DrugBank ID: db00503
DrugCentral: ritonavir
Synonymous :ritonavir | ritonavirum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ritonavir gene in 592 abstracts.

pmid sentence
31996494 Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV.
32023685 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir / ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32037389 All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. […] The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
32056407 Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
32057209 Combination of Ribavirin and Interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32062875 Twenty patients were treated with lopinavir and ritonavir.
32096367 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19.
32125362 Clinical course was summarized, including requirement for supplemental oxygen and intensive care and use of empirical treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Five individuals requiring supplemental oxygen were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Four of the 5 patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir developed nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea, and 3 developed abnormal liver function test results.
32138488 Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation.
32152082 In addition, a combination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-INFb) were shown to be effective in patients infected with SARS-CoV.
32164080 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32164081 Combination of Ribavirin and interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32171866 The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
32171872 We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32187464 Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. […] A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. […] Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). […] Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. […] In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). […] Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. […] In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care.
32202256 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32210741 Our results showed that several HIV inhibitors such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir produce strong interaction with the active site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32219357 She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization.
32220650 All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation.
32227274 Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. […] Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19.
32228827 The drugs predicted by EpiMed’s apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. […] Resveratrol, ritonavir, retinoic acid, amaranth, forsythia, houttuynia may have therapeutic effects.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32246834 In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). […] Se identificaron 24 ensayos clínicos relacionados con más de 20 medicamentos, como inmunoglobulina humana, interferones, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumab y medicina tradicional china. […] Foram identificados 24 ensaios clínicos envolvendo mais de 20 medicamentos, tais como imunoglobulina humana, interferons, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumabe e medicamentos chineses tradicionais.
32271456 The study aimed to investigate whether lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in combination with other pneumonia-associated adjuvant drugs has a better therapeutic effect on COVID-19.
32277367 Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored.
32277555 This case states the importance of close monitoring of the concentration of ciclosporin in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, routine treatment of corticosteroid can be continued.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32280433 The result showed that atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the best chemical compound, showing an inhibitory potency with Kd of 94.94 nM against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like proteinase, followed by remdesivir (113.13 nM), efavirenz (199.17 nM), ritonavir (204.05 nM), and dolutegravir (336.91 nM). […] Interestingly, lopinavir, ritonavir, and darunavir are all designed to target viral proteinases. […] In addition, we also found that several antiviral agents, such as Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir), could be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.
32283143 Lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol have been previously used to treat acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in clinical practice; nevertheless, their effectiveness remains controversial. […] In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol in patients with the 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19). […] Fifty patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were divided into two groups: including lopinavir/ritonavir group (34 cases) and arbidol group (16 cases). […] Lopinavir/ritonavir group received 400mg/100mg of Lopinavir/ritonavir, twice a day for a week, while the arbidol group was given 0.2g arbidol, three times a day. […] On day 14 after the admission, no viral load was detected in arbidol group, but the viral load was found in 15(44.1%) patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Patients in the arbidol group had a shorter duration of positive RNA test compared to those in the lopinavir/ritonavir group (P<0.01). […] In conclusion, our data indicate that arbidol monotherapy may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19.
32283325 There was no statistical difference between groups in medications taken before hospitalization; a significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function (57.8%) had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission compared to patients with normal liver function (31.3%). […] A significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function had received lopinavir/ritonavir after admission; these drugs should be given with caution.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32293875 However, a combination of two HIV-1 protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir has been found to be effective against SARS-CoV, and both drugs could bind well to the SARS-CoV 3C-like protease (SARS-CoV 3CLpro). […] Ritonavir showed somewhat higher atomic contacts, binding efficiency and key binding residues than that of lopinavir in correspondence with slightly less water accessibility at the 3CLpro active site. […] In addition, only ritonavir could interact with the oxyanion hole residues N142 and G143 via two hydrogen bond formations.
32297571 In particular, several cases of recovered patients havebeen reported after being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (which is widely used to treat humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection) in combination with the anti-flu drug oseltamivir.
32298767 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01).
