DrugBank ID: db14761
DrugCentral: remdesivir
Synonymous :remdesivir | remdésivir | remdesivirum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of remdesivir gene in 783 abstracts.

pmid sentence
31996494 Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV.
32022370 Herein, we suggest four potential drug candidates (an ACE2-based peptide, remdesivir, 3CLpro-1 and a novel vinylsulfone protease inhibitor) that could be used to treat patients suffering with the 2019-nCoV.
32023685 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir / ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32054787 Remdesivir (GS-5734) effectively inhibited MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication in vitro, and showed efficacy against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV in a mouse model. […] Here, we tested the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir treatment in a nonhuman primate model of MERS-CoV infection, the rhesus macaque. […] Prophylactic remdesivir treatment initiated 24 h prior to inoculation completely prevented MERS-CoV-induced clinical disease, strongly inhibited MERS-CoV replication in respiratory tissues, and prevented the formation of lung lesions. […] Therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated 12 h postinoculation also provided a clear clinical benefit, with a reduction in clinical signs, reduced virus replication in the lungs, and decreased presence and severity of lung lesions. […] The data presented here support testing of the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in the context of a MERS clinical trial.
32081636 The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China.
32094225 Remdesivir (RDV) is an investigational compound with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities against RNA viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).
32138488 Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation.
32147628 Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far.
32152082 The most promising compound is remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleotide analog prodrug currently in clinical trials for treating Ebola virus infections. […] Remdesivir inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in tissue cultures, and it displayed efficacy in non-human animal models. […] Remarkably, the therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir appeared to be superior to that of LPV/RTV-INFb against MERS-CoV in a transgenic humanized mice model.
32164080 Drugs are possibly effective for 2019-nCoV include: remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies.
32164424 Similar to outbreaks of other newly identified virus, there is no proven regimen from conventional medicine and most reports managed the patients with lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, beta-interferon, glucocorticoid and supportive treatment with remdesivir undergoing clinical trial.
32173241 To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China.
32179150 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
32214286 These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy.
32219882 To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, and chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation based on available evidence.
32222463 The results suggest the effectiveness of Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Galidesivir, and Tenofovir as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 since they tightly bind to its RdRp.
32238094 As a result three FDA approved drugs (Remdesivir, Saquinavir and Darunavir) and two natural compounds (. flavone and coumarine derivatives) were identified as promising hits.
32239125 Among them, remdesivir, an analogue of adenosine, is what seems to have a more promising future. […] Although all studies have been carried out with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, it seems that by virological and functional analogy, remdesivir is one of the few antiviral drugs with proven efficacy.
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32247050 Potential treatments included remdesivir, chloroquine, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and vaccine immunization (when possible).
32247927 The first medication experience of the recovered patients in the US has led remdesivir to be the “specific drug”. […] China has also taken immediate action to put remdesivir into clinical trials with the purpose of applying it into clinical therapeutics for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Further, we analyzed the pharmacological actions and previous trials of remdesivir to identify the feasibility of conducting experiments on COVID-19.
32251767 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, homorringtonine, and emetine against SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells with the estimated 50% effective concentration at 23.15 μM, 26.63 μM, 2.55 μM and 0.46 μM, respectively. […] Synergy between remdesivir and emetine was observed, and remdesivir at 6.25 μM in combination with emetine at 0.195 μM may achieve 64.9% inhibition in viral yield.
32253226 Herein, we show that the ribonucleoside analog β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, EIDD-1931) has broad spectrum antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and related zoonotic group 2b or 2c Bat-CoVs, as well as increased potency against a coronavirus bearing resistance mutations to the nucleoside analog inhibitor remdesivir.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). […] Se identificaron 24 ensayos clínicos relacionados con más de 20 medicamentos, como inmunoglobulina humana, interferones, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumab y medicina tradicional china. […] Foram identificados 24 ensaios clínicos envolvendo mais de 20 medicamentos, tais como imunoglobulina humana, interferons, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, metilprednisolona, bevacizumabe e medicamentos chineses tradicionais.
32258351 Remdesivir (GS-5734™) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is now being tested as a potential treatment for COVID-19 in international, multi-site clinical trials. […] Currently available evidence about the antiviral effects of remdesivir against coronaviruses is primarily based on in vitro and in vivo studies (including some on a chemically related compound, GS-441524™), which have demonstrated largely favorable findings. […] Thus, the purpose of this review is to synthesize the knowledge to date about remdesivir as a therapeutic option for coronaviruses, with a special focus on information relevant to the One Health community.
32275812 Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. […] Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. […] This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day. […] Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). […] In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). […] Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy.
32277040 The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, also named nsp12) is the central component of coronaviral replication/transcription machinery and appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug, remdesivir. […] A comparative analysis model shows how remdesivir binds to this polymerase.
32277065 The nucleotide analogue remdesivir is an investigational drug for the treatment of human coronavirus infection. […] Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug and is known to target viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. […] In this issue, Gordon et al. identify that remdesivir acts as a delayed RNA chain terminator for MERS-CoV polymerase complexes.
32277367 Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored.
32280433 The result showed that atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the best chemical compound, showing an inhibitory potency with Kd of 94.94 nM against the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like proteinase, followed by remdesivir (113.13 nM), efavirenz (199.17 nM), ritonavir (204.05 nM), and dolutegravir (336.91 nM).
32281114 A case of late initiation of remdesivir antiviral therapy in the successful treatment of a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a mixed medical ICU of a community teaching hospital is presented. […] A request for compassionate use remdesivir was submitted on the same hospital day as the positive COVID-19 PCR result. […] Supportive measures, in addition to a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, were maintained until remdesivir could be supplied on day 9 of hospitalization, 13 days after symptom onset. […] Sixty hours after initiating remdesivir, the patient was successfully extubated and was able to transition to room air within 24 hours of extubation. […] Late initiation of remdesivir may be effective in treating SARS-CoV-2, unlike antivirals utilized for different disease states, such as oseltamivir, which are most effective when started as soon as possible following symptom onset.
32282022 The most promising therapy is remdesivir. […] Remdesivir has potent in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, but it is not US Food and Drug Administration approved and currently is being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32283108 We then map a promising NA candidate, GS-441524 (the active metabolite of Remdesivir) to the nucleoside active site of both proteins, identifying the residues important for nucleotide recognition, discrimination, and excision. […] Additionally, we propose structural and function implications of two previously identified RdRp resistance mutations in relation to resistance against Remdesivir.
32284326 Replication of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the likely target of the investigational nucleotide analogue remdesivir (RDV).
32292909 For this emergency, the FDA has approved Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 as Emergency Use Authorization.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32294562 Several antiviral medications: Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir show potential as and 3CLPRO main proteinase inhibitors and as a treatment of COVID-19. […] Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir are among the exciting hits on the 3CLPRO main proteinase.
32296817 The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies.
32297571 Inaddition, remdesivir, which has been previously administered to Ebola virus patients, has alsoproven effective in the U.S. against coronavirus, while antimalarial chloroquine and hydroxy-chloroquine, favipiravir and co-administered darunavir and umifenovir (in patient therapies)were also recently recorded as having anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects.
32297723 Remdesivir, originally develop as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections, is being studied for it effectiveness against 2019-nCoV infection.
32307245 Remdesivir is considered the most promising antiviral agent; it works by inhibiting the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). […] A large-scale study investigating the clinical efficacy of remdesivir (200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg once daily) is on-going.
32309622 Potential therapeutic strategies, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, plasma, antibody, vaccine and stem cells are discussed in this review.
32317557 Adjunctive medication in the surviving patients while on ECMO was as follows: 4 of 5 survivors received intravenous steroids, 3 of 5 survivors received antiviral medications (Remdesivir), 2 of 5 survivors were treated with anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibodies (Tocilizumab or Sarilumab), and 1 of 5 survivors received hydroxychloroquine.An analysis of 32 COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary compromise supported with ECMO suggests that ECMO may play a useful role in salvaging select critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32318706 If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. […] Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available.
32323565 The findings of this study propose the hypotheses that lung-specific delivery of SOD3/ATF4-related antioxidants will work in synergy with promising antiviral drugs such as remdesivir to further improve COVID-19 outcomes in the elderly.
32324352 Currently, chloroquine and remdesivir are possible treatment options.
32326602 A recent study has shown that remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the replication and infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCov) in vitro. […] In the United States, one case of COVID-19 was successfully treated with compassionate use of remdesivir in January of 2020.
32329419 The clinical trials are underway for Remdesivir, an investigational anti-viral drug from Gilead Sciences.
32329520 Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and a number of drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir and tocilizumab.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be considered in critical patients with respiratory failure; however, access to these therapies may be limited.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32343658 High in vitro activity has been found for the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, for the antimalarial drug chloroquine, and for nitazoxanide, a drug used to treat protozoan infections.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358203 The replication of SARS-CoV-2 requires the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a target of the antiviral drug, Remdesivir. […] Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp either in the apo form at 2.8 Å resolution or in complex with a 50-base template-primer RNA and Remdesivir at 2.5 Å resolution. […] The complex structure reveals that the partial double-stranded RNA template is inserted into the central channel of the RdRp where Remdesivir is covalently incorporated into the primer strand at the first replicated base pair and terminates chain elongation.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32361744 Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. […] Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. […] The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. […] In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. […] Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. […] The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. […] Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. […] This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.
32363219 The current study, aims to predict theoretical structure for protease of COVID-19 and to explore further whether this protein can serve as a target for protease inhibitor drugs such as remdesivir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir and α-ketoamide. […] Molecular interaction studies showed that protease structure had multiple active site residues for remdesivir, while for remaining ligands the structure had only one active site residue each.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32364041 The covalent docking showed that saquinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, delavirdine, cefuroxime axetil, oseltamivir and prevacid have the highest binding energies MMGBSA of -72.17, -72.02, -65.19, -57.65, -54.25, -51.8, and -51.14 kcal/mol, respectively. […] The 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for saquinavir, ritonavir and remdesivir to evaluate the stability of these drugs inside the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] The amino acids Asp269, Leu370, His374, and His345 were predicted as the key residues for lopinavir binding to human SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex while His378, Tyr515, Leu73, Leu100, Phe32 and Phe40 for remdesivir and Tyr510, Phe504, Met62, Tyr50, and His378 were predicted for azithromycin as the key residues for binding to SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex.
32377559 Preliminary reports suggest that certain drugs, such as chloroquine and antiviral nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, which inhibit viral replication, can target the new coronavirus, although their usefulness in the clinic is still under debate.
32378648 Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. […] Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials for further clarification.
32384516 She also received a loading dose of remdesivir however was unable to complete the course due to organ failure and requirement of vasopressors for hemodynamic stability.
32389723 Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, remdesivir, chloroquine and luteolin were studied.
32391519 Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir.
32391999 Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir.
32394467 Ribavirin reduces hemoglobin concentrations in respiratory patients, and remdesivir improves respiratory symptoms.
32395179 Veno-venous ECMO was initiated on hospital day 7 in conjunction with a 10-day course of compassionate use antiviral treatment with remdesivir. […] This case report demonstrates a positive outcome in a young patient with COVID-19 treated by the judicious application of ECMO in conjunction with compassionate use antiviral treatment (remdesivir).
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32396771 Remdesivir has been recently a strong candidate for the treatment of Covid-19. […] In this commentary, we have portrayed the structure of the coronavirus in a simple way as well as the site where remdesivir acts. […] Therefore, future disposal of agents such as remdesivir might be crucial for ensuring an efficient treatment, decrease mortality and allow early discharge.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32397906 A broad-spectrum of antiviral agents are being currently evaluated in clinical trials, and in this review, we specifically focus on the application of Remdesivir (RVD) as a potential anti-viral compound against Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) -CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
32397911 In particular, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, arbidol, tocilizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results.
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32402130 Remdesivir has emerged as a promising treatment for SARS-Co-V-2 infection yet published clinical pharmacology and drug interaction studies are limited. […] Additional studies of the disposition of remdesivir, its active metabolite (GS-441524), and its triphosphate metabolite (GS-443902) are needed.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32407719 Patients in the PICU were more likely to require high-flow nasal cannula (p=0.0001) and were more likely to have received Remdesivir through compassionate release (p<0.05).
32407959 Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. […] The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. […] Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed.
32409433 Remdesivir appears to result in favorable outcomes with shortened time to recovery and a modest decrease in mortality for hospitalized patients in compassionate use series and some randomized controlled trials. […] Currently, remdesivir is available only from the US government via an emergency use authorization process.
32410772 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32412158 Although there are upcoming promising agents such as remdesivir and convalescent plasma, inexpensive, safe and widely available adjunct treatments to ameliorate disease burden would be welcome.
32412509 Several antivirals are being tested clinically, including remdesivir, at this time the most promising.
32418190 We describe our early experience with remdesivir in four critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] All patients had been previously treated with other antivirals before remdesivir initiation. […] Lymphocyte count increased in all patients soon after remdesivir initiation. […] We observed an in vivo virological effect of remdesivir in four critically ill, COVID-19 patients, coupled with a significant burden of adverse events.
32418885 No evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that a treatment may ameliorate the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19 exists with the only exception of preliminary evidence from remdesivir trials.
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32422376 This case highlights the high tolerability and the interesting immunomodulatory profile of the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra in the setting of severe COVID-19 associated with remdesivir therapy.
32423027 Whereas plasma therapy attracts much interest, the European project Discovery focuses on the potentialities of small molecules like remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine.
32423584 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. […] Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. […] Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). […] Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). […] Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. […] Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. […] In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426243 Remdesivir is a novel therapeutic with known activity against SARS CoV-2 and related coronaviruses. […] Remdesivir, as well as convalescent plasma therapy, are currently under investigation as potential therapies for patients with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). […] In this case report we summarize the use of convalescent plasma therapy and then remdesivir as a late addition in the treatment of a critically ill obstetric patient with COVID-19. […] The patient subsequently improved, was extubated 5 days after initiation of remdesivir, was transitioned to room air 24 h later, and discharged at the completion of remdesivir therapy.
32428865 Remdesivir is a broad spectrum anti-viral drug that has shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2, in vitro and in vivo. […] In absence of any effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), remdesivir has been tried for a compassionate use in severe COVID-19. […] We aimed to systematically search the literature to understand the pharmacology and clinical effects of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] We systematically searched the PubMed, ClinicalTrial.Org and MedRxiv database up till May 5, 2020 using specific key words such as “Remdesivir” or ’GS-5734″ AND “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2” and retrieved all the article published in English language, that have reported the pharmacology and the clinical outcomes of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] Initial compassionate use of remdesivir has shown a fairly good result, but difficult to quantify, in the absence of control arm. […] Remdesivir has shown a mixed result in patients with COVID-19 with an acceptable side effect.
32429580 Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug that is currently undergoing extensive clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Herein, we report the antiviral activity of remdesivir against human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) compared to known anti-HIV agents. […] The study revealed that remdesivir exhibited an EC50 value of 0.07 µM against HCoV-229E with TC50 of > 2.00 µM against MRC-5 cells.
32434337 Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.
32436445 The use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir, and tocilizumab are some of the other promising potential therapies; however, they are yet to be tested in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
32436867 Patients are being treated with protease drugs are inhibitors, remdesivir, chloroquine, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitors, ivermectin, sarilumab and tocilizumab, though none of these is Food and Drug Administration approved and are undergoing trials.
32438371 Our results enable a detailed analysis of the inhibitory mechanisms that underlie the antiviral activity of substances such as remdesivir, a drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)4.
32439198 The remdesivir, an antiviral drug, is appeared as ‘molecule of hope’ for the treatment of this disease. […] In this paper, we tried to describe the probable molecular mechanism of remdesivir to inhibit the RNA synthesis of SARS-CoV-2. […] However, more detail mechanism is needed to understand mechanism of action of remdesivir.
32445440 We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 with evidence of lower respiratory tract involvement. […] Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. […] The data and safety monitoring board recommended early unblinding of the results on the basis of findings from an analysis that showed shortened time to recovery in the remdesivir group. […] Preliminary results from the 1059 patients (538 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo) with data available after randomization indicated that those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 11 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 12), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 19) in those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55; P<0.001). […] The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by 14 days were 7.1% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.04). […] Serious adverse events were reported for 114 of the 541 patients in the remdesivir group who underwent randomization (21.1%) and 141 of the 522 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization (27.0%). […] Remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446287 Remdesivir (formerly GS-5734) is a nucleoside analogue pro-drug currently being evaluated in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] In pre-clinical models, remdesivir has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against diverse human and zoonotic β-coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. […] In this article we critically review available data on remdesivir with an emphasis on biochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and in vitro activity against coronaviruses as well as clinical experience and current progress in COVID-19 clinical trials.
32448345 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue, has inhibitory effects on animal and human highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, in in vitro and in vivo experiments. […] The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of remdesivir in adult patients with severe COVID-19. […] Adults (≥ 18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 virus infection, severe pneumonia signs or symptoms, and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia are randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenously administered remdesivir or placebo for 10 days. […] The primary endpoint is time to clinical improvement (censored at day 28), defined as the time (in days) from randomization of study treatment (remdesivir or placebo) until a decline of two categories on a six-category ordinal scale of clinical status (1 = discharged; 6 = death) or live discharge from hospital.
32450107 Patients for whom one of the treatments of interest was initiated more than 48 h after diagnosis or while they were on mechanical ventilation, as well as patients who received remdesivir, were excluded.
32454157 Several clinical trials are on-going including testing Remdesivir (anti-viral), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives (anti-malarial drugs) etc.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32458279 Remdesivir is one of the most promising drugs to treat COVID-19 based on the following facts: remdesivir has a broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism of action; it demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and in vivo efficacy in animal models against the similar coronavirus MERS-CoV; its safety profile has been tested in Ebola patients and in compassionate use in COVID-19 patients. […] Currently, remdesivir is being investigated in ten randomized controlled trials against COVID-19. […] The dose regimen of remdesivir is an IV loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by daily IV maintenance doses of 100 mg for 5-9 days. […] Based on our data analysis, however, remdesivir with IV administration alone is unlikely to achieve excellent clinical efficacy. […] This analysis is based on the following observations: plasma exposures of remdesivir and its active metabolite are unlikely to be correlated with its clinical efficacy; remdesivir and its active metabolites are unlikely to be adequate in the lung to kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] Even if remdesivir demonstrates benefits in the current randomized controlled trials, its efficacy may be limited.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Remdesivir has shown mild effectiveness in hospitalized inpatients, but no trials have been registered in outpatients.
