DrugBank ID: db00811
DrugCentral: ribavirin
Synonymous :1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide | 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1h-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide | rbv | ribavirin | ribavirina | ribavirine | ribavirinum | tribavirin

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ribavirin gene in 167 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32023685 Antiviral drugs commonly used in clinical practice, including neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, paramivir, zanamivir, etc.), ganciclovir, acyclovir and ribavirin, are invalid for 2019-nCoV and not recommended.
32057209 Combination of Ribavirin and Interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32119961 Additionally, the newly emerged Wuhan HCoV RdRp model is targeted by anti-polymerase drugs, including the approved drugs Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin. […] The results suggest the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, IDX-184, Ribavirin, and Remidisvir as potent drugs against the newly emerged HCoV disease.
32164080 Antiviral drugs commonly used in clinical practice, including neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, paramivir, zanamivir, etc.), ganciclovir, acyclovir and ribavirin, are invalid for 2019-nCoV and not recommended.
32164081 Combination of Ribavirin and interferon-α is recommended by the 5(th) edition National Health Commission’s Regimen (Revised Edition) because of the effect on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the effectiveness of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Remdisivir needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trial (RCT), given the situation of no specific antivirus drug on NCP is unavailable.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32218301 These molecules proved to be the most effective antiviral agents, able to reach the potency profile of the licensed drug ribavirin.
32219882 To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, and chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation based on available evidence.
32222463 The results suggest the effectiveness of Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Galidesivir, and Tenofovir as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 since they tightly bind to its RdRp.
32227274 Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. […] Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19.
32227493 The access to direct antiviral drugs, such as ribavirin, that have an existing inventory and reliable supply chain may be a priority consideration for therapies developed for the 2019-nCoV infection outbreaks and any strain variants that may emerge. […] On the basis of the direct antiviral activity of ribavirin against 2019-nCoV in vitro and evidence for potency enhancement strategies developed during the prior SARS and MERS outbreaks, ribavirin may significantly impact our ability to end the lingering outbreaks in China and slow outbreaks in other countries. […] The apparent COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to follow dosage guidelines for treatment with ribavirin, test new therapeutic concepts, and conduct controlled testing to apply the scientific rigor required to address the controversy around this mainstay of antiviral therapy.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32246834 In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated.
32251634 The top 20 drugs in the virtual screening studies comprised a broad-spectrum antiviral (ribavirin), anti-hepatitis B virus (telbivudine), two vitamins (vitamin B12 and nicotinamide) and other miscellaneous systemically acting drugs. […] Of special interest, ribavirin had been used in treating cases of SARS CoV. […] Ribavirin, telbivudine, vitamin B12 and nicotinamide can be combined and used for COVID treatment.
32251767 Ribavirin or favipiravir that are currently evaluated under clinical trials showed no inhibition at 100 μM.
32284326 In this regard, the triphosphate forms of 2’-C-methylated compounds, including sofosbuvir, approved for the management of hepatitis C virus infection, and the broad-acting antivirals favipiravir and ribavirin, exhibited significant deficits.
32307245 However, the regimen of LPV/RTV plus ribavirin was shown to be effective against SARS-CoV in vitro.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32354369 The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the combination of ribavirin and corticosteroids remarkably decreased mortality (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.68). […] For safety, ribavirin could induce more bradycardia, anemia and transaminitis. […] Conversely, ribavirin might cause more safety concerns especially bradycardia.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] Moreover, it was also observed that chloroquine has appreciable binding affinities for 3-Chymotrpsin- like protease and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A when compared to Oseltamivir and ribavirin.
32389723 Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, remdesivir, chloroquine and luteolin were studied.
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32394467 Ribavirin reduces hemoglobin concentrations in respiratory patients, and remdesivir improves respiratory symptoms. […] Use of ribavirin in combination with LPV/r in patients with SARS-CoV reduces acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality, which has a significant protective effect with the addition of corticosteroids.
32401715 We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to a 14-day combination of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h, ribavirin 400 mg every 12 h, and three doses of 8 million international units of interferon beta-1b on alternate days (combination group) or to 14 days of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (control group).
32404786 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32405454 Lopinavir/ritonavir (200mg/50mg) two tablet tow times, Ribavirin 200mg every six hours, and Oseltamivir 75mg tow times were given for the treatment of COVID-19.