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32306822 Cobicistat, ritonavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are in the top screened molecules from FDA approved drugs.
32307245 The protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) alone is not shown to provide better antiviral efficacy than standard care.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32309809 The results depicted that adding Lopinavir-Ritonavir to the standard treatment regimen of patients with severe COVID-19 has no benefits.
32313662 Lopinavir/ritonavir was given; continuous renal replacement therapy was also introduced.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32317225 He was successfully treated in the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory support; and antiretroviral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir.
32324352 Lopinavir/ritonavir is not effective.
32324898 The ADR could be explained by the use of lopinavir/ ritonavir and umifenovir by 63.8% and 18.1%, respectively.
32328850 Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc.
32329231 All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir).
32329520 Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and a number of drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir and tocilizumab.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32331982 An increase of Ct values was 0.9 per day in 2 cases of COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), an increase was 1.0 per day in 3 cases without LPV/r through illness day 1-10, indicating that LPV/r did not shorten the duration of SARS CoV-2 shedding.
32337790 The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32342677 We experienced a case of severe thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and petechiae, while treating a COVID-19 patient with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32343413 Both patients were already on lopinavir/ritonavir before tocilizumab (added day 9 and day 13) was added.
32346491 Herein, we examine the effects of Favipiravir (FPV) versus Lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) for the treatment of COVID-19.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32354369 The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] The lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination showed superior virological eradication and radiographical improvement with reduced rate of ARDS. […] Lopinavir/ritonavir combinations might observe better virological eradication capability than other anti-coronavirus agents.
32362193 The patients were treated with four combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets, arbidol tablets, Lianhuaqingwen granules, and recombinant human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) injection via aerosol. […] It should be noted that lopinavir/ritonavir tablets have many drug interactions and are the most likely drugs to cause hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in these two patients.
32362245 All the studied molecules could bind to the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB: 6Y84), out of which rutin (a natural compound) has the highest inhibitor efficiency among the 33 molecules studied, followed by ritonavir (control drug), emetine (anti-protozoal), hesperidin (a natural compound), lopinavir (control drug) and indinavir (anti-viral drug).
32362644 In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. […] Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups - age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons.
32363219 The current study, aims to predict theoretical structure for protease of COVID-19 and to explore further whether this protein can serve as a target for protease inhibitor drugs such as remdesivir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir and α-ketoamide.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32364041 The covalent docking showed that saquinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, delavirdine, cefuroxime axetil, oseltamivir and prevacid have the highest binding energies MMGBSA of -72.17, -72.02, -65.19, -57.65, -54.25, -51.8, and -51.14 kcal/mol, respectively. […] The 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for saquinavir, ritonavir and remdesivir to evaluate the stability of these drugs inside the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32367767 The docking scores were compared with 3CLpro-referenced inhibitors (Lopinavir and Ritonavir). […] This ligand-protein interaction study revealed that more than half of the top twenty alkaloids and terpenoids interacted favourably with the coronaviruses 3CLpro, and had binding affinities that surpassed that of lopinavir and ritonavir.
32372695 Similarly, other investigational drugs such as favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir can prolong QT interval and cause Torsade de Pointes.
32373997 No sufficient results have been reached by the use of interferon (IFN), lopinavir/ritonavir, orbidol, and oseltamivir in the treatment of the coronaviruses infection.
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure.
32379199 The duration of nasopharyngeal virus shedding lasted for 49 days even with the administration of lopinavir/ritonavir for 8 days.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32388331 On the contrary, direct β-cell damage, cytokine-induced insulin resistance, hypokalemia and drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 (like corticosteroids, lopinavir/ritonavir) can contribute to worsening of glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus.
32388937 Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 21 to February 9, 2020.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids. […] Mortality is high and reaches 23%; deceased patients were more frequently on ICH, developed pneumonia more frequently, and received less frequently lopinavir-ritonavir and steroids.
32390367 All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391658 Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19.
32391999 Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir.