32459144 Remdesivir, ritonavir and chloroquine have all been reported to play a role in suppressing SARS-CoV-2.
32459919 Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity in vitro and efficacy in animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous remdesivir for either 5 days or 10 days. […] All patients received 200 mg of remdesivir on day 1 and 100 mg once daily on subsequent days. […] In patients with severe Covid-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation, our trial did not show a significant difference between a 5-day course and a 10-day course of remdesivir.
32462988 The treatment for the severe respiratory illness caused by this virus is primarily symptomatic at this point, although the usage of a broad antiviral drug Remdesivir has been allowed on emergency basis by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
32468196 A systematic benefit-risk assessment was designed and conducted to examine the benefit-risk profile of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients compared with standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] The Benefit-Risk Action Team (BRAT) framework was used to assess the overall benefit-risk of the use of remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19 compared with standard of care, placebo or other treatments. […] We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and government agency websites to identify literature reporting clinical outcomes in patients taking remdesivir for COVID-19. […] Using the BRAT method, several key benefits and risks for use of remdesivir in COVID-19 compared with placebo have been identified. […] In another trial, a shorter time to recovery in patients treated with remdesivir was observed (11 vs 15 days), with non-significant reduced mortality risk (8% vs 12%). […] This trial reported fewer serious adverse events in patients taking remdesivir (18%) compared with the placebo group (26%); however, more patients in the remdesivir group discontinued treatment as a result of an adverse event compared with those patients receiving placebo (12% vs 5%). […] Preliminary clinical trial results suggest that there may be a favourable benefit-risk profile for remdesivir compared with placebo in severe COVID-19 infection and further data on benefits would strengthen this evaluation. […] There is limited safety data for remdesivir, which should be obtained in further studies.
32470470 Current treatment of COVID-19 patients relies mainly on antiviral drugs lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and remdesivir, the anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and traditional Chinese medicine.
32470751 As per SOLIDARITY trial by WHO, some of the most promising candidates include chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine which are anti-malarial medications, Remdesivir, Lopinavir-Ritonavir combination with or without interferon which are anti-HIV drugs and convalescent plasma therapy.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients.
32479865 Remdesivir, used as a positive control, demonstrated potent antiviral activity (EC50 = 0.38 μM).
32483554 One potential therapeutic approach currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials is the agent remdesivir, which has endured a long and winding developmental path. […] Remdesivir is a nucleotide analogue prodrug that perturbs viral replication, originally evaluated in clinical trials to thwart the Ebola outbreak in 2014. […] Subsequent evaluation by numerous virology laboratories demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit coronavirus replication, including SARS-CoV-2. […] Here, we provide an overview of remdesivir’s discovery, mechanism of action, and the current studies exploring its clinical effectiveness.
32486229 Besides, the computations data of DFT the docking simulation studies was predicted that the Amodiaquine (2) has the least binding energy (-7.77 Kcal/mol) and might serve as a good inhibitor to SARS-CoV-2 comparable with the approved medicines, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir which have binding affinity -6.06 and -4.96 Kcal/mol, respectively.
32495921 Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management.
32496239 However, it was reported that remdesivir an investigational antiviral agent hastens clinical recovery, but a study is yet to be published in peer-reviewed medical journal.
32496357 Ten received toclizumab and/or ribavirin; 1 received remdesivir.
32499832 Among the antivirals, the most promising appears to be remdesivir.
32501511 To define pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment. […] For remdesivir, pediatric dosages were derived using allometric-scaling with age-dependent exponents. […] Simulated drug exposures following a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 hours × 2 doses followed by 200 mg every 12 hours × 8 doses) and a single 200-mg intravenous dose of remdesivir were computed for simulated adult participants. […] For remdesivir, the primary outcome was plasma exposure (area under the curve, 0 to infinity) following single-dose administration. […] For remdesivir, the analysis included 1000 and 6000 simulated adult and pediatric participants, respectively. […] This analysis provides pediatric-specific dosing suggestions for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir and raises concerns regarding hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 treatment because concentrations were less than those needed to mediate an antiviral effect.
32503814 The results support the combination of copper, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), colchicine and nitric oxide (NO) with candidate antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a treatment for patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. […] The authors propose to study the effects of the combination of copper, NAC, colchicine, NO and currently used experimental antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a potential treatment scheme for SARS-COV-2.
32503817 Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs.
32503874 Remdesivir, a nucleotide-analogue antiviral drug developed for Ebola, is determined to prevent and stop infections with COVID-19, while results are yet controversial. […] Here, we aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] We will include RCTs that assessed the efficacy of remdesivir versus placebo or standard of care. […] Random effects model will be carried out to calculate mean differences for continuous outcome data and risk ratio for dichotomous outcome data between remdesivir and placebo or standard of care.
32506110 This systemic review aimed at evaluating the available evidence on efficacy, safety to identify any promising role for compassionate use of remdesivir in patient suffered for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as re-purposeful use. […] We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective case series studies and case reports that evaluated use of remdesivir in COVID-19. […] Though the drug remdesivir (RDV) is not approved by the FDA, still the “Emergency Use Authorization” (EUA) for compassionate use in severe cases is endorsed. […] Remdesivir was thought to be one of the promising options for treating the patients of COVID-19 based on few laboratory experiments and reports from some compassionate use and case reports.
32513308 *Use of remdesivir as treatment for COVID-19 is permitted.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32515383 Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, remdesivir and Ravipiravir are some of the major antiviral agents showing initial encouraging results.
32516797 Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity1,2, that is currently investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials and recently received Emergency Use Authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration3,4. […] In animal models, remdesivir treatment was effective against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection.2,5,6 In vitro, remdesivir inhibited replication of SARS-CoV-2.7,8 Here, we investigated the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection9. […] In contrast to vehicle-treated animals, animals treated with remdesivir did not show signs of respiratory disease and had reduced pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs and reduced virus titers in bronchoalveolar lavages 12hrs after the first treatment administration. […] Virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract was not reduced by remdesivir treatment. […] At necropsy, lung viral loads of remdesivir-treated animals were lower and there was a reduction in damage to the lungs. […] Thus, therapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated early during infection had a clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques. […] Although the rhesus macaque model does not represent the severe disease observed in a proportion of COVID-19 patients, our data support early remdesivir treatment initiation in COVID-19 patients to prevent progression to pneumonia.
32517353 As a computationally predicted, remdesivir-like inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-the central component of the replication/transcription machinery of SARS-CoV-2-silibinin is expected to reduce viral load and impede delayed interferon responses.
32521159 Recently, because of its positive results in clinical trials, remdesivir was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat COVID-19 through Emergency Use Authorization. […] Here, we used molecular dynamics simulations and free energy perturbation methods to study the inhibition mechanism of remdesivir to its target SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). […] We then built a putative preinsertion binding structure by aligning the remdesivir + RdRp complex to the ATP bound poliovirus RdRp without the RNA template. […] The resulting stable preinsertion state of remdesivir appeared to form hydrogen bonds with the RNA template when aligned with the newly solved cryo-EM structure of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. […] The relative binding free energy between remdesivir and ATP was calculated to be -2.80 ± 0.84 kcal/mol, where remdesivir bound much stronger to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp than the natural substrate ATP. […] The ∼100-fold improvement in the Kd from remdesivir over ATP indicates an effective replacement of ATP in blocking of the RdRp preinsertion site. […] Key residues D618, S549, and R555 are found to be the contributors to the binding affinity of remdesivir. […] These findings suggest that remdesivir can potentially act as a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-chain terminator, effectively stopping its RNA replication, with key residues also identified for future lead optimization and/or drug resistance studies.
32524645 We comment on hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir with zinc supplement, remdesivir, tocilizumab, ciclesonide, niclosamide and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
32526208 Nucleotide analog inhibitors, including broad-spectrum remdesivir and favipiravir, have shown promise in in vitro assays and some clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment, this despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12 drug interactions. […] Furthermore, we investigate the inhibition mechanism of the triphosphate metabolite of remdesivir through structural and kinetic analyses.
32527327 Evolving hypoxia and infiltrates on chest imaging warranted the trial of an investigational antiviral drug - remdesivir.
32532085 In addition to remdesivir, lopinavir, and chloroquine, our primary screening additionally identified types I and II recombinant interferons, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and AM580 as the most potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents among the 22 antiviral agents.
32532939 Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
32533671 This area has faced numerous challenges, including the shortage of frequent-use products (hydroalcoholic solutions, lopinavir/ritonavir suspension), the use of new preparations for SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), or requests from overwhelmed wards unable to assume the safe preparation of a high volume of medications (intravenous solutions). […] Como todo el sector sanitario, la farmacotecnia hospitalaria ha sufrido el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19, enfrentándose a la necesidad de cubrir el desabastecimiento de productos de uso frecuente (soluciones hidroalcohólicas, lopinavir/ritonavir suspensión), a nuevas preparaciones surgidas de las nuevas necesidades provocadas por el SARS-CoV-2 (tocilizumab, remdesivir), o a peticiones de plantas desbordadas por la carga asistencial, incapaces de asumir con un mínimo de seguridad la preparación de numerosos medicamentos (mezclas intravenosas).
32538209 We encourage giving more attention to favipiravir, remdesivir, and measles vaccine.
32542131 The off-label use of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and emergency use authorization of remdesivir can hopefully help the clinicians while treating critically ill patients.
32547625 One leading candidate is remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral that was initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV). […] Although remdesivir performed well in preclinical studies, it did not meet efficacy endpoints in a randomized trial conducted during an Ebola outbreak. […] Remdesivir holds promise for treating COVID-19 based on in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, uncontrolled clinical reports, and limited data from randomized trials. […] Overall, current data are insufficient to judge the efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19, and the results of additional randomized studies are eagerly anticipated. […] We then summarize preclinical and clinical studies of remdesivir for Ebola and COVID-19.
32550223 Remdesivir has generated hope.
32553861 For treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin was used in 18 (54%), corticosteroids in 17 (51%), tocilizumab in 12 (36%), remdesivir in 7 (21%), vasopressors in 17 (51%), mechanical ventilation in 5 (15%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 1 (3%), and intra-aortic balloon pump in 1 (3%).
32554907 With no clear remedies to treat the disease, doctors are repurposing drugs like chloroquine and remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients.
32554953 Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32561148 Novel experimental therapies, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, are also actively being investigated for antiviral efficacy.
32562915 34-35 °C) and assuming viral thermolability of SARS-CoV-2, local instillation or aerosol of antiviral (i.e. remdesivir) in humid heat vaporization (40°-41 °C) in the first phase of infection (phenotype I, before admission), both in asymptomatic but nasopharyngeal swab positive patients, together with antiseptic-antiviral oral gargles and povidone-iodine eye drops for conjunctiva (0,8-5% conjunctival congestion), would attack the virus directly through the receptors to which it binds, significantly decreasing viral replication, risk of evolution to phenotypes IV and V, reducing hospitalization and therefore death.
32563812 Remdesivir (GS-5734), a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) inhibitor that can be used to treat a variety of RNA virus infections, is expected to be an effective treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. […] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients. […] In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this review presents comprehensive information on remdesivir, including information regarding the milestones, intellectual properties, anti-coronavirus mechanisms, preclinical research and clinical trials, and in particular, the chemical synthesis, pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of remdesivir. […] Furthermore, perspectives regarding the use of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 are also discussed.
32568027 Furthermore, we determined that the sensitivity of the two viruses to three established inhibitors of coronavirus replication (remdesivir, alisporivir and chloroquine) is very similar, but that SARS-CoV-2 infection was substantially more sensitive to pre-treatment of cells with pegylated interferon alpha.
32568282 The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown to shorten duration of disease while interferon beta-1b may speed up viral clearance.
32568620 Complete genome sequence analysis, structural and molecular docking results revealed that Remdesivir is having a better binding affinity with -8.2 kcal/mol than the rest of protease inhibitors, and peptide. […] Remdesivir is strongly forming h-bonds with crucial Mpro residues, Cys145, and His164. […] Further, MD simulation analysis also confirmed, that these residues are forming H-bond with Remdesivir during 100 ns simulations run and found stable (∼99%) by RMSD and RMSF. […] Thus, present in silico study at molecular approaches suggest that, Remdesivir is a potent therapeutic inhibitor against 2019-nCoV.Communicated by Ramaswamy H.
32569708 Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir. […] Human clinical trials are starting to show some results, in some cases like that of Remdesivir these are controversial.
32572376 Based on the previous experiences with similar coronavirus management and present preliminary data from uncontrolled studies, drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir have been recommended by the researchers to manage COVID-19.
32573468 Objectives A method based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection using 50 µL of plasma was developed and fully validated for quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolites GS-441524. […] Methods A simple protein precipitation was carried out using 75 µL of methanol containing the internal standard (IS) remdesivir-13C6 and 5 µL ZnSO4 1 M. […] The ion transitions used were m/z 603.3 → m/z 200.0 and m/z 229.0 for remdesivir, m/z 292.2 → m/z 173.1 and m/z 147.1 for GS-441524 and m/z 609.3 → m/z 206.0 for remdesivir-13C6. […] Results Calibration curves were linear in the 1-5000 μg/L range for remdesivir and 5-2500 for GS-441524, with limit of detection set at 0.5 and 2 μg/L and limit of quantification at 1 and 5 μg/L, respectively. […] Precisions evaluated at 2.5, 400 and 4000 μg/L for remdesivir and 12.5, 125, 2000 μg/L for GS-441524 were lower than 14.7% and accuracy was in the [89.6-110.2%] range. […] Higher stability of remdesivir and metabolite was observed on NaF-plasma. […] After 200 mg IV single administration, remdesivir concentration decrease rapidly with a half-life less than 1 h while GS-441524 appeared rapidly and decreased slowly until H24 with a half-life around 12 h.
32573538 The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.
32574109 Specifically, we review the potential clinical utility of two transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-targeting protease inhibitors, nafamostat mesylate and camostat mesylate, as well as two novel potent fusion inhibitors and the repurposed Ebola drug, remdesivir, which is specific to RdRp, against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32574236 This review is specifically aimed to summarize the available evidence and ongoing clinical trials of remdesivir as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. […] Remdesivir is an investigational drug having broad spectrum antiviral activity with its target RNA dependent RNA polymerase. […] Several studies showed that remdesivir had promising in vitro and in vivo antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV strains. […] There are few phase 3 randomized double-blind placebo controlled trials on the way to investigate the safety and efficacy of remdesivir. […] Of which, one completed double blind, placebo controlled trial showed that remdesivir showed faster time to clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo though not found statistically significant.
32574299 There are no treatment options available for the virus as such, limited to the use of anti-HIV drugs and/or other antivirals such as Remdesivir and Galidesivir.
32574327 Many conventional drugs including hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, etc., have been repurposed as treatments for this often deadly disease, but there is no specifically-designed effective drug available; also, the drugs mentioned have significant side effects and their efficacy is unknown.
32580257 Compassionate use of pharmacologic therapies such as remdesivir has shown promise, and further clinical trials of anticytokine agents are underway.
32584236 Likewise, protease inhibitors, including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, and nucleoside analogue remdesivir were proposed to be the potential drug candidates in COVID-19 management.
32587649 Despite reported observational data about the experimental use of certain drugs, there is no conclusively proven curative therapy for COVID-19 as of now; however, remdesivir received emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently for use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
32587651 Recently remdesivir has received emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA for use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
32589146 Recently, three randomized clinical trials on COVID-19 treatments were completed, one for lopinavir-ritonavir and two for remdesivir. […] One trial reported that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery, while the other two showed no benefit of the treatment under investigation. […] The remdesivir trial of Wang et al. failed to reach the planned sample size due to a lack of eligible patients, while the bootstrap method was used to predict the quantity of clinical interest conditionally and unconditionally if the trial had continued to reach the originally planned sample size. […] The remdesivir trial of Beigel et al. reported the median recovery time of the remdesivir and placebo groups and the rate ratio for recovery, while both quantities depend on a particular time point representing local information. […] For the remdesivir trial of Wang et al., the difference of RMTIs at day 28 was -0.89 day (95% CI [-2.84, 1.06]; P=.37). […] For the remdesivir trial of Beigel et al., the difference of RMTRs between the remdesivir and placebo groups at day 30 was -2.7 days (95% CI [-4.0, -1.2]; P<.001), confirming the superiority of remdesivir.
32589775 Remdesivir (RDV), a single diastereomeric monophosphoroamidate prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV2.
32591667 Additionally, this study suggested oseltamivir, iopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, and fedratinib as possible drugs to help manage COVID-19.
32593339 The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients).
32594120 We report a case of a male with COVID-19 who developed acute hepatotoxicity related to remdesivir with probable interaction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. […] Until further details upon this interaction become available, we recommend physicians to be cautious with the prescription of P-gp inhibitors in patients receiving remdesivir therapy.
32595613 Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a novel monophosphoramidate adenosine analog prodrug that exhibits potent antiviral activity against diverse RNA virus families, including positive-sense Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae and negative-sense Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Pneumoviridae. […] Currently, remdesivir is under phase 3 clinical development for disease COVID-19 treatment. […] Here, we found that remdesivir impeded both EV71 viral RNA (vRNA) and complementary (cRNA) synthesis, indicating that EV71 replication is inhibited by the triphosphate (TP) form of remdesivir. […] Moreover, remdesivir showed potent antiviral activity against diverse enteroviruses. […] These data extend the remdesivir antiviral activity to enteroviruses and indicate that remdesivir is a promising antiviral treatment for EV71 and other enterovirus infections.