32446167 All patients have received interferon-α nebulization, and eight cases including the severe and critical cases were co-administrated ribavirin.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32486229 In this study, the bioactivity of some selected heterocyclic drugs named Favipiravir (1), Amodiaquine (2), 2’-Fluoro-2’-deoxycytidine (3), and Ribavirin (4) was evaluated as inhibitors and nucleotide analogues for COVID-19 using computational modeling strategies.
32493740 We included studies of ribavirin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, umifenovir (arbidol), favipravir, interferon and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32496210 A dual-combination of ribavirin and interferon-α has been the widely used regimen for the treatment of this disease in China.
32496357 Ten received toclizumab and/or ribavirin; 1 received remdesivir.
32512873 This strategy has been implemented for other respiratory viruses (influenza above all) and was successfully used in South Korea among healthcare workers against the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, by providing people who were exposed to high-risk contacts with lopinavir-ritonavir plus ribavirin.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32515383 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, remdesivir and Ravipiravir are some of the major antiviral agents showing initial encouraging results.
32520888 All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. […] There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment.
32527340 The main antiviral drugs included α-interferon (69.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir (65.0%), abidol (60.0%), and ribavirin (55.7%).
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32546018 However, the present review aims to highlight the important antiviral approaches, including interferons, ribavirin, mycophenolic acids, ritonavir, lopinavir, inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to provoke the nonstructural proteins and deactivate the structural and essential host elements of the virus to control and treat the infection of COVID-19 by inhibiting the viral entry, viral RNA replication and suppressing the viral protein expression. […] Different antivirals, including interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be the potent therapeutic agents against COVID-19.
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32565309 Our results for the first time suggest that a quadruple combination therapy (Ribavirin, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Umifenovir, and Lianhua Qingwen) can be considered as a preferred treatment approach to severe COVID-19 patients.
32566561 For adults with SARS, interferon was associated with reduced corticosteroid dose [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.14 g; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.07] but had no effect on mortality (RR =0.72; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.88); ribavirin did not reduce mortality (RR =0.68; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.06) and was associated with high risk of severe adverse reactions; and oseltamivir had no effect on mortality (RR =0.87; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.38). […] Ribavirin combined with interferon was also not effective in adults with MERS and associated with adverse reactions.
32612432 As ribavirin and favipiravir have teratogenic effects, there are some debates on the use of ribavirin in severe cases.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32631826 These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy but is ineffective as monotherapy.
32641471 Use of lopinavir-ritonavir ±ribavirin + interferon beta (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.13, p=0.006) and corticosteroids (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 2.14 to 7.16, p<0.001) was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation. […] Use of lopinavir-ritonavir, with or without ribavirin, interferon beta and/or corticosteroids was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation.
32655019 Oseltamivir and ribavirin require dose modification in patients with moderate to severe CKD.
32659126 Dose modification/avoidance should be considered for chloroquine, atazanavir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, anakinra, and Janus associated kinase inhibitors in patients with organ function impairment.
32667665 Furthermore, we implemented a coexpression drug repositioning analysis, cogena, and identified two antiviral drugs (saquinavir and ribavirin) and several other candidate drugs (such as dinoprost, dipivefrine, dexamethasone and (-)-isoprenaline). […] Notably, the two antiviral drugs have also previously been identified using molecular docking methods, and ribavirin is a recommended drug in the diagnosis and treatment protocol for COVID pneumonia (trial version 5-7) published by the National Health Commission of the P.R. of China.
32678017 In the cases we report, the patient continued to deteriorate even after administration of antiviral drugs such as lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon-α, and ribavirin, as well as intravenous injection of meropenem, methylprednisolone, and immunoglobulin.
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32711596 We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. […] The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB).
32712334 The aim of this study was to compare ribavirin therapy versus supportive therapy only for patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The 115 patients comprised 44 patients who received intravenous ribavirin (treatment group) and 71 who did not (control group). […] The negative conversion time for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR in the ribavirin group was 12.8 ± 4.1 days compared with 14.1 ± 3.5 days in the control group (P = 0.314). […] Moreover, 7/41 patients (17.1%) in the ribavirin group died compared with 17/69 (24.6%) in the control group (P = 0.475). […] In conclusion, in patients with severe COVID-19, ribavirin therapy is not associated with improved negative conversion time for SARS-CoV-2 test and is not associated with an improved mortality rate.
