lack of specific evidence for COVID-19 include anti-androgens (spironolactone, eplerenone, finasteride and dutasteride), statins, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and direct TMPRSS-2 inhibitors (nafamostat and camostat).
33155953 Spironolactone may have a similar feature. […] Due to its antiandrogenic effects, spironolactone can inhibit X-chromosome-related synthesis of ACE-2 receptors and activation of transmembrane serin protease 2. […] In addition to slowing the virus entry into cells, spironolactone decreases severity of fibrosis in different organs, including the lungs. […] Lomonosov Moscow State University, including successful treatment with schemes containing bromhexine and spironolactone.
33249452 There is an urgent need to trial the combination of dexamethasone and an MR antagonist such as spironolactone to more effectively block the MR and hence the exocytosis of WP bodies.
33278189 While both ACE inhibitors and spironolactone can upregulate tissue ACE2, there are important points of discrimination between these approaches. […] Since TMPRSS2 contains an androgen promoter, it may be downregulated by the antiandrogenic actions of spironolactone. […] Therefore, spironolactone should selectively downregulate furin and plasmin. […] We review the evidence that spironolactone may be the preferred RASSi to increase PN1 and decrease TMPRSS2, furin and plasmin activities and thereby to reduce viral cell binding, entry, infectivity and bad outcomes.
33477294 In animal models, the use of spironolactone was proven to be an important drug in the prevention of pulmonary fibrosis. […] Through its dual action as a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist and an androgenic inhibitor, spironolactone can provide significant benefits concerning COVID-19 infection. […] The primary effect of spironolactone in reducing pulmonary edema may also be beneficial in COVID-19 ARDS. […] Spironolactone is a well-known, widely used and safe anti-hypertensive and antiandrogenic medication. […] Spironolactone and potassium canrenoate, exerting combined pleiotropic action, may provide a therapeutic benefit to patients with COVID-19 pneumonia through antiandrogen, MR blocking, antifibrotic and anti-hyperinflammatory action. […] It has been proposed that spironolactone may prevent acute lung injury in COVID-19 infection due to its pleiotropic effects with favorable renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and ACE2 expression, reduction in transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) activity and antiandrogenic action, and therefore it may prove to act as additional protection for patients at highest risk of severe pneumonia.
33487145 Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of bromhexine at a dose of 8 mg 4 times a day and spironolactone 50 mg per day in patients with mild and moderate COVID 19. […] Material and methods It was an open, prospective comparative non-randomized study. 103 patients were included (33 in the bromhexine and spironolactone group and 70 in the control group). […] In matched patients, temperature normalization in the bromhexine/spironolactone group occurred 2 days faster than in the control group (p=0.008). […] Virus elimination by the 10th day was recorded in all patients in the bromhexine/spironolactone group; the control group viremia continued in 23.3% (p=0.077). […] The number of patients who had a positive PCR to the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the 10th day of hospitalization or longer (≥10 days) hospitalization in the control group was 20/21 (95.2%), and in the group with bromhexine /spironolactone -14/24 (58.3%), p=0.012. […] The odds ratio of having a positive PCR or more than ten days of hospitalization was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.008 - 0.61, p=0.0161) with bromhexine and spironolactone versus controls. […] No side effects were reported in the study group.Conclusion The combination of bromhexine with spironolactone appeared effective in treating a new coronavirus infection by achieving a faster normalization of the clinical condition, lowering the temperature one and a half times faster, and reducing explanatory combine endpoint the viral load or long duration of hospitalization (≥ 10 days).