32394467 Neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir are invalid for 2019-nCoV and are not recommended for treatment but protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) inhibit the progression of MERS-CoV disease and can be useful for patients of COVID-19 and, in combination with Arbidol, has a direct antiviral effect on early replication of SARS-CoV.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401715 We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h, ribavirin 400 mg every 12 h, and three doses of 8 million international units of interferon beta-1b on alternate days (combination group) or to 14 days of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (control group). […] One patient in the control group discontinued lopinavir-ritonavir because of biochemical hepatitis. […] Early triple antiviral therapy was safe and superior to lopinavir-ritonavir alone in alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of viral shedding and hospital stay in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.
32404786 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405245 Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%).
32405421 Comparator drugs were oseltamivir, umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir or placebo.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, \(0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and latex6912d1f6b050b948c5b7ab8a7a404316 2,492,214 (95%CI US\) 916,839–3,450,619).
33384519 A meta-analysis of two studies analyzing 285 patients showed that the relative risk of clinical resolution with lopinavir and ritonavir combination was 1.152 (95% CI 0.709 to 1.87).
33387467 Monotherapy with arbidol is superior to lopinavir-ritonavir or favipiravir for treating COVID-19.
33397429 The inpatient group will receive 200/50 mg Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Heterd Company, India) twice a day for the seven days, plus five doses of 44 mcg Interferon beta-1a (CinnaGen, Iran) every other day.
33397457 To investigate the efficacy and safety of repurposed antiprotozoal and antiretroviral drugs, nitazoxanide and atazanavir/ritonavir, in shortening the time to clinical improvement and achievement of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity in patients diagnosed with moderate to severe COVID-19. […] Participants in the intervention group will receive 1000 mg of nitazoxanide twice daily orally and 300/100 mg of atazanvir/ritonavir once daily orally in addition to standard of care while participants in the control group will receive only standard of care.
33402301 Drug therapy was instituted with lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon β-1b.
33402839 However, retrospective observational studies reported the efficacy of remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir in reducing viral load, although there have been concerns with lopinavir/ritonavir and, more recently, remdesivir.
33405402 Patients had signs of respiratory distress and were treated with hydroxychloroquine, darunavir, ritonavir, heparin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin.
33406578 We used lopinavir, ritonavir, hydroxy chloroquine, intravenous immunoglobulin and continuous veno-venous hemodialysis for treatment.
33407777 In the context of the current worldwide pandemic, SOC can include medicines that are being used in clinical practice (e.g. lopinavir/ritonavir; hydroxy/chloroquine, tocilizumab, etc.), as well as those authorised for COVID (e.g., remdesivir).
33410987 The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for coadministration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir because of the risk of QT prolongation and TdP and cytochromes interactions. […] The systematic review provides highly probable drug interaction between lopinavir/ritonavir plus quetiapine and ritonavir/indinavir plus risperidone.
33412395 We conducted a retrospective study of all adult confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who received combination of three doses of 12 million international units of IFN-β1-a and Lopinavir 400 mg and Ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (case group) for 14 days besides standard care and age- and sex- matched COVID-19 patients with receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (control group) at Masih Daneshvari Hospital as a designated hospital for COVID-19 between Feb 19 and Apr 30, 2020.
33421347 DDI may occur in patients under treatment with medications used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; i.e., chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and remdesivir) and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as QT-prolongation, retinopathy, increased risk of infection, and hepatotoxicity.
33421743 We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2. […] The results suggested that by using the combination of Lopinavir, Ritonavir along with Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin C may turned out to be the effective line of treatment for SARS-CoV-2 as it shows the involvement of PARP-1, MAPK-8, EGFR, PRKCB, PTGS-2, and BCL-2.