32717568 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32725382 We found promising in vitro evidence for remdesivir, (hydroxy)chloroquine and favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2; potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus ribavirin; and strong evidence for LPV/r plus ribavirin against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers.
32736197 Age, Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), acute myocardial injury, and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and CD3 T cells counts were independently associated with death, while arbidol and ribavirin were protective from death. […] There were 312 (45.8%) patients with cardiovascular disease, of whom 23.4% died. β-blockers, ACEI/ARB, arbidol, and ribavirin might have a beneficial effect for severe COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease. […] Clinicians should adopt more aggressive strategies for patients with a high NLR (>6.66) combined with myocardial injury. β-blockers and ACEI/ARB, as well as arbidol and ribavirin, were effective in COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin.
32765274 Eligible patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were randomized into three groups: ribavirin (RBV) plus interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus IFN-α, and RBV plus LPV/r plus IFN-α at a 1:1:1 ratio.
32767929 Compared with control compounds (ribavirin, arbidol), the docking score of quercetin to the IL-6 receptor was highest, with a score of 5. […] Furthermore, the scores of three key components to SARS-CoV-2 are large as 4, 5, and 5, respectively, which are even better than those of ribavirin at 3.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32786685 The drug repurposing study revealed the high potential of noscapine and proximal binding to the Mpro enzyme in a comparative binding pattern analyzed with chloroquine, ribavirin, and favipiravir.
32787752 Furthermore, ribavirin may also be a potential treatment against CHIKV; sofosbuvir against ZIKV; celgosivir against DENV, and favipiravir against EBOV and MARV, representing new hopes against these pathogens.
32807688 Lopinavir-interferon α2b boosted ribavirin following with lopinavir boosted budesonide might be a potent treatment for viral clearance.
32812025 We assessed the efficacy of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir with ribavirin for treating patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned to 400 mg sofosbuvir, 60 mg daclatasvir and 1200 mg ribavirin (intervention group) or to standard care (control group). […] The number of ICU admissions in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin group was not significantly lower than the control group (0 versus 4, P = 0.109). […] The cumulative incidence of recovery was higher in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin arm (Gray’s P = 0.033). […] There were trends in favour of the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin arm for recovery and lower death rates.
32812051 Subjects were divided into two arms with one arm receiving ribavirin and the other receiving sofosbuvir/daclatasvir. […] Sixty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 35 enrolled in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm and 27 in the ribavirin arm. […] The median duration of stay was 5 days for the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir group and 9 days for the ribavirin group. […] The mortality in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir group was 2/35 (6%) and 9/27 (33%) for the ribavirin group.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32834942 A number of antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32849934 Lopinavir/ritonavir was found beneficial when administered with interferon and ribavirin, but one clinical trial on its sole use proved contrary.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids. […] We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity).
32869558 In general, the combination of antibiotics, ribavirin, and corticosteroids was considered as a standard treatment for patients with SARS. […] For patients with MERS, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon, and convalescent plasma were continuously recommended. […] There was limited evidence for the effect of corticosteroids, other antiviral drugs like ribavirin, and favipiravir.
32878881 In silico screening, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, ascorbate, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine have strong interaction at the RBD-hACE2 interface.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32884821 There is no vaccine for COVID-19, so antiviral drugs (interferon alfa, ribavirin) may be useful to prevent COVID-19; however, severe control measures implemented in China have significantly mitigated the spread of COVID-19.
32887660 The most common treatment options used were hydroxychloroquine (79.7%), ribavirin (65.2%), and oxygen therapy (78.8%).
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32894567 Two retrospective matched-cohort studies reported the use of lopinavir/ritonavir in combination with ribavirin for SARS patients.
32910955 Evaluation of antiviral activity using cell-based assay showed that NSC629301 and NSC71097 could strongly inhibit the cytopathic effect and also reduced replication of FIPV in CRFK cells in all examined conditions with the low range of EC50 (6.11 ± 1.90 to 7.75 ± 0.48 μM and 1.99 ± 0.30 to 4.03 ± 0.60 μM, respectively), less than those of ribavirin and lopinavir.