32597995 Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization for treatment of COVID-19: hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32603692 Initial clinical studies revealed the promising potential of remdesivir that demonstrated a powerful and specific in vitro antiviral activity for COVID-19. […] Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine are being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
32604775 Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials.
32604797 Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2.
32607304 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, dobutamine, remdesivir, and ventilatory support.
32607555 Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 and is under evaluation for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. […] To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in plasma, bronchoalveolar aspirate (BAS) and CSF in two critically ill COVID-19 patients. […] Remdesivir was administered at 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 12 days of 100 mg in two critically ill patients. […] Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured in these samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. […] We observed higher concentrations of remdesivir at C0 (6- to 7-fold higher than EC50 from in vitro studies) and a notable decay at C1. […] We report the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of remdesivir and GS-441524 in recovered COVID-19 patients. […] Further study of the pharmacokinetic profile of remdesivir, GS-441524 and the intracellular triphosphate form are required.
32612432 Hydroxychloroquine and antiproteases (lopinavir/ritonavir) were reported to be safe; however, therapeutic efficacy and safety of remdesivir still lack evidence.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32617855 Considering Remdesivir as the control, 42 compounds were shortlisted to have docking score better than Remdesivir. […] The top 5 hits were validated by using molecular dynamics simulation approach and free energy calculations possess strong inhibitory properties than the Remdesivir.
32618794 On hospital day 3, owing to increased dyspnea and oxygen requirement, the patient was treated with tocilizumab followed by 5 days of remdesivir. […] Tocilizumab and remdesivir may be effective for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy, but additional data are needed to guide risk-benefit considerations.
32619764 Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral with efficient in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] Evidence of clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir is controversial. […] The aim of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes and virological monitoring of the first five COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Paris, France, for severe pneumonia related to SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir. […] Remdesivir was interrupted before the initialy planned duration in four patients, two because of alanine aminotransferase elevations (3 to 5 normal range) and two because of renal failure requiring renal replacement. […] This case series of five COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit treatment for respiratory distress and treated with remdesivir, highlights the complexity of remdesivir use in such critically ill patients.
32621523 Two of 5 (20%) had moderate disease and received remdesivir as part of a clinical trial and reduced immunosuppression therapy.
32621718 Shape-based Machine learning reported remdesivir, valrubicin, aprepitant, and fulvestrant as the best therapeutic agents with the highest affinity for the target protein.
32622450 Despite the issuance of emergency use authorization for remdesivir, there are still no proven effective antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies, and their use in COVID-19 management should be guided by clinical trial protocols or treatment registries.
32624257 Initial data from a placebo-controlled study suggest faster time to recovery in patients on remdesivir; it is now being evaluated in additional controlled studies.
32628744 Remdesivir can prevent deaths in countries such as South Africa by decreasing the number of days people spend in ICU, therefore freeing up ICU bed capacity.
32629804 Therapeutics with particularly high potential efficacy for repurposing include camostat mesylate, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, convalescent plasma, and humanized monoclonal antibodies. […] In early research, the targeted antivirals remdesivir and favipiravir appear to benefit patients by decreasing viral replication; clinical trials suggest that remdesivir speeds recovery from COVID-19.
32631826 These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine.
32634024 Using 2 recent trials evaluating treatments (remdesivir and convalescent plasma) for COVID-19 as examples, a valid, well-established yet underused procedure is presented for estimating the cumulative recovery or improvement rate curve across the study period.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32634603 The antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, should be initiated before the peak of viral replication for an optimal outcome.
32636851 We present the current evidence for the use of vitamin C and quercetin both for prophylaxis in high-risk populations and for the treatment of COVID-19 patients as an adjunct to promising pharmacological agents such as Remdesivir or convalescent plasma.
32638628 At present, potential therapeutic targets and drugs for SARS-CoV-2 are continuously reported, and many repositioning drugs are undergoing extensive clinical research, including remdesivir and chloroquine.
32639466 Patients received therapies including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent serum and were managed according to an institutional algorithm based on evidence available at the time of presentation.
32643436 Initial findings from antivirals such as remdesivir, favipiravir, danoprevir or lopinavir with ritonavir are presented. […] Where compassionate use of remdesivir has shown some benefits, therapies such as hydroxychloroquine have proven harmful due to their toxicities.
32643551 The patient received remdesivir, steroids, and anakinra.
32643603 Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir).
32645175 One neonate received antiviral therapy with remdesivir and is, to our knowledge, the youngest patient to receive this drug for COVID-19.
32648899 Emerging data indicate that dexamethasone therapy reduces 28-day mortality in patients requiring supplemental oxygen compared with usual care (21.6% vs 24.6%; age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.92]) and that remdesivir improves time to recovery (hospital discharge or no supplemental oxygen requirement) from 15 to 11 days.
32649262 In particular, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, as well as antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and lopinavir can all present potential ototoxic side effects.
32651941 Remdesivir is a nucleoside antiviral recently studied in several randomized trials for treatment of COVID-19. […] The available observational and prospective data are conflicting, requiring clinicians to critically evaluate and reconcile results to determine patient populations that may optimally benefit from remdesivir therapy, especially while drug supply is scarce. […] In this review, we analyze pertinent clinical remdesivir data for patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, through May 31, 2020.
32655019 But, there is no data on using remdesivir in patients with severe CKD. […] Acute kidney injury has been reported with remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19.
32655654 It is hoped that existing antivirals including remdesivir and lopinavir-ritonavir might have roles in the treatment of COVID-19, but results from trials thus far have not been promising.
32656006 The use of lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir was associated with significant clinical improvement in severe pneumonia.
  1. Researchers’ claim that nutrition and immunity enhancers and treatment plans such as arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells and drugs including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and favipiravir are effective against COVID-19.
32657527 Nine of the 27 were hospitalized for one to thirteen days; of those, three lived in a nursing home, six received remdesivir through a clinical trial or emergency use authorization and tolerated it well; eight recovered and one died.
32660307 While great global efforts are underway to develop vaccines and to discover or repurpose therapeutic agents for this disease, as of this writing only the nucleoside drug remdesivir has been approved under Emergency Use Authorization to treat COVID-19.
32660611 Investigational antiviral therapies (such as remdesivir) will be allowed even if received as part of a clinical study.
32662203 The remdesivir could be considered the closest bifunctional drug to the provisional clinical administration for SARS-CoV-2.
32665809 While remdesivir has garnered much hope for its moderate anti-Covid-19 effects, its parent nucleoside, GS-441524, has been overlooked. […] Pharmacokinetic analysis of remdesivir evidences premature serum hydrolysis to GS-441524; GS-441524 is the predominant metabolite reaching the lungs. […] With its synthetic simplicity and in vivo efficacy in the veterinary setting, we contend that GS-441524 is superior to remdesivir for Covid-19 treatment.
32668216 We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 μM).
32668803 The early administration of a combination of antivirals such as remdesivir and lysosomotropic drugs, such as the antibiotics teicoplanin or dalbavancin, seems to be able to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and transition to COVID-19.
32670990 Clinical and laboratory findings in COVID-19 are unspecific.Chest CT has a diagnostic sensitivity comparable to nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR assay but lacks specificity.RT-PCR assays on biological specimens, particularly nasopharyngeal swabs, are considered the diagnostic gold standard.Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can help confirm the diagnosis and should be performed in patients in whom diagnostic-driven treatment for COVID-19, such as tocilizumab or remdesivir, is being considered.
32671601 An approved therapy for patients with COVID-19 has yet to emerge; however, there are some medications used in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection globally including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, dexamethasone, protease inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory agents.
32679055 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, chloroquine, umifenovir, berberine and cyclosporine A in Vero E6 cells model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with estimated 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.99, 5.2, 1.38, 3.5, 10.6 and 3 μM, respectively. […] We report a strong antagonism between remdesivir and berberine, in contrast with remdesivir/diltiazem, for which we describe high levels of synergy, with mean Loewe synergy scores of 12 and peak values above 50.
32681989 For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma.
32682787 Amongst these RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (favipiravir and remdesivir) and steroids especially dexamethasone showed promising effects.
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32683060 Recent publication of several observational studies has generated much discussion surrounding efficacy of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, stressing the need for high-quality prospective, randomized control trials in patients with COVID-19.
32684351 In this article, we reviewed the current options for COVID-19 therapy including small molecules such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir etc, peptide inhibitors of ACE2, Traditional Chinese Medicines and Biologics such as SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies, mesenchymal stem cells and vaccines etc.
32685234 Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others.
32686993 Among the predicted drugs compounds, clemizole, monorden, spironolactone and tanespimycin showed high binding energies; among the studied repurposing compounds, remdesivir, simeprevir and valinomycin showed high binding energies; among the predicted acidic compounds, acetylursolic acid and hardwickiic acid gave high binding energies; while among the studied anthraquinones and glycosides compounds, ellagitannin and friedelanone showed high binding energies against 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (nsp13), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), 2’-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) of SARS-CoV-2 and DNA-PK and CK2alpha in human.
32687756 Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19-preliminary report.
32687917 Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32690096 We discovered through the autodock simulations that Met124 plays a key role in the efficiency of drugs targeting ACE2, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, ciclesonide and niclosamide, and may be a potential target in COVID-19.
32691697 Generic antiviral drug remdesivir has been found to reduce time to clinical recovery but with insignificant clinical benefits and the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine has been red flagged by USFDA for use as a prophylactic measure due to its cardiotoxicity.
32691699 We aim to discuss current clinical evidence regarding chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, and the cardiovascular burden of COVID-19. […] We found conflicting evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and remdesivir in COVID-19 despite promising early reports of in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] There is no convincing clinical evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, and remdesivir use in COVID-19.
32692580 To date, only dexamethasone and remdesivir have been shown to be effective, but several other promising candidates are in trials.
32693415 Symptomatic mothers on hydroxychloroquine can safely breastfeed and no adverse effects were reported in a baby treated with remdesivir in another drug trial.
32694915 Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19.
32696862 Thus, this study aimed at conducting a review of the use of Remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. […] On May 1, Remdesivir received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. […] Remdesivir is currently the most promising molecule in the treatment of COVID-19, taking into account its broad antiviral spectrum (considering the genetic sequences of the virus, it is expected to maintain activity against SARS-CoV-2). […] Further studies are relevant as available data on the efficacy and safety of Remdesivir against SARS-nCoV-2 are limited.
32698440 We previously predicted antivirals (atazanavir, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir) and non-antiviral drugs (tiotropium and rapamycin) that may inhibit the replication complex of SARS-CoV-2 using our molecular transformer-drug target interaction (MT-DTI) deep-learning-based drug-target affinity prediction model.
32699031 Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. […] Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. […] SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit.
32702095 The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown clinically effective for treatment of COVID-19. […] We here demonstrate suppressive but not curative effect of remdesivir in an immunocompromised patient. […] During two 10-day courses of remdesivir starting 24 and 45 days after fever onset, pneumonia and spiking fevers remitted, but relapsed after discontinuation.
32702590 In this study, referencing the data published on the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID: 7BV2) on April 22, we conducted a detailed analysis of the interaction between the complex structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 and Remdesivir, an antiviral drug, from the quantum chemical perspective based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. […] In addition to the hydrogen bonding and intra-strand stacking between complementary strands as seen in normal base pairs, Remdesivir bound to the terminus of an primer-RNA strand was further stabilized by diagonal π-π stacking with the -1A’ base of the complementary strand and an additional hydrogen bond with an intra-strand base, due to the effect of chemically modified functional group. […] We quantitatively revealed the exhaustive interaction within the complex among Remdesivir, template-primer-RNA, RdRp and co-factors, and published the results in the FMODB database.
32705976 To date, only two treatments, remdesivir and dexamethasone, have demonstrated clinical efficacy through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in seriously ill patients.
32706859 We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe COVID-19 using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard-of-care. […] GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). […] GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). […] Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard-of-care. […] After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. […] At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 2.03: 95% confidence interval 1.34-3.08, p<0.001). […] At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.68, p=0.001). […] In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19.
32707160 Thus, the aim of this study was to review and evaluate the literature data on the toxicity of the selected individual drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and umifenovir) and the available clinical data concerning the possible adverse effects of the selected drug combinations (lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir + interferon β, chloroquine + remdesivir, and chloroquine + azithromycin).
32711596 We started a study on the molecular docking of six potential pharmacologically active inhibitors compounds that can be used clinically against the COVID-19 virus, in this case, remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, galidesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine interacting with the main COVID-19 protease in complex with a COVID-19 N3 protease inhibitor. […] The highest values of affinity energy found in order from highest to lowest were chloroquine (CHL), hydroxychloroquine (HYC), favipiravir (FAV), galidesivir (GAL), remdesivir (REM) and ribavirin (RIB).
32717568 Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] The results of clinical trials point to the potential clinical efficacy of antivirals, especially remdesivir (GS-5734), lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir.
32721580 Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug with antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of human coronavirus in cell cultures and mouse models including severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2. […] Recently, the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended remdesivir for the treatment of patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.1,2 In the remdesivir clinical development program, some cases have raised concerns regarding potential hepatobiliary disorders associated with remdesivir, including in healthy volunteers and patients with COVID-19.3 In cohort studies of patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, elevated hepatic enzymes were the most frequent adverse drug reaction reported.4,5 In the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing the effect of intravenous remdesivir in adults admitted to hospital with severe COVID-19 (n = 237), a higher proportion of remdesivir recipients than placebo recipients had dosing prematurely stopped by the investigators because of adverse events including aminotransferase or bilirubin increases (3 versus 0).6 Although there is no signal from the available data of severe hepatotoxicity or drug-induced liver injury in clinical trials, the number of patients exposed to remdesivir was too limited. […] Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the hepatic safety profile associated with remdesivir in COVID-19 patients.
32722574 The clinical treatment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 is currently based on the experimental administration of HIV antiviral drugs, such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and remdesivir (a nucleotide analogue used for Ebola infection).
32723092 This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant.
32723142 Repositioned drugs such as remdesivir have revealed a promising clinical efficacy against COVID-19.
32723801 For example, the experimental drug remdesivir, originally developed for Ebola virus infections, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an emergency use treatment of COVID-19.
32725382 We found promising in vitro evidence for remdesivir, (hydroxy)chloroquine and favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2; potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir, the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus ribavirin; and strong evidence for LPV/r plus ribavirin against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) for post-exposure prophylaxis in healthcare workers.
32725890 Medications used in COVID-19 treatment (lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and tocilizumab) were associated with peak hospitalization liver transaminase elevations >5x ULN.
32726140 The search for effective pharmacological management of COVID-19 continues, but several promising candidates have been identified, including the viral nucleoside analog remdesivir.
32726230 To address the need for an effective treatment of SARS-CoV-2 during the worldwide pandemic, this systematic review of intravenous (IV) remdesivir was performed. […] Remdesivir, an anti-viral prodrug originally developed to treat Ebola virus disease, has shown broad spectrum activity against the Coronavirus family. […] A recent case report reported improvement of clinical symptoms with remdesivir in a patient with COVID-19. […] A total of seven ongoing and recruiting clinical trials of remdesivir (100-200 milligrams, intravenous [IV]) were included. […] Therefore, despite supportive data from in vitro and in vivo studies, the clinical effectiveness of IV remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 and potential side effects remain incompletely defined in the human population.
32728817 The article concludes with a summary of the insights gained into pharmacological therapies: thrombosis prevention on the one hand, and specific antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies (remdesivir, tocilizumab, anakinra, dexamethasone) on the other.
32729392 Molecular docking on 40 derivatives of standard drugs (Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Theophylline) led to the identification of R10, R2 and L9 as potential inhibitors of 3CLpro, PLpro and Spike protein, respectively. […] Moreover, physicochemical and ADMET properties of R10, R2 and L9 along with Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Theophylline were determined.
32729620 Many drugs are being tested for repurposing, but so far only remdesivir has shown some positive benefits based on preliminary reports, but these results also need further confirmation via ongoing trials.
32730095 However, healthcare professionals are using ritonavir, flavipiravir, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
32732190 Three drugs might reduce symptom duration compared with standard care: hydroxychloroquine (mean difference -4.5 days, low certainty), remdesivir (-2.6 days, moderate certainty), and lopinavir-ritonavir (-1.2 days, low certainty). […] Hydroxychloroquine might increase the risk of adverse events compared with the other interventions, and remdesivir probably does not substantially increase the risk of adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation.
32732352 What is the role of remdesivir in the treatment of severe covid-19? […] Remdesivir has received worldwide attention as a potentially effective treatment for severe covid-19. […] After rapid market approval in the US, remdesivir is already being used in clinical practice. […] The guideline panel makes a weak recommendation for the use of remdesivir in severe covid-19 while recommending continuation of active enrolment of patients into ongoing randomised controlled trials examining remdesivir. […] The linked systematic review (published 31 Jul 2020) identified two randomised trials with 1300 participants, showing low certainty evidence that remdesivir may be effective in reducing time to clinical improvement and may decrease mortality in patients with severe covid-19. […] Remdesivir probably has no important effect on need for invasive mechanical ventilation. […] Remdesivir may have little or no effect on hospital length of stay. […] Most patients with severe covid-19 would likely choose treatment with remdesivir given the potential reduction in time to clinical improvement. […] However, given the low certainty evidence for critical outcomes and the fact that different perspectives, values, and preferences may alter decisions regarding remdesivir, the panel issued a weak recommendation with strong support for continued recruitment in randomised trials.
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32740858 To date, only remdesivir and dexamethasone have demonstrated a positive response in a prospective, randomized trial for the treatment of patients with COVID-19.
32741697 US FDA has authorized the emergency use of Remdesivir looking at the increasing number of cases of COVID-19, however there is still no drug approved to treat COVID-19.