33430891 Intervention group: standard of care at the discretion of the researcher, including lopinavir/ritonavir (200/50 mg, 2 tablets twice daily, per os, for 7 to 14 days) ± remdesivir (a single intravenous loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by once-daily intravenous maintenance doses of 100 mg from day 2 to 5), or no drug treatment, + methylprednisolone (once-daily intravenous infusion of 120 mg on days 1, 2 and 3). standard of care at the discretion of the researcher, including lopinavir/ritonavir (200/50 mg, 2 tablets every 12 hours, per os, for 7 to 14 days) ± remdesivir (a single intravenous loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by once-daily intravenous maintenance doses of 100 mg from day 2 to 5), or no drug treatment, + placebo (once-daily intravenous infusion of 100 mL of 0.9% saline on days 1, 2 and 3). ≥15% from baseline, together with laboratory and radiological deterioration.
33432269 We used an integrated computational algorithm to explore the binding mechanism of TMC-310911/ritonavir (RVT) with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV main proteases.
33435273 Our in vitro studies, using a variety of model systems, explored the interactions of the antimalarial agents chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; the antihelmintic ivermectin; and the proposed antiviral compounds ritonavir, lopinavir, favipiravir, and remdesivir with the ABCB1/Pgp, ABCG2/BCRP, and ABCC1/MRP1 exporters, as well as the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)2B1 and OATP1A2 uptake transporters.
33439937 The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33442304 Just based on experience coming from the use of antiviral agents to treat other viruses (eg, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir) and supposed antiviral or immunomodulatory activities of drugs with no approved antiviral indications (eg hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab), clinicians have faced the ongoing pandemic.
33448426 This study aims to comparatively analyze the therapeutic efficacy upon multiple medication plans over Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r), Arbidol (ARB) and Methylprednisolone on patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
33458647 Many promising antiviral agents including lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, darunavir, and oseltamivir have been repurposed and are currently trialled in the care for COVID-19 patients.
33463727 Lopinavir/ritonavir failed to maintain their initial efficacy in improving clinical symptoms and mortality rate.
33465283 In this study, we used canakinumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1 beta to improve respiratory function and laboratory parameters compared with standard therapy (hydroxycloroquine plus lopinavir/ritonavir).
33466134 Fifty-three patients (96.36%) received antiviral therapy, including 45 in the mild group (median treatment: 14 days; 17 received umifenovir) and all 8 severe-group patients (median treatment: 17.5 days; 4 received lopinavir/ritonavir). […] Umifenovir may benefit patients with mild symptoms, while lopinavir/ritonavir may benefit those with severe symptoms.
33469197 Furthermore, we briefly discuss the potential of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), dolutegravir (DTG) and remdesivir (RDV) in drug repurposing and their safety in pregnancy complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
33470663 Antiviral agents such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine have been investigated as well as specific and non-specific immunomodulators in order to determine their potential efficacy against SARS-Cov2.
33477522 Most of therapeutic options considered for SARS-CoV-2 treatment (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma) failed to confirm significant efficiency. […] In conclusion, initially, following only a 1 month period, Romanian physicians’ intention to consider treatments such as hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 decreased significantly.
33482326 Eight of them are already in clinical trials, including dexamethasone, ritonavir, baricitinib, tofacitinib, naproxen, budesonide, ciclesonide and formoterol.
33491234 Six proposed COVID-19 therapeutics were identified as possessing ototoxic side effects including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon, ribavirin, and ivermectin.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33495967 Primary scrutinized therapies include antiviral regimens, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunomodulating drugs, such as corticosteroids and interleukin (IL) inhibitors, and other therapies including convalescent plasma.
33500022 The ligands ivermectin, heparin and ritonavir showed stable conformations.
33505872 The other drugs such as favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir under the antiviral category, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors), remdesivir (RNA polymerase inhibitor) from antiviral category, cepharanthine from anti-inflammatory category, etc., have been pointed based on the previous literature published.
33506948 Because of the limited treatment options available, oral lopinavir/ritonavir (LPR) was used for treating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients.
33520580 These include clinically available drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33522493 She was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, third generation cephalosporin, anticoagulant, daily high-dose calcium acetate, vitamin D3, fresh frozen plasma and oxygen therapy.