32949079 During the post-transplant period, in profound leukopenia (below 10 leukocytes/µL), she was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, MPV, and RSV pneumonia and was treated with ribavirin and chloroquine.
32957417 Ribavirin has activity against extensive RNA and DNA viruses. […] We plan to systematically review the use of ribavirin in patients with coronavirus-related pneumonia and meta-analyze the data with updated studies. […] Ribavirin of any dose or route will be compared with the control group of other medication, placebo, or no medication. […] The efficacy and safety of ribavirin for treatment of coronavirus-related pneumonia will be systematically reviewed and summarized. […] The forthcoming results of the ongoing studies focusing on ribavirin in patients with the 2019 noel coronavirus disease will also be included.
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32989996 Many patients however receive off-label antivirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin and/or chloroquine and /or interferons. […] Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, distress syndrome, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, chloroquine, interferons.
33029193 We aimed to analyze and evaluate the safety signals of ribavirin-interferon combination through data mining of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), so as to provide reference for the rationale use of these agents in the management of relevant toxicities emerging in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). […] The ADE (adverse drug event) signal detection based on FAERS is helpful to clarify the potential adverse events related to ribavirin-interferon combination for novel coronavirus therapy; clinicians should pay attention to the adverse reactions of gastrointestinal and blood systems, closely monitor the fluctuations of the platelet count, and carry out necessary mental health interventions to avoid serious adverse events.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials.
33041111 According to level 1 evidence reviewed here, the most effective SARS-Co-V-2 pharmacologic treatments include remdesivir for mild to severe disease, and a triple regimen therapy consisting of lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and interferon beta-1b for mild to moderate disease.
33049737 Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravi, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
33080900 Our MD simulations suggest that the combination of caffeine with ribavirin shows a stronger interaction with 6VW1, while in case of favipiravir+nicotine, 6LZG shows potent efficacy of these interaction, proposing the potent efficacy of these combinations for blocking ACE2 receptor against SARS-CoV-2.
33081849 To compare the safety and efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin and standard treatment in patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection 2. […] To compare the safety and efficacy of standard treatment, Lopinavir-ritonavir with Ribavarin, and Hydroxychloroquine with Ribavirin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: The study is an Open label, Parallel arm design, stratified randomised controlled trial.
33102687 The results indicate promising effects of such compounds to be used in further experimental and clinical trials; Chloroquine, Chloroquine-OH, and Umifenovir as viral entry inhibitors, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Darunavir as viral replication inhibitors, and Sirolimus are the examples, which were tested clinically on patients after comprehensive assessments of the available data on molecular simulation.
33107812 Docking and simulation results indicated that epicatechin, embelin, hesperidin, cafestol, murrayanine and murrayaquinone-A have higher inhibition efficacy over at least one of the known antiviral drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir and Ribavirin.
33116663 All patients received antiviral treatment (arbidol, oseltamivir, and ribavirin); 78.4% of patients received antibiotic therapy (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefdinir); patients in the moderate disease group received more antibiotic therapy than those in the mild disease group.
33120785 Intravenous immunoglobulin, oseltamivir, and ribavirin were associated with reduced mortality in normal weight patients.Overweight is a worldwide health problem.
33128482 Presently, several drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, ribavirin, favipiravir (FVP), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir and oseltamivir, have been suggested as effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2.
33137863 At present, drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, IFN-α atomization and ribavirin, are commonly used in clinical practice.
33156564 The list of drugs used for COVID-19 treatment includes a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, alpha-interferon, ribavirin, atazanavir, umifenovir, and tocilizumab.
33183004 Currently, there are no FDA-licensed drugs to treat arenavirus infection except for the off-labeled use of ribavirin.
33190802 With the development of this pandemic, the number of clinical studies on antiviral therapy, including remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, arbidol, interferon, favipiravir, oseltamivir, nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, and camostat mesylate, has been increasing.
33191206 These drugs include fingolimod, colchicine, N4-hydroxycytidine, remdesivir, methylprednisone, oseltamivir, icatibant, perphanizine, viracept, emetine, homoharringtonine, aloxistatin, ribavirin, valrubicin, famotidine, almitrine, amprenavir, hesperidin, biorobin, cromolyn sodium, and antibodies- tocilzumab and sarilumab.