32743771 The complete title should be “Remdesivir for Treatment of COVID-19: Combination of Pulmonary and IV Administration May Offer Additional Benefit”.
32745502 The predicted top 3 antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are remdesivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir.
32746653 Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g. chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir (RDV), and favipiravir (FPV).
32750019 The efficacy and tolerability of hidroxychloroquin remains to be also questionable; enroll patients into clinical trial with remdesivir or favipiravir if available.
32750190 Those three medicines are, namely, favilavir, chloroquine phosphate and remdesivir.
32752944 Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32753375 A short-cut review of the available medical literature was carried out to establish whether remdesivir was an effective treatment for patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32754599 However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. […] Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19.
32756480 The most promising therapy to date is remdesivir, which is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for emergency use in adults and children hospitalized with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.
32757352 Phosphoramidates composed of an amino acid and a nucleotide analogue are critical metabolites of prodrugs, such as remdesivir.
32757500 A novel antiviral agent, remdesivir (RDV), is a promising candidate treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the absence of any proven therapy.
32758342 Gilead Science’s remdesivir has been introduced to China through special approval procedures, and was directly conducting the Phase III clinical trial. […] However, we must pay attention to the patent competition, generic drug competition and other unfair competition that remdesivir may face in China. […] China also needs to strengthen the innovation ability and international cooperation ability of local pharmaceutical companies by taking advantages of the opportunity to introduce remdesivir.
32758569 The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin. […] The generated data confirms the potential of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir as a therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV-2. […] Molecular interactions of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 proteins enhanced their potential as a candidate drug for treatment of COVID-19.
32763313 Remdesivir was shown to inhibit RNA-dependent RNA-polymerases (RdRp) from distinct viral families such as from Filoviridae (Ebola) and Coronaviridae (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS). […] In this study, we tested the ability of remdesivir to inhibit RdRps from the Flaviviridae family. […] Instead of remdesivir, we used the active species that is produced in cells from remdesivir, the appropriate triphosphate, which could be directly tested in vitro using recombinant flaviviral polymerases. […] Our results show that remdesivir can efficiently inhibit RdRps from viruses causing severe illnesses such as Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Japanese and Tick-borne encephalitis, Zika and Dengue. […] Taken together, this study demonstrates that remdesivir or its derivatives have the potential to become a broad-spectrum antiviral agent effective against many RNA viruses.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32771797 In this review, we summarized the real-time information of 2019-nCoV treatment methods and mainly focused on the chemical drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and other potential innovative active molecules.
32773212 Short term therapy of remdesivir claimed to be beneficial. […] Food and Drug administration issued only emergency use authorization to remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease.
32773440 The antiviral agent remdesivir has become a viable option and is now available in the United States for hospitalized patients through an emergency use authorization. […] This article describes remdesivir’s historical background, pharmacology, key trials, adverse events, and issues regarding accessibility.
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32784922 Despite the lack of definitive evidence, remdesivir remains the only antiviral with encouraging effects in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
32786401 The only current FDA-approved treatment, which directly targets the virus, is the ProTide prodrug remdesivir. […] In its activated form, remdesivir prevents viral replication by inhibiting the essential RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. […] Like other ProTide prodrugs, remdesivir contains a chiral phosphorus center. […] The initial selection of the (SP)-diastereomer for remdesivir was reportedly due to the difficulty in producing the pure (RP)-diastereomer of the required precursor. […] However, the two currently known enzymes responsible for the initial activation step of remdesivir are each stereoselective and show differential tissue distribution. […] To help overcome the challenge of obtaining the pure (RP)-diastereomer of remdesivir, we have developed a novel chemoenzymatic strategy that utilizes a stereoselective variant of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta to enable the facile isolation of the pure (RP)-diastereomer of the chiral precursor for the chemical synthesis of the (RP)-diastereomer of remdesivir.
32787752 Through this review, several drugs were highlighted that can be evolved in vivo and clinical trials as possible used against these pathogens showed that remdesivir represent potential treatments against CoV.
32788913 Remdesivir may be the most promising therapy up till now. […] Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for the investigational Remdesivir as a potential antiviral for COVID-19 treatment. […] On May 7, 2020, Gilead Sciences, announced that the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has granted regulatory approval of Veklury® (Remdesivir) as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19 acute respiratory syndrome, under an exceptional approval pathway.
32792942 Remdesivir (RDV, GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug in the class of nucleotide analogs, has been particularly tailored for treatment of coronavirus infections.
32794463 Currently, there are several experimental therapies with demonstrated in vitro activity against COVID-19 used in clinical practice, including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interleukin-6 pathway inhibitors, and convalescent plasma; however, to date no agent has proven efficacy against COVID-19.
32803479 Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19.
32809050 In cases of early signs (stage II) or a manifest cytokine storm (stage III) anakinra (40.8% for stage II and 46.5% for stage III), tocilizumab (26.8% and 40.8%, respectively), steroids (25.4% and 33.8%, respectively) and remdesivir (29.6% and 38.0%, respectively) were most frequently used.
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options. […] Based on this early evidence, various national guidelines recommend remdesivir, convalescent sera, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine in different subsets of patients.
32810285 Lopinavir-ritonavir was significantly associated with shorter mean time to clinical recovery (SMD -0.32; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.06), remdesivir was significantly associated with better overall clinical recovery (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29), and tocilizumab was associated with less all-cause mortality (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.93). […] Lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir and tocilizumab may have some benefits, while hydroxychloroquine administration may cause harm in nCOV-2019 patients.
32813283 Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effectiveness of remdesivir for the treatment of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have generated inconsistent evidence. […] Both blinded and open-label RCTs in PubMed database from inception to 7 June 2020 that contained “remdesivir”, “Covid-19”, and “trial” in the abstracts conducted on hospitalized COVID-19 persons were identified and screened. […] The studies must have at least one remdesivir arm and evaluated one of the pre-specified outcomes. […] Both 10-day and 5-day remdesivir regimens were associated with higher odds of clinical improvement (odds ratio [OR] of 10-day regimen: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.67); OR of 5-day regimen: 1.81, 95% CI, 1.32-2.45, and higher probabilities of clinical recovery (relative risk [RR] of 10-day regimen: 1.24, 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; RR of 5-day regimen: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.16-1.87 compared with placebo. […] Remdesivir may have clinical benefits among hospitalized COVID-19 persons.
32820005 While GRL-0820 and the nucleotide analog remdesivir blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral breakthrough occurred. […] While GRL-0820 and remdesivir blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral breakthrough occurred as examined with immunocytochemistry.
32821086 In different clinical trials, efficacy of remdesivir (GS-5734) against Ebola virus has been demonstrated. […] Moreover, remdesivir may be an effective therapy in vitro and in animal models infected by SARS and MERS coronaviruses. […] Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine C-nucleoside. […] Knowledge about the potential efficacy of remdesivir against coronaviruses has been restricted to in vitro studies and animal models. […] Several clinical trials are ongoing for the management of COVID-19 using remdesivir. […] In this study, characteristics of remdesivir and its usage for treatment of COVID-19 are reviewed based on an electronic search using PubMed and Google Scholar.
32821882 The recent emergency use authorization of the antiviral remdesivir for COVID-19 exemplifies a new approach for delivery of phosphate prodrugs by parenteral dosing, which minimizes payload release during transit and maximizes tissue payload distribution. […] Through examining prior structure-activity studies on prodrug forms and the choices that led to development of remdesivir and other clinical drugs and drug candidates, a better understanding of their ability to distribute to the planned site of action, such as the liver, plasma, PBMCs, or peripheral tissues, can be gained.
32821939 Remdesivir demonstrated clinical benefit in a placebo-controlled trial in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its effect in patients with moderate disease is unknown. […] To determine the efficacy of 5 or 10 days of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care on clinical status on day 11 after initiation of treatment. […] Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir (n = 197), a 5-day course of remdesivir (n = 199), or standard care (n = 200). […] Remdesivir was dosed intravenously at 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg/d. […] Differences between remdesivir treatment groups and standard care were calculated using proportional odds models and expressed as odds ratios. […] An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates difference in clinical status distribution toward category 7 for the remdesivir group vs the standard care group. […] Among 596 patients who were randomized, 584 began the study and received remdesivir or continued standard care (median age, 57 [interquartile range, 46-66] years; 227 [39%] women; 56% had cardiovascular disease, 42% hypertension, and 40% diabetes), and 533 (91%) completed the trial. […] Median length of treatment was 5 days for patients in the 5-day remdesivir group and 6 days for patients in the 10-day remdesivir group. […] On day 11, patients in the 5-day remdesivir group had statistically significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution than those receiving standard care (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P = .02). […] The clinical status distribution on day 11 between the 10-day remdesivir and standard care groups was not significantly different (P = .18 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). […] By day 28, 9 patients had died: 2 (1%) in the 5-day remdesivir group, 3 (2%) in the 10-day remdesivir group, and 4 (2%) in the standard care group. […] Nausea (10% vs 3%), hypokalemia (6% vs 2%), and headache (5% vs 3%) were more frequent among remdesivir-treated patients compared with standard care. […] Among patients with moderate COVID-19, those randomized to a 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care at 11 days after initiation of treatment. […] Patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared with standard care, but the difference was of uncertain clinical importance.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32827627 Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19, but their results were conflicting. […] Thus, we conducted a network meta-analysis comparing the rate of clinical improvement among patients with COVID-19 who received 5-day course of remdesivir versus 10-day course of remdesivir versus standard care. […] Our network meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the rate of clinical improvement was significantly higher in the 5-day remdesivir group and 10-day remdesivir group compared to standard care group (OR [95% confidence interval [CI]] =1.89 [1.40-2.56], P <0.001, OR [95% CI] =1.38 [1.15-1.66], P <0.001, respectively). […] In addition, the rate of clinical improvement was significantly higher in the 5-day remdesivir group compared to the 10-day remdesivir group (OR [95% confidence interval [CI]] =1.37 [1.01-1.85], P =0.041). […] Our analysis demonstrated that the use of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19 was associated with the significantly higher clinical improvement rate compared with standard care alone.
32828120 Data further show that none of the medicines like remdesivir, hydroxy chloroquin, dexamethasone, or azithromycin improves survival and response to Covid in cancer patients.
32829390 Remdesivir is a prodrug with in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] During this period, remdesivir was provided on a compassionate use basis. […] Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients treated with remdesivir were collected retrospectively and compared with those of patients hospitalized in the same time period. […] A total of 51 patients were considered, of which 25 were treated with remdesivir. […] At baseline, there was no significant difference in demographic characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory values between patients treated and not treated with remdesivir. […] Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly lower mortality among patients who had been treated with remdesivir (56% versus 92%, P < 0.001). […] Cox regression analysis showed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index was the only factor that had a significant association with higher mortality (OR 1.184; 95% CI 1.027-1.365; P = 0.020), while the use of remdesivir was associated with better survival (OR 3.506; 95% CI 1.768-6.954; P < 0.001). […] The use of remdesivir was associated with a significant beneficial effect on survival.
32834942 A number of antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients.
32835306 Most important, we provide evidence in human-derived tissues on the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir monotherapy and explore the potential of the remdesivir-diltiazem combination as an option worthy of further investigation to respond to the still-unmet COVID-19 medical need.
32836709 Among known inhibitors, remdesivir was found to have the highest affinity for the active site of the RdRp.
32837097 Remdesivir has been shown to have modest benefits in moderate to severe disease, if administered early.
32837727 Here we review evidence of the 8 most recent reports including 3 randomized controlled trials on the clinical efficacy of remdesivir in treating COVID-19 patient. […] We conclude that it is far too premature to identify remdesivir as a curative or life-saving intervention.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32837984 Although FDA has fast approved remdesivir for treating COVID-19, it only speeds up recovery from COVID-19 with mildly reduced mortality.
32838027 Treatment options addressing COVID-19 included drug repurposing, investigational therapies such as remdesivir, and vaccine development.
32838064 The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. […] Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. […] Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. […] Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. […] Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.
32838169 Review of literature showed no significant clinical improvement with lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, or remdesivir.
32838192 Total confirmed cases were more than 80,000 on March 1, 2020, but less than 84,000, and deaths were more than 3000 on March 4, 2020, but less than 4640, totally, thanks for the right public measures for COVID-19 in China, such as the Wuhan City lockdown and travel restrictions for isolation; positive screening and testing; and establishing a Huoshenshan hospital, a Leishenshan hospital, and a number of Fangcang shelter hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine and a combination of Chinese and western medicine, and the launch of the clinical trials of antiviral drugs (Lianhua Qingwen, remdesivir, and chloroquine).
32838264 Regarding remdesivir, there are no data in pregnant women.
32838282 Remdesivir combination with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine are promising drug repositioning for the treatment of COVID-19, and mRNA-1273 targeting spike protein is the promising vaccine.
32838367 This review summarizes the existing evidence for medications currently under investigation for treatment of COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychlorquine, convalescent plasma, lopinavir/ritonavir, IL-6 inhibitors, corticosteroids, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
32838716 This method of repurposing and the use of existing molecules like Remdesivir (GS-5734), Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. has proven to be a landmark in the field of drug rediscovery.
32841640 A number of multi clinical studies have repurposed combined cocktail (remdesivir + chloroquine and favipiravir + chloroquine) to be effective against COVID-19. […] Deep structural analysis of target molecules exposed key binding residues and structural twists involved in binding with important pharmacophore features of existing drugs [(7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine (chloroquine),N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide N-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]methyl]-1,2-oxazole-5-carboxamide) (SSAA09E2), 2-ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl}-5-cyano-3 (remdesivir) and 6-Fluor-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-pyrazincarboxamid (favipiravir)]. […] It is evident from this structural informatics study that combo of chloroquine + SSAA09E2 with remdesivir or favipiravir could significantly restrain the virus at the entry and replication stage.
32843534 At this time, only one FDA approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug, remdesivir, is available and unfortunately, its efficacy appears to be limited.
32845145 Among these, the clinical efficacies of some accessible drugs such as remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV) for COVID-19 are emphatically summarized.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32848776 Initial candidate interventions include prophylaxis to augment epithelial defense (e.g., AT1 receptor blockade, type III and type I interferons, melatonin, calcitriol, camostat, and lopinavir) and to reduce viral load (e.g., remdesivir, ivermectin, emetine, Abelson kinase inhibitors, dopamine D2 antagonists, and selective estrogen receptor modulators).
32848795 Two compounds, remdesivir, and dexamethasone have been so far shown to reduce COVID-19-associated death.
32848802 Results from early clinical trials have revealed two treatments (remdesivir, dexamethasone) that mitigate disease progression but clearly, there is much room for improvement.
32849448 These drugs include the broad spectrum antivirals such as umifenovir, protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir as well as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, remdesivir, and favipiravir.
32849934 We conclude from the evidence generated so far that interferon combined with antivirals, remdesivir, umifenovir and favipiravir were mostly associated with better clinical outcomes.
32856034 Many patients received investigational medications for treatment of COVID-19, including 48 patients on remdesivir and 4,232 on hydroxychloroquine.
32861338 On May 1, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to allow use of the antiviral drug remdesivir to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). […] Remdesivir is an investigational drug studied in clinical trials for COVID-19 and is available to children and pregnant women through compassionate-use access but is not yet FDA approved. […] In early May, the US Department of Health and Human Services began to distribute remdesivir, donated by Gilead Sciences, Inc., to hospitals and state health departments for emergency use; multiple shipments have since been distributed. […] This process has raised questions of how remdesivir should be allocated. […] The Minnesota Department of Health has collaborated with the Minnesota COVID Ethics Collaborative and multiple clinical experts to issue an Ethical Framework for May 2020 Allocation of Remdesivir in the COVID-19 Pandemic. […] The Minnesota remdesivir allocation framework specifies an ethical approach to distributing the drug to facilities across the state and then among COVID-19 patients within each facility. […] Sharing this framework and the development process can encourage transparency and may be useful to other states formulating and refining their approach to remdesivir EUA allocation.
32861965 The widespread clinical use and existing knowledge on antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of previous epidemic diseases, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), may be helpful in the combat with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Available data identifies remdesivir as an adenosine analogue that can target the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis. […] Numerous studies demonstrated the ability of remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication but future research would be needed to understand the exact mode of action of lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and to use this knowledge in the treatment of the current COVID-19.
32863273 The intravenous antiviral drug remdesivir has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and now studies have reported its clinical efficacy, demonstrating shorter time to recovery in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. […] Adverse event rates were low and remdesivir has now received conditional marketing authorisation from the European Medicines Agency. […] These studies make remdesivir the first antiviral drug able to alter the natural history of severe COVID-19, and a benchmark for the comparison of new therapies in the future. […] Ongoing studies are investigating its use in early mild/moderate COVID-19, alternative formulations, and the combination of remdesivir with immunomodulatory agents.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids.
32864571 In this letter, we discuss the potential interactions of remdesivir, the newly approved Covid-19 drug with pulmonary medications. […] While remdesivir has proven to be a safe medication generally, we here have enlisted the potential interactions of remdesivir that a clinician needs to be mindful of while prescribing the medication.
32865809 Two phase-III, double-blind, randomized clinical trials of remdesivir plus SOC (standard of care) versus placebo plus SOC have been conducted in Wuhan hospitals by Chinese investigators during the urgent COVID-19 epidemic [ NCT04257656 and NCT04252664]. […] Having monitored data sequentially from 237 patients, we comment on the strength and weakness of the study design and suggest the treatment effect of remdesivir on severe COVID-19 cases.
32868327 Remdesivir has reported efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro and in vivo Drug-drug interactions limit therapeutic options in transplant patients. […] Remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 are excreted principally in urine. […] In intensive care unit (ICU) settings, in which multiple-organ dysfunctions can occur rapidly, hemodialysis may be a viable option for maintaining remdesivir treatment, while improving tolerance, by removing both remdesivir’s metabolite (GS-441524) and sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SEBCD).
32869558 Coronaviruses have caused serious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, and only remdesivir has been recently indicated for the treatment of COVID-19.