33523551 The patient was treated with tocilizumab, and a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferon-β1b.
33526007 There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc.
33529638 The WM group received antiviral therapy (including abidor capsule 0.2 g po, tid; Lopinavir-Ritonavir tablets, 500 mg po, bid), antibiotics (such as cefoperazone, 2 g iv, bid; moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, 0.4 g po, qd) or corticosteroid therapy (such as methylprednisolone succinate sodium, 40mg, iv, 40 mg, qd; prednisone, 30 mg po, qd).
33532594 IDentif.AI pinpointed the optimal combination as remdesivir, ritonavir, and lopinavir, which was experimentally validated to mediate a 6.5-fold enhanced efficacy over remdesivir alone.
33541491 The conventional antiviral group received α-interferon combined with Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/R).
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide.
33544720 Focusing specifically on SARS subnetwork, we identified 282 repurposable drugs, including some the most rumored off-label drugs for COVID-19 treatments (e.g., chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, heparin), as well as a new combination therapy of 5 drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir), actually used in clinical practice.
33545499 During the 1st period hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and therapeutic enoxaparin when thrombosis was confirmed were administered; systemic corticosteroids were given in case of severe pneumonia.
33547636 Data were collected from the medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir in intensive care units or infectious disease departments of Toulouse university hospital (France). […] Although international guidelines have recently recommended against using lopinavir/ritonavir to treat severe COVID-19, the description of lopinavir pharmacokinetics changes in COVID-19 is a textbook case of the high risk of misinterpretation of a total drug exposure when changes in protein binding are not taken into consideration.
33548872 The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Detuning of lopinavir and ritonavir allowed simultaneous quantification of all analytes with different concentration ranges and sensitivity with a uniform injection volume of 5 μL. […] The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum.
33550043 Recently several drugs have been used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Nafamostat mesylate and so on.
33550050 In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
33551833 Two antiviral drugs (Elbasvir and Ritonavir) were included; Elbasvir and Ritonavir formed van der Waals (VDW) interactions with surrounding residues to bind with CSF3, and Elbasvir and Ritonavir significantly inhibited CSF3 protein expression.
33552457 We evaluated current treatment options including favipiravir (FPV), lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, interleukin-1 blocker, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange.
33552835 The antiviral drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir as inhibitors for HIV protease, nucleotide analogue remdesivir, and broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are available to treat the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
33555378 Data from solidarity trials have shown that the treatment with Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir had no effect in reducing the mortality rate and also had adverse side effects.
33558296 Large randomized clinical trials that aimed to test four repurposed drugs, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta-1a, and remdesivir, have shown that these compounds lacked impact on the COVID-19 course.
33565392 The main progress in international critical care medicine in 2020 are: the reflections on the mandatory of implementation of the 1-hour cluster treatment strategy for sepsis are still continuing; the “metabolic resuscitation” therapy, represented by large dose of vitamin C, failed to yield positive results; the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with evidences indicating Dexamethasone, Remdesivir or interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b), Lopinavir/Ritonavir and ribavirin as promising therapy; conservative oxygen therapy did not exert positive effects neither for mechanical ventilated patients nor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient; the concept of lung- and diaphragm-protective mechanical ventilation illuminates a new opportunity to potentially improve clinical outcomes for critically ill patients; there was no positive evidence for stress ulcer prophylaxis and timing of endoscopy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding; early initiation of renal-replacement therapy (RRT) for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not shown positive effect.
33569736 Among individuals without coronavirus infection from 2015 Q1 to 2020 Q1, increased risks for cardiac disorders were found for antiviral agents such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (ROR: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-1.70), lopinavir/ritonavir (ROR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.39-1.66), and antibiotics such as azithromycin (ROR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.44) and ceftriaxone (ROR: 1.92; 95% CI 1.80-2.05).
33573699 The control group received lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine and the case group received HDIVC (6 g daily) added to the same regimen. levels at discharge time, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality between the two groups.
33574271 We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A).
33580642 More than half of the interactions were between protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) and regularly prescribed medications for the management of comorbidities or COVID-19 symptoms (e.g., atorvastatin, alprazolam, salmeterol, and tamsulosin).
33593415 No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19.