33191908 Interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, arbidol, ribavirin, remdesivir, and dexamethasone are the therapeutic drugs recommended for treating 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19 disease).
33193695 Ribavirin was predicted to be the best small molecular drug, with a higher molecular binding energy of -6.39 kcal/mol with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), followed by remdesivir (-7.4 kcal/mol), mycophenolic acid (-5.35 kcal/mol), and chloroquine (-6.29 kcal/mol). […] Ribavirin, remdesivir, and chloroquine have been under clinical trials or supported by recent works.
33199136 The article mainly focused on the development and possible application of various FDA approved drugs, including chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, nefamostate mesylate, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, ribavirin etc., vaccines under development and various registered clinical trials exploring different therapeutic measures for the treatment of COVID-19.
33218161 Lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, ribavirin, oseltamivir, and interferon were administered to 35.8%, 28.4%, 38.1%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.9% of patients, respectively.
33219182 Oseltamivir, Ribavirin in patients with COVID-19; but none of which showed efficacy of antiviral therapy.
33240733 The rash started after he took azithromycin, oseltamivir, ribavirin, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, interferon (IFN) beta, and ceftazidime for COVID-19.
33257051 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and umifenovir represent the major repurposed drugs used as potential experimental agents for COVID-19 whereas azithromycin, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, sarilumab, famotidine and ceftriaxone are some of the supporting agents that are under investigation for COVID-19 management.
33261845 Studies included repurposed drugs mainly against non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV2: the main 3C-like protease (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir, Atazanavir, Nelfinavir, and Clocortolone), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Remdesivir and Ribavirin), and the papain-like protease (Mycophenolic acid, Telaprevir, Boceprevir, Grazoprevir, Darunavir, Chloroquine, and Formoterol). […] The review revealed the best-documented multi-target drugs repurposed by computational methods for COVID-19 therapy as follows: antiviral drugs commonly used to treat AIDS/HIV (Atazanavir, Efavirenz, and Dolutegravir Ritonavir, Raltegravir, and Darunavir, Lopinavir, Saquinavir, Nelfinavir, and Indinavir), HCV (Grazoprevir, Lomibuvir, Asunaprevir, Ribavirin, and Simeprevir), HBV (Entecavir), HSV (Penciclovir), CMV (Ganciclovir), and Ebola (Remdesivir), anticoagulant drug (Dabigatran), and an antifungal drug (Itraconazole).
33276811 In the first stage, three subjects are given ixekizumab (“Taltz”) (80 mg/ml, 160 mg as a single hypodermic injection) and antiviral therapy (α-interferon (administer 5 million U by aerosol inhalation twice daily), lopinavir/ritonavir (administer 100mg by mouth twice daily, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), chloroquine (administer 500mg by mouth twice daily, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), ribavirin (administer 500mg by intravenous injection two to three times a day, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), or arbidol (administer 200mg by mouth three times a day, for the course of therapy no more than 10 days), but not more than 3 types).
33283765 Therapeutic treatment has similarity in using ribavirin and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation but lack of efficacious treatment in both cases of SARAS CoV2 and Hantaan virus.
33290476 Similarly, Galidesivir, Favipiravir, Ribavirin, N4-hydroxycytidine (EIDD-1931), and EIDD-2801 (a prodrug of EIDD-1931) were also found to be effective against COVID-19. […] However, although Favipiravir and Ribavirin can make stable base pair interactions by using their keto and enol tautomers, the formation of the latter pairs would be less probable due to the endothermic nature of the products. […] Interestingly, the insertions of all of the RNA bases are found to be possible against the keto tautomer of Favipiravir, while the keto tautomer of Ribavirin has a clear preference for G.
33297724 nucleotide synthesis inhibitors are presented that ultimately interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis, with ribavirin being the most prominent and widely used example.
33309661 Hence, ritonavir may potentiate the therapeutic properties of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and ribavirin.
33312897 Treatments used for COVID-19 therapy; azithromycin, atazanavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and tocilizumab, interact with immunosuppressive treatments, most importantly with calcineurin inhibitors.
33313272 Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled cohort studies reporting antiviral therapies, including ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon, for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 will be included.
33334287 The development of vaccine or medicines for the same are under progress and this short review will summarize the most potential candidates such as Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin, Favipiravir, Umifenovir, and Ribavirin for its medicinal treatment.