32870481 The antiviral agent remdesivir (Veklury®; Gilead Sciences), nucleotide analogue prodrug, has broad-spectrum activity against viruses from several families. […] Having demonstrated potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses in preclinical studies, remdesivir emerged as a candidate drug for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, during the current global pandemic. […] Phase III evaluation of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 commenced in early 2020 and has thus far yielded promising results. […] In late May 2020, Taiwan conditionally approved the use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19. […] Preceding these conditional approvals, an emergency use authorization for remdesivir had been granted in the USA (on 1 May 2020) and a special approval for emergency use was granted in Japan (on 7 May 2020). […] This article summarizes the milestones in the development of remdesivir leading to its first conditional approval for the treatment of COVID-19.
32870563 The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the anti-COVID-19 drug remdesivir has been realized via the coupling of the P-racemic phosphoryl chloride with protected nucleoside GS441524.
32873175 For early stages of mild to moderate disease, care is entirely supportive.Antiviral drugs such as remdesivir may be of some benefit but are reserved for severe cases given limited availability and potential toxicity.
32876229 SOLIDARITY is a mega clinical trial that recruited thousands of subjects with moderate to severe disease, who were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups under evaluation, including hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir associated or not with interferon; or remdesivir compared to standard therapy.
32876623 To date, Remdesivir has been the only antiviral authorized by FDA as therapy for emergency use. […] He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available. […] Our case illustrates the role of Remdesivir for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
32878932 In a proof-of-concept screen, we found that E64D, apilimod, EIPA, and remdesivir can substantially impede SARS-Cov-2 replication, providing novel insight into viral entry and replication mechanisms.
32879113 Hot anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs include interferon α, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, abidol, as well as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and remdesivir.
32881315 Patients received hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (75%), augmented steroids (44%), tocilizumab (19%), and remdesivir (9%). 11 patients (34%) died at a median time of 14 days from admission.
32881656 The most common under trial drugs for COVID-19 are Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like Amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
32882638 The antiviral remdesivir has shown some effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in a recent animal study. […] We use data from a study of remdesivir in rhesus macaques to fit a viral kinetics model in an effort to determine the most appropriate mathematical descripton of the effect of remdesivir. […] We find statistically significant differences in the viral decay rate and use this to inform a possible mathematical formulation of the effect of remdesivir. […] Unfortunately, this model formulation suggests that the application of remdesivir will lengthen SARS-CoV-2 infections, putting into question its potential clinical benefit.
32883116 We propose combination of mAbs with remdesivir and/or favipiravir in severe COVID-19 cases, such as septic shock, acute respiratory deficiency syndrome, and/or multiple organ failure.
32887670 They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge).
32887884 Moreover, combined application of GC376 with Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue that inhibits viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), results in sterilizing additive effect.
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32891697 Among these pharmaceuticals, antiretrovirals such as lopinavir/ritonavir and remdesivir, antibiotics and antifungal agents can induce drug-induced liver injury (DILI), whose mechanisms are not always understood.
32896184 In clinical trial for the Ebola virus, the broad-spectrum anti-viral agent remdesivir was shown to have a good safety profile. […] Remdesivir is now being tested in severe COVID-19. […] The Gilead Sciences SIMPLE trial suggests that the short-term use of remdesivir probably does not increase mortality dramatically or have serious short-term toxicity when used to treat severe COVID-19. […] The Adaptive COVID-19 treatment trials (ACTT1) trial showed that remdesivir may shorten recovery and decrease mortality in severe COVID-19 without increasing adverse effects. […] There was an indication that remdesivir may be reducing mortality, but this was no statistical significance. […] The trial is continuing, and the final data are eagerly awaited to determine whether remdesivir is a game-changing remedy or a ripple in the ongoing search for a medicine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32902940 Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. […] Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy.
32903640 Besides, the treatment regime involves drugs like losartan, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. may modulate the severity of the comorbidities.
32904625 The efficiency of the ligands has been compared with the FDA approved and clinically trial drugs such as remdesivir, Chloroquin and Hydroxychloroquin and native ligand N3 of main protease 6LU7 to ascertain the inhibitory potential of the studied ligands (L1-L4) against the protein 6LU7.
32904710 Based on the preliminary data from clinical trials and considering the NIH and FDA recommendation, remdesivir and convalescent blood products are the most promising potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32905553 For instance, remdesivir, a potent SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug based on studies in vitro, if administered orally would be poorly effective because low drug levels would reach the lungs due to its high first pass destruction in the liver. […] This is the reason remdesivir can only be administered intravenously, a requirement that clearly limits its use as a prophylactic agent for COVID-19, although novel formulations for its easier administration are under development.
32908736 However, after administration of another antiviral drug, remdesivir, we were able to terminate invasive interventions, including ECMO, and subsequently obtained negative polymerase chain reaction results. […] Although further validation is needed, remdesivir might be effective in treating COVID-19.
32909843 We compare the first regulatory approvals for remdesivir, through emergency pathways available to three of the main regulators in the world, the U.S., Japan, and the EU. […] Based only on topline data available as of 29 April 2020, regulators granted approvals to remdesivir based on very limited but robust data and waiting for more safety and efficacy data.
32913653 Using the example of the drug remdesivir, we demonstrate how the divergence of private incentives from public health needs has led to such outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
32918548 For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. […] Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. […] For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.
32921965 However, healthcare professionals are using chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and some other options of treatments. […] This study aims to compare the biological, molecular, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of these three treatment modalities for SARS-COV-2 infections, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Convalescent Plasma, and Remdesivir. […] The search was based on keywords “COVID-19” SARS-COV-2, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir and treatment modalities. […] We selected 17 relevant published original articles and clinical trials: 05 for chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine with total sample size (n = 220), 05 for Remdesivir (n = 1,781), and 07 for Convalescent Plasma therapy (n = 398), with a combined total sample size (n = 2,399).
32922210 Recently, four large Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) have been performed in record time delivering reliable data: (1) the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCT included 60 hospitals participating all over the world and showed the efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the recovery time in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia; (2) three large RCTs already completed, for hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and Lopinavir and Ritonavir respectively.
32923230 Given the extraordinary risk, he was treated with remdesivir and convalescent plasma for COVID-19.
32923472 While vaccines are being developed, the antiviral agent Remdesivir (RDV, GS-5734) is being repurposed for use in human clinical trials but this is being done without acknowledging the significant efforts that went into development for treating cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly fatal immune-mediated vasculitis in cats which is caused by a feline coronavirus.
32924650 The narrative synthesis revealed three key themes (1) Use of antivirals only (such as lopinavir, umifenovir, and remdesivir), (2) Use of lopinavir-ritonavir alongside other treatments, and (3) Use of other antivirals in combination with other treatments.
32925547 Remdesivir and convalescent plasma were the least commonly utilized therapies.
32926918 Based on early experience, different treatment such as anti-viral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir), corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, dexamethasone) or convalescent plasma therapy are recommended in addition to supportive care and symptomatic therapy.
32934969 We report a case of COVID-19 in third-trimester pregnancy, who required support in an intensive care unit and received remdesivir.
32941437 Meta-analysis showed no evidence of a difference between remdesivir versus placebo on all-cause mortality (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.40-1.37; p = 0.34, I2 = 58%; 2 trials; very low certainty) or nonserious adverse events (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.80-1.11; p = 0.48, I2 = 29%; 2 trials; low certainty). […] Meta-analysis showed evidence of a beneficial effect of remdesivir versus placebo on serious adverse events (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.94; p = 0.009, I2 = 0%; 2 trials; very low certainty) mainly driven by respiratory failure in one trial. […] Our results show that dexamethasone and remdesivir might be beneficial for COVID-19 patients, but the certainty of the evidence was low to very low, so more trials are needed.
32942296 In this study, we use the ligand-protein docking program and molecular dynamic simulation to ab initio investigate the binding mechanism and inhibitory ability of seven clinically approved drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Beclabuvir, Indinavir and Favipiravir) and a recently designed α-ketoamide inhibitor (13b) at the molecular level.
32942923 In this report, we consolidate and review the available clinically and preclinically relevant results emanating from in vitro animal models and clinical studies of drugs approved for emergency use as a treatment for COVID-19, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir-ritonavir combinations.
32943188 Although great efforts have been made to develop effective therapeutic interventions, only the nucleotide analog remdesivir was approved for emergency use against COVID-19. […] Remdesivir targets the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), an essential enzyme for viral RNA replication and a promising drug target for COVID-19. […] Recently, several structures of RdRp in complex with substrate RNA and remdesivir were reported, providing insights into the mechanisms of RNA recognition by RdRp.
32944012 Whether radiotherapy, in conjunction with remdesivir and/or macrolides can reduce the dramatic death rates related to COVID-19 is an open challenge, under the absence of an alternative solution.
32945638 Using the example of remdesivir, one of the most promising COVID-19 treatments, this paper traces back public contributions to different stages of the innovation process. […] Applying the Risk-Reward Nexus framework to the R&D of remdesivir, we analyse the role of the public in risk-taking and reward and address inequities in the biomedical innovation system. […] Despite the significant public transnational contributions to the R&D of remdesivir, the rewards are extracted by few actors and the return to the public in the form of equitable access and affordable pricing is limited. […] Beyond the necessity to treat remdesivir as a global public good, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be viewed in the broader concept of public value to prevent the same equity issues currently seen in the COVID-19 pandemic.
32947136 Remdesivir, an RdRp inhibitor, exhibited potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32953365 Since newer interventions would take months to years to develop, by looking at the pool of existing therapeutic options, including remdesivir (RDV), plasma exchange or cytapheresis, hydroxychloroquine, baricitinib, and lopinavir (LPV), we have tried to detail the principles behind their use to treat COVID-19, current application, and adverse effects.
32958495 DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-β-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC.
32958501 Remdesivir treatment reduced the 14-day mortality rate of patients with severe COVID-19 (RR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.94). […] Remdesivir and CP might be the potential treatments for patients with severe COVID-19.
32958580 In human cells, LA supplementation synergizes with the COVID-19 drug remdesivir, suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication.
32962867 Though drugs like remdesivir, favipiravir, and dexamethasone found beneficial for COVID-19 management, they have limitations clinically, and vaccine development takes a long time.
32963442 Remdesivir has emerged as a promising molecule, based on results of clinical trials and observational studies and has receieved marketing approval for COVID-19 treatment under “emergency use authorization” in countries such as United States. […] Remdesivir is a newer antiviral drug that acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor targeting the viral genome replication process. […] Past, Present, and Future of Remdesivir: An Overview of the Antiviral in Recent Times.
32964827 Few of them are in the advanced stage of clinical trials including Remdesivir. […] Compound 12 was found to possess similar binding affinity as Remdesivir with comparable pharmacokinetics. […] However, the in-silico toxicity prediction indicates compound 12 may be a superior molecule which can be explored further due to its excellent safety-profile with LD50 (12,000mg/kg) as opposed to Remdesivir (LD50 =1000mg/kg).
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32965016 We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir.
32966582 Infection of iPS-CMs was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and was blocked by remdesivir. […] SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir.
32967116 The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO).
32967965 Remdesivir (RDV) is a direct-acting antiviral agent that is used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32968487 With a scientific background from filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, remdesivir entered into the COVID-19 battle to become one of the favorable therapeutic candidates with potential antiviral activity in the treatment of this disease. […] Globally, remdesivir was accessed and investigated through clinical research (clinical trials) and clinical practice (compassionate use, expanded access, early access scheme, and emergency use). […] Currently, remdesivir approval status differs between states. […] This paper aims to review and analyze regulatory approaches for accessing and investigating remdesivir, by communicating regulatory variability between countries in terms of terminology, modalities, and protocols.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32970259 A variety of drugs, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate for the management of COVID-19.
32970329 Moreover, mutation hotspots neighboring and at the catalytic site of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were found that might challenge the binding and effectivity of remdesivir.
32972027 Repositioning existing drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ivermectin and Baricitinib shows good potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32979316 Drug testing confirms the efficacy of remdesivir as well as TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in alveolar cells.
32982720 So far COVID-19 therapies have targeted various pathogenic mechanisms, namely the neutralization of ACE2 receptors or SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes, the disruption of the endocytic pathways using hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, or anti-Janus kinase inhibitors, the inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, immunosuppressive drugs or molecules acting on the immune response (corticoids, interferons, monoclonal antibodies against inflammatory cytokines, mesenchymal stem cells) and convalescent plasma administration together with numerous drugs with unproven effect against SARS-CoV-2 but with potential antiviral activities (antiretrovirals, antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, etc.).
32985113 Finally, one of the most promising therapeutic compounds against FIP, GS-441524, is the active form of Remdesivir, which is being used as one therapeutic option for COVID-19.
32986807 SARS-CoV-2 is a new pandemic virus for which Remdesivir is the only antiviral available. […] We report the occurrence of a mutation in the RdRP (D484Y) following failure of remdesivir in a 76-year-old woman with a post-rituximab B-cell immunodeficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia.
32987828 With the treatment of antiviral remdesivir, the selected BCoV variant with an altered genome structure developed resistance, but its pathogenicity was not increased in comparison to that of wild type (wt) BCoV.
32988821 A recent paper published by Le and colleagues in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy describes the use of remdesivir (GS-5734) in a patient with a double lung transplant and afflicted with COVID-19 (1).
32989996 Several new antivirals such as remdesivir are studied in ongoing clinical trials.
32991900 Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19.
32993173 Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone.
32997322 Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing-phase III-IV clinical trials.
32998618 The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir.
33001051 Several clinical trials are ongoing with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, and low molecular weight heparins.
33002954 Recent clinical trials suggested remdesivir, IFN-β-1b and favipiravir have potential clinical and/or virological benefits on patients with COVID-19.
33004837 Progeny virus titers of single-dose treatment of DIG, OUA and remdesivir were approximately 103-, 104- and 103-fold lower (> 99% inhibition), respectively, than that of non-treated control or chloroquine at 48 h post-infection (hpi).
33006138 Remdesivir is a direct-acting nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor with activity against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus used in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. […] Here we present two cases of suspected remdesivir-associated acute liver failure (ALF) in which the liver failure improved following continuous infusion acetylcysteine and withdrawal of remdesivir. […] Both patients had significant increases in transaminases between day 3 and day 10 of remdesivir therapy accompanied by coagulopathy and encephalopathy. […] Due to its novel nature and only recent widespread use, there is very little data on the risk of ALF from remdesivir. […] It is important to consider the risk of remdesivir-associated ALF when weighing the risk vs. benefits of use, and acetylcysteine may have a role in its management.
33008960 Therapies focus on blocking viral entry (remdesivir, umifenovir, among others) and blocking of immune system for cytokine storm control (IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors, glucocorticoids, convalescent plasma, among others).
33009760 Remdesivir appears to have a favorable clinical and safety profile, as reported in a case involving patients with severe COVID-19 through a compassionate use programme. […] The overall probability of clinical improvement observed in 36 of 53 COVID-19 patients received intravenous remdesivir as part of a compassionate use programme was 68% (95% CI 40% to 80%).
33011363 Taking curcumin as a reference compound, we identified a new commercially available cyclohexanone compound, ZINC07333416 with binding energy (-8.72 kcal/mol) better than that of popularly devised anti-Covid-19 drugs like viral protease inhibitor Lopinavir, nucleoside analogue Remdesivir and the repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine when targeted to the active-site of SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro) through docking studies.
33012543 Among those with mortality, an increased concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) was noted with a lack of response to interleukin-6 blockade, remdesivir, and/or convalescent plasma.
33014379 These fluctuations have been tentatively related to communications, publications or leaks about Remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine/azithromicin treatment.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33015546 The most encouraging treatment to date is suggested to be with the help of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and many such repurposed drugs. […] Remdesivir has a strong in vitro activity for SARS-CoV-2, yet it is not the drug of choice as affirmed by the US Food and Drug Administration and presently is being tried in progressing randomized preliminaries.
33015819 Remdesivir is a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases. […] We aimed at determining which drugs used in dentistry interact with Remdesivir in order to avoid adverse reactions that may worsen the condition of patients with COVID-19. […] A literature review was conducted to identify potential drug interactions between remdesivir (used in the treatment of COVID-19) and drugs prescribed in dentistry. […] The search was made in the databases PubMed and MEDLINE and official websites using key terms remdesivir, drug interactions and dentistry for articles published up to 31st July 2020. […] According to the articles reviewed, a total of 279 drugs interact with Remdesivir. […] It is clinically necessary for oral health professionals to be aware of possible drug interactions that may occur between remdesivir and drugs commonly prescribed in dentistry in order to prevent adverse reactions that may even endanger the life of a patient with COVID-19.
33015938 The nucleoside analog remdesivir, which is known for its potent in vitro activity against Ebolavirus and other RNA viruses was recently shown to reduce the time to recovery in patients with severe COVID-19. […] Here, we provide a mechanism and evidence based comparative review of remdesivir and other repurposed drugs with proven in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.
33017170 To evaluate the effectiveness and harms of remdesivir for COVID-19. […] English-language, randomized trials of remdesivir treatments for adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. […] In adults with severe COVID-19, remdesivir compared with placebo probably improves recovery by a large amount (absolute risk difference [ARD] range, 7% to 10%) and may result in a small reduction in mortality (ARD range, -4% to 1%) and a shorter time to recovery or clinical improvement. […] Remdesivir may have little to no effect on hospital length of stay. […] Remdesivir probably reduces serious adverse events by a moderate amount (ARD range, -6% to -8%). […] Compared with a 10-day remdesivir course, a 5-day course may reduce mortality, increase recovery or clinical improvement by small to moderate amounts, reduce time to recovery, and reduce serious adverse events among hospitalized patients not requiring mechanical ventilation. […] Recovery due to remdesivir may not vary by age, sex, symptom duration, or disease severity. […] In hospitalized adults with COVID-19, remdesivir probably improves recovery and reduces serious adverse events and may reduce mortality and time to clinical improvement. […] For adults not receiving mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a 5-day course of remdesivir may provide similar benefits to and fewer harms than a 10-day course.