33336316 Remdesivir, dexamethasone, azithromycin, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta, ribavirin, tocilizumab, anakinra and sarilumab were identified as experimental drugs being used in COVID-19 trials as of November 2020.
33347311 The inhibitors of the virus entry to cells and RdRp, such as Arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, EIDD-2081, and ribavirin, are in clinical trials, while most of the protease inhibitors are mainly calculated by molecular docking technology, which needs in vivo and in vitro experiments to prove the effect for SARS-CoV-2.
33364959 Triple therapy of ribavirin, lopinavir, and interferon β-1b showed early viral negative conversion, and the major effect may be related to interferon.
33376954 In this article, we reviewed almost all the RCT reports on monotherapies and combined therapies with antiviral agents for COVID-19, and found that among the reports on monotherapies, only remdesivir, and among combined antiviral agents, only the combined regimen with interferon-β1b, lopinavir-ritonavir and ribavirin were effective and safe based on evidences from RCTs.
33412996 Abigail (80.9%), ribavirin (36.6%), oseltamivir (38.9%), interferon (16.4%), and ganciclovir (14.5%) were used for the anti-viral treatment.
33421347 DDI may occur in patients under treatment with medications used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; i.e., chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and remdesivir) and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as QT-prolongation, retinopathy, increased risk of infection, and hepatotoxicity.
33421473 In-silico screening, molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, and remdesivir have good interaction with the binding site of the RdRp protein as compared to other antiviral investigated. […] Hence, ribavirin and remdesivir were used for the denovo fragments based antiviral design.
33491234 Six proposed COVID-19 therapeutics were identified as possessing ototoxic side effects including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon, ribavirin, and ivermectin.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33505872 The nucleotide inhibitors such as sofosbuvir, ribavirin, galidesivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, cefuroxime, tenofovir, and hydroxychloroquine (HCHL), setrobuvir, YAK, and IDX-184 were found to be effective in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
33515771 To assess the efficacy and safety of ribavirin and interferon-α (RBV/IFN-α) therapy in patients with COVID-19.
33523551 The patient was treated with tocilizumab, and a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferon-β1b.
33527086 In this study, we examine at the molecular level the interaction of this drug and that of similar nucleotide analogue inhibitors, ribavirin and favilavir, by relying on atomistic molecular simulations and advanced sampling. […] Surprisingly, however, ribavirin and favilavir do not bind the nucleotide on the complementary strand as effectively and seem to act by a different mechanism than remdesivir.
33533219 The review discusses the main representatives of these groups of drugs - ribavirin, riamilovir, umifenovir, favipiravir.
33541491 The unconventional antiviral group was given α-interferon combined with LPV/R and Abidor or Ribavirin or Chloroquine.
33546185 TG’s antiviral performance was significantly better than remdesivir and ribavirin in their respective inhibition of OC43 and RSV.
33550050 In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
33555378 Remdesivir, Favipiravir and Ribavirin might be a safer therapeutic option for COVID-19.
33563148 To date, two known nucleoside drugs (Ribavirin, Favipiravir) have been recommended for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and nine hit compounds based on nucleosides and their analogues have been found, one of which efficiently suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication and eight others inhibiting SARS-CoV replication.
33565392 The main progress in international critical care medicine in 2020 are: the reflections on the mandatory of implementation of the 1-hour cluster treatment strategy for sepsis are still continuing; the “metabolic resuscitation” therapy, represented by large dose of vitamin C, failed to yield positive results; the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with evidences indicating Dexamethasone, Remdesivir or interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b), Lopinavir/Ritonavir and ribavirin as promising therapy; conservative oxygen therapy did not exert positive effects neither for mechanical ventilated patients nor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient; the concept of lung- and diaphragm-protective mechanical ventilation illuminates a new opportunity to potentially improve clinical outcomes for critically ill patients; there was no positive evidence for stress ulcer prophylaxis and timing of endoscopy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding; early initiation of renal-replacement therapy (RRT) for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not shown positive effect.
33574271 We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity).
33590901 This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving the combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin and ivermectin plus Zinc vs. those receiving supportive treatment. […] This trial concluded that combined use of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin, and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively clear the SARS-COV2 from nasopharynx in shorter time than the symptomatic therapy.
33593415 No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19.