33017386 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19.
33020069 The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials.
33023033 In addition, some medicines (i.e., remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have received emergency use authorisation from the FDA.
33023432 Anti-retroviral, Remdesivir, as well as different repurposed drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown promising effects in vitro.
33024223 We report here that Sofosbuvir terminated RNA resists removal by the exonuclease to a substantially higher extent than RNA terminated by Remdesivir, another drug being used as a COVID-19 therapeutic.
33025225 Comparison of antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (OHQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir) in an observational multicentre cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe Covid-19 ARDS.
33028676 Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleotide prodrug that has been clinically evaluated in Ebola virus patients and recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for treatment of COVID-19. […] With approvals from the Federal Select Agent Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Institutional Biosecurity Board, we characterized the resistance profile of remdesivir by serially passaging Ebola virus under remdesivir selection; we generated lineages with low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir after 35 passages. […] We found that a single amino acid substitution, F548S, in the Ebola virus polymerase conferred low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir. […] The F548 residue is highly conserved in filoviruses but should be subject to specific surveillance among novel filoviruses, in newly emerging variants in ongoing outbreaks, and also in Ebola virus patients undergoing remdesivir therapy. […] Our data suggest that molecular surveillance of this region of the polymerase in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients is also warranted.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33031500 Remdesivir is efficacious for severe COVID-19 in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. […] We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir. […] Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. […] The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200mg on Day 1, followed by 100mg for Days 2-10, given intravenously). […] Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). […] Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious adverse events.
33031623 The therapeutic effect of two drugs that are regarded to show therapeutic potential [i.e., remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV)] against COVID-19 are discussed based on the current published data.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials. […] Conversely, drugs with poor lung distributions, including lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir and remdesivir, were insufficient to inhibit viral replication.
33033595 A computer program for retrosynthetic planning helps develop multiple “synthetic contingency” plans for hydroxychloroquine and also routes leading to remdesivir, both promising but yet unproven medications against COVID-19.
33038433 To date, with the exception of intravenous Remdesivir and dexamethasone, which have modest effects in moderate to severe COVID-19, no strong clinical evidence supports the efficacy and safety of any other drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
33040483 The management of COVID has evolved with remdesivir emerging as a new potential option for transplant recipients.
33041111 According to level 1 evidence reviewed here, the most effective SARS-Co-V-2 pharmacologic treatments include remdesivir for mild to severe disease, and a triple regimen therapy consisting of lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and interferon beta-1b for mild to moderate disease.
33041326 Remdesivir (RDV) exerts anti-severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 activity following metabolic activation in the target tissues.
33041712 Though data are limited, antiviral therapies such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and other drugs like hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine have been used for severe COVID-19 cases, with remdesivir showing the greatest promise.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33043163 Not surprisingly, remdesivir attracted worldwide attention. […] In a trial published online ahead of print, of 1063 patients, 541 were assigned at random to remdesivir and 522 to placebo. […] The primary prespecified endpoint was mean recovery time and patients assigned to remdesivir had a mean recovery time of 11 days versus 15 days for those assigned a random to placebo. (p < 0.001). […] With respect to mortality, the prespecfied secondary endpoint, 34/538 patients in remdesivir and 54/521 in placebo died after 28 days, yielding a possible 31% reduction that approached but did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.059). […] The only other published trial of remdesivir randomized 237 patients in China. […] In that trial, 178 patients were assigned at random to remdesivir compared to 79 assigned to placebo. […] Those assigned at random to remdesivir experienced a possible but nonsignificant 23% faster time to clinical improvement of 21 days compared with 23 for those assigned to placebo [hazard ratio 1.23 [95% CI, 0·87-1.75)]. […] In fact, the mortality rate in those receiving remdesivir was 15% (22/150) compared with 13% (10/77) for those assigned to placebo.
33046644 Importantly, remdesivir, a broad-spectrum nucleoside analog that is effective against other group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, efficiently blocked rSADS-CoV replication in vitro. rSADS-CoV demonstrated little, if any, replicative capacity in either immune-competent or immunodeficient mice, indicating a critical need for improved animal models.
33049737 Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravi, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro.
33052305 Except for Remdesivir® no other drug or vaccine has yet been approved to treat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus known as, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] Remdesivir® an small molecule and nucleic acid analogue, it is used to treat adults and children with laboratory confirmed COVID-19, only administrated in hospital settings.
33055059 Based on our computational method, we found Remdesivir, Statins, Dexamethasone, and Ivermectin could be considered as potential effective drugs to improve clinical status and lower mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
33055231 , remdesivir showed therapeutic and prophylactic effects in animal models of EBOV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Remdesivir reduces the time to recovery of hospitalized patients who require supplemental oxygen and may have a positive impact on mortality outcomes while having a favorable safety profile.
33060041 Among these drugs, remdesivir appears to be the currently most promising according to several clinical trials and reports of compassionate use. […] In this mini-review, we summarize the current evidence on the efficacy and challenges of remdesivir for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
33062480 In addition, a thorough review of treatment options including oxygenation/ventilation strategies, dexamethasone, remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, immune-based therapies, and anticoagulation are included.
33062500 Remdesivir was the first drug to gain emergency FDA approval to be used in COVID-19.
33064422 In hospitalized patients, remdesivir should be considered to reduce time to recovery, and low-dose dexamethasone should be considered in patients who require supplemental oxygen.
33065096 A methodology for the exploration of clinical suitability of Remdesivir drug to SARS-CoV-2 main protease based on the computational, theoretical analysis pertinent to Gibb’s free energy computed from the Molecular Dynamic simulations with OPLS-AA force field at 300 K/atmospheric pressure and the variation of thermodynamic potentials over the entire simulation run of 100 ns. […] This study emphasized the suitability of Remdesivir drug to SARS-CoV-2 protein and the same is emphasized by the results of global clinical trials.
33068263 Based on current evidence, recent guidelines of the National Institute of Health, USA indicated the use of remdesivir and dexamethasone for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate disease, not requiring high-flow oxygen. […] After the removal of duplicate articles, and the exclusion of studies not meeting the eligibility criteria, 2 trials of lopinavir/ritonavir, 1 of favipiravir, 3 of remdesivir, 1 of dexamethasone, 3 of hydroxychloroquine, 2 of colchicine, 6 of tocilizumab, 1 of sarilumab, 1 of siltuximab, 2 of anakinra, 3 of baricitinib, 1 of ruxolitinib, 1 of mavrilimumab, and 1 of itolizumab were suitable for the review. […] Among antivirals, only remdesivir significantly reduced the time to recovery, and mortality. […] Beyond the supportive therapy, up to now the best therapeutic approach for COVID-19 may be a three-step combination therapy, including remdesivir 100 mg/day (200 mg loading dose on first day) in the first stage of the disease, and combined dexamethasone 6 mg/day plus baricitinib 4 mg/day to target the immune dysregulation triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33073177 We describe the potential effects of time to therapy initiation on outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and detail the existing data surrounding this topic in relation to remdesivir, convalescent plasma, lopinavir/ritonavir, and hydroxychloroquine.
33073355 These are post-Covid-19 plasma with a high neutralizing antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 or intravenous remdesivir; both options require hospitalization.
33073552 Remdesivir has shown no significant improvement in time to clinical improvement but this trial had insufficient power.
33074111 Based on the literature survey, fifteen potential targets of SARS-CoV-2, and six FDA drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Favipiravir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, and Ritonavir) were selected.
33078372 We also performed disproportionality analysis to investigate the risk of reporting psychiatric disorders with hydroxychloroquine compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir prescribed in COVID-19 patients. […] Compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir, the use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with an increased risk of reporting psychiatric disorders (ROR 6.27, 95% CI 2.74-14.35).
33078827 Finally, we apply our new virus chemogenomics knowledgebase platform with the integrated machine-learning computing algorithms to identify the potential drug combinations (e.g. remdesivir+chloroquine), which are congruent with ongoing clinical trials.
33079180 Leronlimab, a monoclonal antibody blocker of CCR5 originally developed to treat HIV-1 infection, was administered as an open label compassionate use therapeutic for COVID-19. 23 hospitalized severe/critical COVID-19 patients received 700mg leronlimab subcutaneously, repeated after seven days in 17/23 patients still hospitalized. 18/23 received other experimental treatments, including convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and/or tocilizumab. 5/23 received leronlimab after blinded placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir, sarilumab, selinexor, or tocilizumab.
33080984 We also demonstrated synergistic activity of nelfinavir with EIDD-2801 or remdesivir in Calu-3 cells.
33084144 Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were the most proposed antiviral strategies.
33085486 We report an alternative approach to the unnatural nucleobase fragment seen in remdesivir (Veklury). […] Remdesivir displays broad-spectrum antiviral activity and is currently being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials to treat patients with COVID-19. […] The approach is strategically distinct from prior routes and could further enable the synthesis of remdesivir and other small-molecule therapeutics.
33088575 Some are protected by patents, such as remdesivir, others0020stare not, such as hydroxychloroquine. […] We wanted to observe the possible correlation between the fact, for an academic doctor in infectious diseases, of having benefited from funding by Gilead Sciences, producer of remdesivir, and the public positions taken by this doctor towards hydroxychloroquine.
33088576 We review evidence of the ten most recent reports on remdesivir. […] We conclude that it is far too premature to identify remdesivir as a curative or life-saving intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic.
33089317 The patient had 3 admissions related to COVID-19 over a 4-month period and was treated twice with remdesivir and convalescent plasma with resolution of symptoms.
33090359 According to our results, all these top hits was found to have a better binding scores than remdesivir, the native ligand in RNA polymerase target (PDB ID: 7bV2).
33091434 Several drug candidates have been suggested as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19, including remdesivir, currently the only authorized drug for use under an Emergency Use Authorization. […] Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity and cardiotoxicity of remdesivir using cardiomyocytes-derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) as an alternative source of human primary cardiomyocytes (CMs). […] In this study, remdesivir exhibited up to 60-fold higher antiviral activity in hPSC-CMs compared to Vero E6 cells; however, it also induced moderate cardiotoxicity in these cells. […] To gain further insight into the drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk, we assessed QT interval prolongation and automaticity of remdesivir-treated hPSC-CMs using a multielectrode array (MEA). […] As a result, the data indicated a potential risk of QT prolongation when remdesivir is used at concentrations higher than the estimated peak plasma concentration. […] Therefore, we conclude that close monitoring of the electrocardiographic/QT interval should be advised in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients under remdesivir medication, in particular individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
33092736 The antiviral drug remdesivir, dexamethasone, transfusion of convalescent plasma, and use of antithrombotic therapy are promising.
33094148 Finally, we address therapeutic aspects including perspectives of vaccines and some antimicrobial agents such as remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin and immunomodulators.
33097472 Simulated treatment with remdesivir, selinexor, neutralizing antibodies, or cellular immunotherapy demonstrates that rapid viral elimination is possible if in vivo potency is sufficiently high.
33098401 There is no well-established anti-viral treatment for this infection; the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency use authorization for convalescent plasma and remdesivir for the treatment of patients with COVID-19.
33100032 Indicating a potential for success, one of the drugs, remdesivir, under repurposing studies, has shown positive results in initial clinical studies. […] Therefore, in the current work, the authors have attempted to utilize the remdesivir-RdRp complex - RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) being the putative target for remdesivir - to screen a library of the already reported RdRp inhibitor database. […] The results yielded two putative hits which can inhibit RdRp with better potency than remdesivir, subject to further biological evaluation.
33100292 Studies have found that chloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir and other drugs are useful for COVID-19, but currently there is no specific drug for the treatment of COVID-19.
33100531 The antiviral medication remdesivir recently received emergency use authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with severe disease.
33101837 The main exception is remdesivir, for which several trials have been published supporting its use for patients with severe COVID-19. […] No solid organ transplant-specific data on remdesivir or other antiviral therapies have been published so far. […] While further studies are urgently needed, in particular those specific to solid organ transplant recipients, the evidence so far only supports the use of remdesivir for patients with severe COVID-19.
33102687 The results indicate promising effects of such compounds to be used in further experimental and clinical trials; Chloroquine, Chloroquine-OH, and Umifenovir as viral entry inhibitors, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Darunavir as viral replication inhibitors, and Sirolimus are the examples, which were tested clinically on patients after comprehensive assessments of the available data on molecular simulation.
33103068 Further clinical investigation of these FDA-approved candidates as monotherapy or in combination with an antiviral regimen (e.g., remdesivir) could lead to promising outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
33103195 A sustained response was achieved after two courses of remdesivir and subsequent convalescent plasma therapy.
33104327 Our results correlate with the active monophosphate forms of the leading drug remdesivir and the prospective drug EIDD-2801 with nucleotides, followed by other promising drugs, and are superior to those from molecular structure-based descriptors and molecular docking.
33105618 In conclusion, TFF technology produces high-potency remdesivir dry powder formulations for inhalation that are suitable to treat patients with COVID-19 on an outpatient basis and earlier in the disease course where effective antiviral therapy can reduce related morbidity and mortality.
33107812 Docking and simulation results indicated that epicatechin, embelin, hesperidin, cafestol, murrayanine and murrayaquinone-A have higher inhibition efficacy over at least one of the known antiviral drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir and Ribavirin.
33109027 Certain antiviral drugs such as Remdesivir are RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor.
33109039 We seek to provide an understanding of the binding mechanism of Remdesivir, provide structural and conformational implications on SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase upon its binding and identify its crucial pharmacophoric moieties. […] To date, the farthest in the drug development pipeline so far is Remdesivir. […] Our analysis showed that the modulatory activity of Remdesivir is characterized by an extensive array of highaffinity and consistent molecular interactions with specific active site residues that anchor Remdemsivir within the binding pocket for efficient binding. […] Results also showed that Remdesivir binding, induces minimal individual amino acid perturbations, subtly interferes with deviations of C-α atoms and restricts the systematic transition of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the “buried” hydrophobic region to the “surface-exposed” hydrophilic region. […] We also mapped a pharmacophore model based on observed high-affinity interactions with SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which showcased the crucial functional moieties of Remdesivir and was subsequently employed for virtual screening. […] The structural insights and the optimized pharmacophoric model provided would augment the design of improved analogs of Remdesivir that could expand treatment options for COVID-19.
33110240 The current pharmacotherapies for COVID-19 largely rely on supportive and anti-thrombi treatment and the repurposing of antimalarial and antiviral drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir.
33110933 The situation is complicated by the absence of vaccines and authorized pharmacological treatments, except for remdesivir.
33112638 There is no complete treatment for COVID-19, few methods like plasma therapy and remdesivir treatment are reported to show promising results in improving patient’s health and decreasing mortality rate.
33113146 The mainstay of management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mainly supportive as to date there is no effective antiviral treatment, apart from remdesivir which has been approved by Food and Drug administration (FDA) for treatment of COVID-19, or vaccine.
33117441 Cardiac monitoring is warranted in people with established cardiac disease, and cardiac rhythm should be closely monitored when hydroxychloroquine is used with azithromycin, lopinavir, ritonavir or remdesivir.
33117850 The US Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization for remdesivir use in patients with severe COVID-19. […] The outcomes of interest were the impact of remdesivir on in-hospital death by day 28 and time to recovery, clinical improvement, and discharge. […] The median age was 59 years; 67.0% were male; 17/125 patients (13.6%) who received supportive care and 7/99 patients (7.1%) who received remdesivir died. […] The unadjusted risk for 28-day in-hospital death was lower for patients who received remdesivir compared with patients who received supportive care (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.16-1.08). […] The use of remdesivir was not associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) or liver test abnormalities. […] Patients on remdesivir had lower, albeit not significant, all-cause in-hospital mortality, and the use of remdesivir did not increase the risk for AKI.
33119136 Several medications, including hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, tocilizumab and others have been identified as potential treatments for COVID-19.
33119139 This includes recommendations on mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, antenatal corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, disease-modifying treatments (including dexamethasone, remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and advanced respiratory support interventions (prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).
33121991 Here, we have aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on remdesivir use for COVID-19. ) test. […] Comparing 10-day remdesivir group with placebo or standard of care (SOC) group, remdesivir reduced 14 days mortality (OR 0.61, CI 0.41-0.91), need for mechanical ventilation (OR 0.73, CI 0.54-0.97), and severe adverse effects (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). […] Clinical improvement on day 28 (OR 1.59, CI 1.06-2.39), day 14 clinical recovery (OR 1.48, CI 1.19-1.84), and day 14 discharge rate (OR 1.41, CI 1.15-1.73) were better among remdesivir group. […] Earlier clinical improvement (MD -2.51, CI -4.16 to -0.85); and clinical recovery (MD -4.69, CI -5.11 to -4.28) were seen among the remdesivir group. […] Longer course (10 days) of remdesivir showed a higher discharge rate at day 14 (OR 2.11, CI 1.50-2.97), but there were significantly higher rates of serious adverse effects, and drug discontinuation than the 5-day course. […] Remdesivir showed a better 14 days mortality profile, clinical recovery, and discharge rate. […] Overall clinical improvement and clinical recovery were earlier among the remdesivir group. 10-day remdesivir showed more adverse outcome than 5-day course with no significant benefits.
33122473 The results of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that remdesivir exhibits better than expected anti-viral invasion potential against COVID-19 among the three types of compounds including remdesivir, tenofovir and lopinavir. […] In addition, a positive correlation between the surface area occupied by remdesivir and anti-viral invasion potential was also found. […] As such, the structure of remdesivir was modified by linking an N-benzyl substituted diamidine derivative to its hydroxyl group through an ester bond.
33124007 Remdesivir is presently been considered as ‘molecule of hope’ to curb the menace of COVID19. […] However, Remdesivir has been found to be effective against a broad range of virus including SARS, MERS and COVID 19 through in-vitro studies. […] This review summarized all such clinical trials to critically appraise the usage of Remdesivir against COVID 19 along with the publications related to the results of the clinical studies.
33128482 Presently, several drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, ribavirin, favipiravir (FVP), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), remdesivir and oseltamivir, have been suggested as effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2.
33128490 Remdesivir is an antiviral agent that has shown broad-spectrum activity, including against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] Clinical trials investigating the role of remdesivir in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) reported conflicting results. […] Primary outcomes are the recovery and mortality rates, while secondary outcomes are the safety profile of remdesivir. […] Remdesivir treatment for 10 days increased the recovery rate on day 14 by 50% among severe Covid-19 patients (RR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.33-1.7), while on day 28 it was increased by 14% among moderate and severe Covid-19 patients (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.06-1.22). […] Additionally, remdesivir decreased the mortality rate on day 14 by 36% among all patients (RR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.45-0.92) but not on day 28 (RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.56-1.97). […] Nonmechanically ventilated Covid-19 patients showed better response to remdesivir in the recovery (RR = 0.3, 95%CI = 0.13-0.7) and mortality (RR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.24-4.4) rates on day 14. […] Remdesivir reduced serious adverse effects by absolute 6% and no significant Grade 3 or 4 adverse effects were reported. […] At this early stage of the pandemic, there is evidence that remdesivir can be safely administered for hospitalized Covid-19 patients.
33130588 On day 1 of admission, the decision was still made to start remdesivir (5-day course) due to decompensated acute respiratory failure as well as dexamethasone.
33132205 Currently, with the exception of the nucleotide analogue prodrug remdesivir, and despite several efforts, there is no known specific, proven, pharmacological treatment capable of efficiently and rapidly inducing viral containment and clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as no broad-spectrum drug for other human pathogenic coronaviruses.
33134200 Presently, there is no known cure for COVID-19, however, remdesivir has been approved for emergency use for the treatment of COVID-19 patients by the Food and Drug Administration, a United States federal regulatory body (FDA), while various clinical trial treatments and vaccines are being tried globally.
33136164 Remdesivir is currently being evaluated for clinical efficacy and safety in patients with COVID-19. […] To describe the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients following treatment with remdesivir at a community hospital. […] A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in August 2020 for all patients given remdesivir while hospitalized for severe COVID-19 between May 1 and August 19, 2020. […] A convenience sample of consecutive patients with treatment including remdesivir, antibiotics, convalescent plasma, dexamethasone, or a combination of multiple drugs was included in the analysis. […] Patients receiving remdesivir were administered a 5-day treatment course. […] Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 30 mL/min, those with liver function tests 5 times the normal reference range, and those who were pregnant were excluded from treatment with remdesivir. […] Among the 76 patients who received remdesivir, the mean (95% confidence interval, CI) age was 63 years (59.8-66.2). […] The mean (95% CI) length of stay for patients who received remdesivir was 10.09 days (8.6-11.6) and the mean (95% CI) duration of oxygen therapy was 9.42 days (8.0-10.8). […] A total of 14 (18.4%) patients given remdesivir were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with an mean (95% CI) length of stay of 9.29 days (5.6-13.0). […] Women administered remdesivir were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (11 [27.5%] vs 3 [8.3%]; P=.031). […] Remdesivir may show clinical efficacy for the treatment of severe COVID-19 in a community setting. […] Although this was a small-scale study with limited patients, it represents a point of reference for the use of remdesivir at other community hospitals.
33138652 This review aims to provide recently presented techniques and protocols for efficient treatment of COVID-19 and investigate its morphology and treatment/prevention approaches, among which usage of antiviral drugs, anti-malarial drugs, corticosteroids, and traditional medicines, biotechnological drugs (e.g. combination of HCQ and azithromycin, remdesivir, interferons, novaferon, interferon-alpha-1b, thymosin, and monoclonal antibodies) can be mentioned.
33139290 Preclinical data in animal models of coronavirus diseases, including COVID-19, have demonstrated that early treatment with remdesivir leads to improved survival, decreased lung injury, and decreased levels of viral RNA. […] Recent clinical data have demonstrated the clinical activity of remdesivir in terms of faster time to recovery in patients with severe COVID-19 and higher odds of improved clinical status in patients with moderate COVID-19. […] Remdesivir’s potential benefits and its favorable adverse-event profile make it an option for the treatment of COVID-19. […] This article examines the available literature describing remdesivir’s pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and preclinical and clinical data.
33141018 Anti-malarials currently being evaluated, i.e., chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are not yet established as effective medications, and antiviral agents, including remdesivir, are only weakly active.
33141805 More recently, with the publication of larger trials, there has been increasing use of remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma, with the rapid proliferation of clinical trials including a wide variety of investigational and repurposed agents with antiviral or immunomodulatory effects.
33144286 Inpatient pharmacologic therapy at this time consists primarily of dexamethasone and remdesivir, along with thromboprophylaxis, given the coagulopathy associated with COVID-19.
33146552 Patients who developed moderate-to-severe COVID-19, including hospitalization and pneumonia, should be treated with evolving pharmacotherapeutic approaches as appropriate, including remdesivir, dexamethasone, and anticoagulation.
33150470 No potentially severe DDIs were identified in relation to tocilizumab and remdesivir.
33151166 The developed pharmacophore successfully captured five FDA-approved antiviral drugs (lopinavir, remdesivir, ritonavir, saquinavir and raltegravir). […] Three of the captured drugs namely, remdesivir, lopinavir and ritonavir, were reported to have promising results in COVID-19 treatment and therefore increases the confidence in our results. […] Our findings suggest an additional possible mechanism of action for remdesivir as an antiviral drug inhibiting COVID-19 Mpro.
33151482 The use of most COVID-19 relevant medications has dropped substantially while the use of remdesivir and therapeutic anticoagulants has increased over the study period.
33151781 : Remdesivir decreased symptom duration modestly but had no significant impact on survival. […] The benefit of remdesivir may not be generalizable to these populations because of significant underrepresentation in trials.
33151895 We investigated Donald J Trump’s speeches and Twitter posts, as well as Google searches and Amazon purchases, and television airtime for mentions of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir.
33154404 Among these compounds, it is found that Remdesivir binds to targets, 3CLpro and RdRp with high binding affinity.
33155953 The authors analyzed results of early randomized studies using lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and favipiravir in COVID-19 and their potential for the treatment of novel coronavirus infection.
33156564 The list of drugs used for COVID-19 treatment includes a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, alpha-interferon, ribavirin, atazanavir, umifenovir, and tocilizumab.
33158234 Currently, treatment of the disease involves the use of anti-viral medications such as lopinavir, remdesivir, and other drugs.
33161277 We highlight two major lines of therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 treatment: 1) repurposing the existing drugs for use in COVID-19 patients, such as antiviral medications (e.g., remdesivir) and immunomodulators (e.g., dexamethasone) which were previously approved for other disease conditions, and 2) novel biological products that are designed to target specific molecules that are involved in SARS-CoV-2 viral entry, including neutralizing antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, such as REGN-COV2 (an antibody cocktail), as well as recombinant human soluble ACE2 protein to counteract SARS-CoV-2 binding to the transmembrane ACE2 receptor in target cells.
33163103 Remdesivir might reduce the time to recovery in hospitalized patients needing an oxygen supply.
33165238 Treatment included high-dose steroids (n = 6), tocilizumab (n = 3), remdesivir (n = 2), and convalescent plasma (n = 2).
33166179 Patients in the hydroxychloroquine arm received remdesivir more often than in the azithromycin arm (19% vs. […] There was no apparent association between remdesivir use and acute kidney injury. […] Differential use of remdesivir may have biased our results in favor of hydroxychloroquine.
33166584 Docking studies were performed for certain components of Egyptian Propolis using Avigan, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir as standard antivirals against both COVID-19 3CL-protease and S1 spike protein. […] Interestingly, the inhibition of viral replication of COVID-19 determined by RT_PCR has been significantly enhanced via encapsulation of propolis extract within the liposomal formulation (P < 0.0001) and was comparable to the viral inhibitory effect of the potent antiviral (remdesivir).
33173434 Seven reported COVID-19 drugs served as positive controls; among them, retionavir (-7.828 kcal/mol) and remdesivir (-8.738 kcal/mol) performed best with 6VSB and 6LU7, respectively.
33173719 Treatment with remdesivir could inhibit viral replication and alleviate barrier disruption on chip.
33173808 The therapeutic candidates discussed in this article include remdesivir, dexamethasone, hydroxychloroquine, favilavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibody therapeutics like gimsilumab and TJM2, anti-viral nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-based DNA and mRNA vaccines.
33173852 However, the trials of pre-existing antiviral vaccines such as, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, ritonavir and lopinavir and their consequences are briefly presented.
33175403 Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved therapy available for children older than 12 years old who require hospitalisation for COVID-19.
33176643 Natural moieties obtained from medicinal plants were analysed for their potency to target PLpro of SARS-CoV-2 by molecular docking study and were compared with synthetic analogs named as remdesivir, chloroquine and favipiravir. […] Nimbocinol (-7.6 Kcal/mol) and sage (-7.3 Kcal/mol) exhibited maximum BA against PLpro SARS-CoV-2 as evident from molecular docking study which was found to be even better than remdesivir (-6.1 Kcal/mol), chloroquine (-5.3 Kcal/mol) and favipiravir (-5.7 Kcal/mol).
33176880 The aim of this study was to use Ligand-based pharmacophore modelling approach for four established antiviral drugs, namely remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 inhibitors as training sets.
33179852 Only remdesivir has received authorization for COVID-19 and has been shown to improve outcomes but not decrease mortality. […] However, the dose of remdesivir is limited by hepatic and kidney toxicity. […] Here, we investigated additive effect of combination therapy using remdesivir with recombinant soluble ACE2 (high/low dose) on Vero E6 and kidney organoids, targeting two different modalities of SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: cell entry via its receptor ACE2 and intracellular viral RNA replication. […] By using single amino-acid resolution screening in haploid ES cells, we report a singular critical pathway required for remdesivir toxicity, namely, Adenylate Kinase 2.
33185784 Remdesivir was approved by the U.S.A. […] The crystal structure of the metabolite of remdesivir (Monophosphate of GS-441524) and NSP12-NSP8-NSP7 of SARS CoV-2 virus was recently reported.
33186749 Here, we employed PSC-HIOs to dissect SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and its inhibition by remdesivir, one of the leading drugs investigated for treatment of COVID-19. […] Specifically, remdesivir effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection dose-dependently at low micromolar concentration and rescued PSC-HIO morphology.
33188394 Here we report a paediatric DS patient with COVID-19 who developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome, severe ARDS and secondary HLH requiring PICU admission and treatment with steroids, IVIG and Remdesivir.
33189891 The RECOVERY trial showed an absolute risk reduction in mortality by 2.8% with dexamethasone, and the ACTT-1 trial showed that treatment with remdesivir reduced the time to recovery by 4 days.
33190011 The selected bioactives were analyzed for their binding similarities with the standard drug, remdesivir, towards the targets of SARS-CoV-2.
33190493 Remdesivir is the first antiviral compound approved by the US FDA for the SARS-CoV-2 treatment for emergency use, targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme. […] In this work, we have examined the action of remdesivir and other two ligands screened from the library of nucleotide analogues using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. […] The binding energy data reveal that compound-17 (-59.6 kcal/mol) binds more strongly as compared to compound-8 (-46.3 kcal/mol) and remdesivir (-29.7 kcal/mol) with RdRp. […] The detailed analysis of trajectories shows that the remdesivir binds in the catalytic site and forms a hydrogen bond with the catalytic residues from 0 to 0.46 ns. […] Further, the frontier molecular orbital analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) iso-surface analysis using DFT calculations shed light on the superior binding of compound-17 with RdRp compared to remdesivir and compound-8.
33190802 With the development of this pandemic, the number of clinical studies on antiviral therapy, including remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, arbidol, interferon, favipiravir, oseltamivir, nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, and camostat mesylate, has been increasing.
33191206 These drugs include fingolimod, colchicine, N4-hydroxycytidine, remdesivir, methylprednisone, oseltamivir, icatibant, perphanizine, viracept, emetine, homoharringtonine, aloxistatin, ribavirin, valrubicin, famotidine, almitrine, amprenavir, hesperidin, biorobin, cromolyn sodium, and antibodies- tocilzumab and sarilumab. […] Among these 53 drugs, based on various clinical trials and literature, remdesivir, nelfinavir, methylpredinosolone, colchicine, famotidine and emetine may be used for COVID-19.
33191908 Interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, arbidol, ribavirin, remdesivir, and dexamethasone are the therapeutic drugs recommended for treating 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19 disease).
33193695 Ribavirin was predicted to be the best small molecular drug, with a higher molecular binding energy of -6.39 kcal/mol with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), followed by remdesivir (-7.4 kcal/mol), mycophenolic acid (-5.35 kcal/mol), and chloroquine (-6.29 kcal/mol). […] Ribavirin, remdesivir, and chloroquine have been under clinical trials or supported by recent works.
33194501 We present a case of a patient with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 as well as a pneumococcal urine antigen; he was treated with both appropriate antibiotics as well as dexamethasone and remdesivir for pneumonia and novel virus, respectively.
33194697 For the latter, dexamethasone and remdesivir have shown encouraging results, while vaccines are currently being evaluated in phase III trials.
33195080 has a great potentiality to inhibit the SARS-COV-2 RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase compared to Remdesivir.
33199136 The article mainly focused on the development and possible application of various FDA approved drugs, including chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, nefamostate mesylate, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, ribavirin etc., vaccines under development and various registered clinical trials exploring different therapeutic measures for the treatment of COVID-19.
33200085 Particularly Galidesivir, Remdesivir, and Pirodavir have been chosen as suggested antiviral drugs; and Proguanil, Mefloquine, and Artesunate have been chosen as suggested antiparasitic drugs based on such predicted interactions.
33200304 Remdesivir (RDV) has recently demonstrated promising results in adults with COVID-19, but few data have been reported to date in children.A nationwide multicenter observational study was conducted on children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 receiving compassionate treatment with RDV in Spain. […] What is Known: • Remdesivir has not been approved to treat COVID-19 in children under 12 years old, although the drug is currently being prescribed in critically ill children. […] • Remdesivir has recently demonstrated promising results in adults with COVID-19, but few data have been reported to date in paediatric population. […] What is New: • We report a multicentre cohort of children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and severe COVID-19 disease receiving remdesivir during the first month of the pandemic in Spain. […] • No remdesivir-related adverse outcomes were observed in most of the cases.
33200697 In fact, the binding affinity of Rutin (~106 M-1) was much higher than Chloroquine (~103 M-1) and Hydroxychloroquine (~104 M-1), and the reference drug Remdesivir (~105 M-1). […] The results suggest that natural compounds such as flavonoids have the potential to be developed as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 with a comparable/higher potency as that of Remdesivir.
33203141 Clinical trials with remdesivir gave discordant results.
33204761 Remdesivir has been associated with accelerated recovery of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Univariate and multivariable Cox models were used to explore the possible association between in-hospital death or hospital discharge, considered competing-risk events, and baseline or treatment-related factors, including the use of remdesivir.
33208020 This study aims to assess these host cell targets for a panel of FDA-approved antiviral compounds including remdesivir, using the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) coupled with mass spectrometry (CETSA MS) in noninfected cells.
33209137 To date, several therapeutic agents have been studied or are currently examined, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, ritonavir/lopinavir, remdesivir, colchicines and interleukin-6 inhibitors. […] However, the usage of most of these into clinical practice was not based on randomised clinical trials and their results should be viewed with extreme caution; remdesivir seems to be the more promising option.
33210457 After suggestions and assessments of several therapeutic options, remdesivir (GS-5734), a direct-acting antiviral drug previously tested against Ebola virus disease, was found to be moderately effective and probably safe for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication. […] Finally, on 1 May 2020, remdesivir (GS-5734) was granted emergency use authorization as an investigational drug for the treatment of Covid-19 by the Food and Drug Administration. […] Here, we provide a review of the latest findings (based on preprints, post-prints, and news releases in scientific websites) related to remdesivir efficacy and safety for the treatment of Covid-19, along with covering remdesivir history from bench-to-bedside, as well as an overview of its mechanism of action. […] In addition, active clinical trials, as well as challenging issues related to the future of remdesivir in Covid-19, are covered. […] Based on these studies, it seems that remdesivir could be an effective and probably safe treatment option for Covid-19.
33210927 Here, we compare methyl rotations in the dry and variously hydrated states of three primary drugs under consideration to treat the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), namely, hydroxychloroquine and its sulfate, dexamethasone and its sodium diphosphate, and remdesivir.
33211441 Among them remdesivir appears to be the most promising drug against SARS-CoV-2.
33215042 When compared to remdesivir (- 6.38), cyclocurcumin from turmeric is significantly more active.
33215942 Some drugs that show the promising therapeutic potential in the initial clinical studies include remdesivir as an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and favipiravir as an inhibitor of virus replication. […] Currently, remdesivir received the FDA authorizes to use as an experimental drug for emergency use in COVID-19 patients.
33217430 Upon transfection, the replicon RNA replicated in various cell lines, and was sensitive to interferon alpha (IFN-α), remdesivir, but was resistant to hepatitis C virus inhibitors daclatasvir and sofosbuvir.
33219182 Total of five RCTs on 439 patients and seventeen case series involving 1656 patients were found in the specified review period that reported the use of Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Remdesivir.
33228481 From the molecular docking study, it is noteworthy that remdesivir shows better binding affinity toward the main protease of SARS-CoV2 compared to other studied drugs. […] We observed that, there were two main free energy basins for both docked carnosic acid complex and for docked remdesivir complex, only one main free energy basin was found in the global free energy minimum region.
33229428 Of the 5% of patients who developed EOT AKI on remdesivir with an eCrCl <30 ml/min, no cases were attributable to remdesivir administration per the treating physician. […] In conclusion, remdesivir administration was not significantly associated with increased EOT AKI in patients with an eCrCl of <30 ml/min compared to patients with an eCrCl of ≥30 ml/min.
33234758 Herein we report the successful management of severe COVID-19 pneumonia using convalescent plasma therapy and remdesivir. […] The use of convalescent plasma therapy along with remdesivir may be an ideal combination in the management of severe COVID-19 pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients.
33235142 We present a case of an adolescent female with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia hospitalized multiple times for symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection who was safely treated with 2 courses of remdesivir (RDV) and has had no additional readmissions to date.
33236131 To date, remdesivir has been granted emergency use authorization for use in the management of infection.
33237646 One patient was treated with remdesivir.
33238869 A broad-spectrum antiviral agent, Remdesivir is found effective in many cases and recommended by many clinicians in many countries.
33239231 No definitive treatment for COVID-19 exists although promising results have been reported with remdesivir and glucocorticoids.
33239864 Early data from Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trials (ACTT) sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and compassionate use study have shown promise for remdesivir, leading to emergency authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] However, several randomized studies have now shown no benefit or increased adverse events associated with remdesivir treatment.
33240723 Remdesivir is an antiviral medication and inhibitor of viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase with inhibitory action against SARS-CoV virus. […] Two patients diagnosed with coronavirus infection with worsening respiratory status were initiated with multimodality therapy with antibiotics, steroids and remdesivir. […] After initiation of remdesivir, the patients’ developed bradycardia, with one of the two also showing signs of worsening QT interval.
33244856 The most common regimens include remdesivir, convalescent plasma.
33245382 So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients.
33245577 Remdesivir is 1 of the repurposed drugs under investigation to treat patients with COVID-19. […] This scoping review maps the evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19, up to 14 September 2020. […] Our scoping review searched Pubmed, Embase (Ovid), Scopus and 17 primary trial registries for empirical publications or active registered clinical trials for data on the efficacy, effectiveness, or safety of remdesivir for COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2. […] Two trials reported shorter median recovery time and better clinical status among patients who received remdesivir compared with the control groups. […] Observational studies report an association between remdesivir treatment and decreased mortality, as well as increased survival. […] Remdesivir might shorten the time to clinical improvement among hospitalized adults with severe COVID-19.
33245731 TMPRSS2, inflammatory cytokines G-CSF, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-6 and MCP-1 are suppressed by MEKi alone or with remdesivir.
33246166 Hydroxychloroquine and interleukin six antagonists were administered in59.5% and 14.9% respectively, while only few patients received remdesivir and convalescent plasma.
33250631 Chloroquine analogs, lopinavir/ritonavir combination, remdesivir, dexamethasone, and immunoglobulin have been shown to be useful for the treatment.
33251593 FDA approved remdesivir as a treatment of COVID-19 so far.
33252992 : Deterioration of liver and kidney function are frequently observed ADEs with remdesivir; consequently, patients should be monitored for these ADEs.
33253920 We also provide a description of, and clinical rationale for, each of the EA- or EUA-approved drugs (e.g. remdesivir, convalescent plasma, propofol 2%, hydroxychloroquine, ruxolitinib, bamlanivimab, baricitinib, casirivimab plus imdevimab) during the pandemic and concluding reflections on the EA program and its potential future uses.
33254234 Among them, P323LRdRp (prevalence: 61.9%) reduced the binding affinity of specific compounds including remdesivir while it increased the binding affinity of the purine analogues penciclovir and tenofovir, suggesting potential hypersusceptibility.
33257051 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and umifenovir represent the major repurposed drugs used as potential experimental agents for COVID-19 whereas azithromycin, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, sarilumab, famotidine and ceftriaxone are some of the supporting agents that are under investigation for COVID-19 management.
33260103 Remdesivir (RDV) is clinically used drug which targets RdRp, however its mechanism of action remains elusive. […] This study aims to find out the binding dynamics of active Remdesivir-triphosphate (RDV-TP) to RdRp by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.
33261845 Studies included repurposed drugs mainly against non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV2: the main 3C-like protease (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir, Atazanavir, Nelfinavir, and Clocortolone), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Remdesivir and Ribavirin), and the papain-like protease (Mycophenolic acid, Telaprevir, Boceprevir, Grazoprevir, Darunavir, Chloroquine, and Formoterol). […] The review revealed the best-documented multi-target drugs repurposed by computational methods for COVID-19 therapy as follows: antiviral drugs commonly used to treat AIDS/HIV (Atazanavir, Efavirenz, and Dolutegravir Ritonavir, Raltegravir, and Darunavir, Lopinavir, Saquinavir, Nelfinavir, and Indinavir), HCV (Grazoprevir, Lomibuvir, Asunaprevir, Ribavirin, and Simeprevir), HBV (Entecavir), HSV (Penciclovir), CMV (Ganciclovir), and Ebola (Remdesivir), anticoagulant drug (Dabigatran), and an antifungal drug (Itraconazole).
33262932 We report the case of a woman at 26 weeks of gestation with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19 infection treated with dexamethasone, remdesivir, convalescent plasma and mechanical ventilation. […] This case offers insight into the assessment and successful use of treatment strategies, including dexamethasone, remdesivir, convalescent plasma, early prone positioning, conservative fluid management, permissive hypoxia and low tidal volume parameters with ventilator support for pregnancies affected by severe COVID-19 infection.
33264025 Among them, remdesivir, which can block the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in old SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viruses, has been prescribed to COVID-19 patients in many countries. […] A recent experiment showed that remdesivir binds to SARS-CoV-2 with an inhibition constant of μM, but the exact target has not been reported. […] We showed that remdesivir binds to Mpro slightly weaker than to RdRp, and the corresponding inhibition constants, consistent with the experiment, fall to the μM range. […] The binding mechanisms of remdesivir to two targets differ in that the electrostatic interaction is the main force in stabilizing the RdRp-remdesivir complex, while the van der Waals interaction dominates in the Mpro-remdesivir case. […] Our result indicates that remdesivir can target not only RdRp but also Mpro, which can be invoked to explain why this drug is effective in treating COVID-19.
33264556 World Health Organization expert groups recommended mortality trials of four repurposed antiviral drugs - remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon beta-1a - in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). […] At 405 hospitals in 30 countries, 11,330 adults underwent randomization; 2750 were assigned to receive remdesivir, 954 to hydroxychloroquine, 1411 to lopinavir (without interferon), 2063 to interferon (including 651 to interferon plus lopinavir), and 4088 to no trial drug. […] Death occurred in 301 of 2743 patients receiving remdesivir and in 303 of 2708 receiving its control (rate ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.11; P = 0.50), in 104 of 947 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and in 84 of 906 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.59; P = 0.23), in 148 of 1399 patients receiving lopinavir and in 146 of 1372 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.25; P = 0.97), and in 243 of 2050 patients receiving interferon and in 216 of 2050 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.39; P = 0.11). […] These remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon regimens had little or no effect on hospitalized patients with Covid-19, as indicated by overall mortality, initiation of ventilation, and duration of hospital stay.
33267759 One potential anti-viral agent currently undergoing numerous clinical trial is remdesivir, a nucleotide analog that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] In this mini-review, we provide an overview of remdesivir’s journey, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, used in patients with COVID-19 under compassionate use principle and clinical trials to understand the effect of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. […] Initially, remdesivir was granted an emergency use authorization ( EUA) by the U.S. […] But now, remdesivir has been granted for use under EUA to treat all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, irrespective of their severity of disease.
33274249 Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir were used frequently; however, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use declined over time, while use of remdesivir increased.
33274431 Due to the severe pneumonia infiltration, the patient received the clinical-trial treatment Remdesivir.
33274643 The race to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still on, with only two treatment options currently authorized for emergency use and/or recommended for patients hospitalized with severe respiratory symptoms: low-dose dexamethasone and remdesivir. […] In this commentary we discuss whether stockpiling remdesivir is justified in light of the currently available evidence.
33280586 Among the different promising drugs, remdesivir by inhibiting the RNA dependent RNAPolymerase activity gives much better results including declined viral load and quick lung tissue recovery.
33280995 Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue and used for COVID-19 treatment. […] However, the bioanalysis of the active metabolites remdesivir nucleotide triphosphate (RTP) and its precursor remdesivir nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) is very challenging. […] In general, the developed method is suitable to monitor RMP and RTP, and provides a useful approach for exploring more detailed effects of remdesivir in treating diseases.
33281124 findings in comparison to remdesivir, favipiravir and other 53 drugs.
33281315 About 68% of clinicians were aware of the various therapeutic options being tested, like convalescent plasma, lopinavir-ritonavir, and 64% knew about remdesivir.
33281478 The recent elucidation of the experimental structure of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp enzyme complexed with triphosphate form of Remdesivir (RTP) has opened an avenue for structure-based identification of potent inhibitors.
33283567 : Drug repurposing proved highly successful in response to the current pandemic, with remdesivir becoming the first specific antiviral drug approved for the treatment of COVID-19.
33287144 In recent years, RdRp has emerged as an optimal target for the development of antiviral drugs, as demonstrated by recent approvals of sofosbuvir and remdesivir against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), respectively.
33289021 To determine how hospitals across the United States determined allocation criteria for remdesivir, approved in May 2020 for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an emergency use authorization, while maintaining fair and ethical distribution when patient needs exceeded supply. […] A electronic survey inquiring as to how institutions determined remdesivir allocation was developed. […] The results showed that 98% of surveyed institutions used a multidisciplinary team to develop remdesivir allocation criteria. […] Of the surveyed institutions, 59% indicated that all patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for treatment, and 50% delegated initial patient identification for potential remdesivir use to treating physicians. […] Prioritization of remdesivir allocation was often determined on a “first come, first served” basis (47% of respondents), according to a patient’s respiratory status (28.8%) and/or clinical course (24.2%), and/or by random lottery (22.7%).
33290476 It is shown that Remdesivir, a nucleoside drug that was originally invented for the Ebola virus, is effective in suppressing the replication of SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. […] It is found that Remdesivir and Galidesivir can adopt both amino and imino tautomeric conformations to base-pair with RNA bases.
33290969 Antiviral drugs such as; oseltamivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, lopinavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, ascorbic acid, corticosteroids, are mostly used for patients.
33291238 Compared to other causes of ARDS, medical therapies may improve outcomes in COVID-19-associated ARDS, such as dexamethasone and remdesivir.
33291455 >100 µM); (iv) the drug in vitro potency was confirmed using several Vero lineages and human cells; (v) combination with remdesivir showed enhanced anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity; (vi) vidofludimus, the active determinant of IMU-838, exerted a broad-spectrum activity against a selection of major human pathogenic viruses.
33292123 Explicit expressions of the indices for hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir (GS-5734) and theaflavin are obtained.
33292374 Remdesivir, an investigational drug, and hydroxyloroquine, an FDA-approved drug for autoimmune diseases, were the two early potential therapies. […] This review article examines the expedited FDA review process for remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine, and analyzes data and results from early clinical studies of both drugs.
33295289 Two drugs used for other indications in the past, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and remdesivir (RDV), are sought to be repurposed to treat Covid-19. […] In this review, we critically analyse the identification of and subsequent events concerning these two drugs as potential treatment options for Covid-19, and conclude by raising some ethical issues that require serious thought from the global scientific community concerned with using these two drugs against Covid-19.

Key Words: Covid-19, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, USFDA, emergency use authorisation

33296558 mice administered 25 or 50 mg/kg of remdesivir subcutaneously were simultaneously fit to estimate PK parameters. […] Simulations of unbound remdesivir concentrations in human plasma were below 2.48 μM, the 90% maximal inhibitory concentration for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition in vitro. […] We have identified a need for alternative dosing strategies to achieve more efficacious concentrations of NTP in human lungs, perhaps by reformulating remdesivir for direct pulmonary delivery.
33298598 Ethical frameworks and guidelines are needed, addressing whether such genetic information should be incorporated into decisions regarding allocation of scarce resources-including hospital and ICU beds, ventilators, medications (eg, remdesivir) and vaccines-and if so, how.
33300900 Self-immolation (SI) is the key principle of ProTide nucleotide prodrugs such as remdesivir, which is currently used to treat COVID-19 patients.
33301514 We systematically reviewed efficacy and safety of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Studies evaluating remdesivir in adults with hospitalized COVID-19 were searched in several engines until August 21, 2020. […] Studies used intravenous remdesivir 200mg the first day and 100mg for four or nine more days. […] Time to recovery was decreased by 4 days with remdesivir vs. placebo in one RCT (n = 1063), and by 0.8 days with 5-days vs. 10-days of therapy in another RCT (n = 397). […] Remdesivir did not decrease all-cause mortality (RR 0.71, 95%CI 0.39 to 1.28, I2 = 43%) and need for invasive ventilation (RR 0.57, 95%CI 0.23 to 1.42, I2 = 60%) vs. placebo at 14 days but had fewer SAEs; 5-day decreased need for invasive ventilation and SAEs vs. 10-day in one RCT (n = 397). […] There is paucity of adequately powered and fully reported RCTs evaluating effects of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Until stronger evidence emerges, we cannot conclude that remdesivir is efficacious for treating COVID-19.
33302163 Two antiviral drugs, Remdesivir and Favipiravir were studied for comparative docking results.
33305304 Remdesivir, a broad spectrum anti-viral drug, is now under in vitro and in vivo investigation as a potential agent against SARS-CoV-2. […] Herein, combination molecular docking with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations is used to theoretically design angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-containing remdesivir-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy. […] Based on the therapeutic and lung protective effect of ACEI, the classical lisinopril molecule covalently grafted onto PLGA (L-PLGA) has been used to encapsulate remdesivir. […] A binding model is used to confirm the interactions between lisinopril and ACE on the surface of cells, as well as remdesivir and its intracellular targeting protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)). […] Furthermore, DPD simulations are applied to study the nano-aggregation of drug-free L-PLGA, and remdesivir loaded in L-PLGA. […] Molecular docking proved that hydrogen bonding was decisive for the encapsulation of remdesivir. […] With an increase in concentration, remdesivir loaded L-PLGA formed spherical NPs, and then underwent precipitation. […] Similar to the above conditions, high remdesivir loading was also observed to cause precipitation formation. […] Thus, the optimized remdesivir NPs in our study give insights into a rational platform for formulation design against this global pandemic.
33305554 Until now, only the Remdesivir was approved by FDA (Food Drug Administration) for COVID-19 treatment, although several clinical trials are ongoing worldwide also on other drugs. […] In this review, we analyzed published studies on several drugs (chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir in combination, tocilizumab, plasma, and immunoglobulins) with some efficacy to COVID-19 in humans, and evaluated if there were a gender analysis of the available data.
33306283 The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. […] We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. […] All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). […] Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation.
33306333 Numerous drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, neuraminidase inhibitors, remdesivir, umifenovir, azithromycin and chloroquine have been suggested for the management of COVID-19 although the exact treatment yet to be determined.
33309661 Hence, ritonavir may potentiate the therapeutic properties of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and ribavirin.
33312897 Treatments used for COVID-19 therapy; azithromycin, atazanavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and tocilizumab, interact with immunosuppressive treatments, most importantly with calcineurin inhibitors.
33313272 Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled cohort studies reporting antiviral therapies, including ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon, for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 will be included.
33314005 Further, Remdesivir and a human neutralizing antibody potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids.
33315065 Remdesivir (RDV) is FDA approved for COVID-19, but not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment (SRI, i.e. creatinine clearance < 30ml/min).
33316266 Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir and dexamethasone are adopted for use against COVID-19 and currently clinical studies are underway to test their safety and efficacy for treating COVID-19 patients.
33317101 Current management is mainly supportive with the potential addition of interventions recommended for severe COVID-19 disease, such as remdesivir, steroids, and convalescent plasma.
33318491 Here we report the use of remdesivir in a patient with COVID-19 and the prototypic genetic antibody deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA). […] In the absence of these confounders, we take an experimental medicine approach to examine the in vivo utility of remdesivir. […] We therefore provide evidence for the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir in vivo, and its potential benefit in selected patients.
33319627 Most noteworthy among the therapeutic options are dexamethasone, remdesivir, Avigan (favipiravir) and convalescent plasma.
33323690 Extensive efforts are underway to develop preventive vaccines and therapeutics such as remdesivir, dexamethasone, convalescent plasma, and others to treat COVID-19 but many report residual mental health problems after recovery.
33324769 Furthermore, medications’ unavailability compels the clinicians to opt for atypical drugs like remdesivir, chloroquine, etc.
33327924 Several drugs have been repurposed to treat COVID-19, including chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir combination, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, and EIDD-1931. […] Recently, Remdesivir gained FDA emergency approval based on promising early findings from the interim analysis of 1063 patients.
33330784 The drugs utilized in more than one trials were remdesivir (6 trials), lopinavir/ritonavir (6 trials), hydroxychloroquine (6 trials), interferon (5 trials), methylprednisolone (3 trials), nitric oxide gas (3 trials), oseltamivir (2 trials), arbidol (2 trials), and vitamin C (2 trials). […] We also described the Japanese trials which are now being conducted or scheduled, utilizing lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, ciclesonide and nafamostat.
33330842 Given the need for improved efficacy and safety, we propose zuclopenthixol, nebivolol, and amodiaquine as potential candidates for clinical trials against the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss their potential use as adjuvant to the current (i.e., remdesivir and favipiravir) COVID-19 therapeutics.
33331727 In this article, we will briefly discuss the current state of affairs with regard to the drugs (hydroxy) chloroquine, remdesivir and corticosteroids.
33333292 Sixteen synergistic and eight antagonistic combinations were identified; among 16 synergistic cases, combinations of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug nitazoxanide with remdesivir, amodiaquine, or umifenovir were most notable, all exhibiting significant synergy against SARS-CoV-2 in a cell model. […] However, the combination of remdesivir and lysosomotropic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, demonstrated strong antagonism.
33334287 The development of vaccine or medicines for the same are under progress and this short review will summarize the most potential candidates such as Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin, Favipiravir, Umifenovir, and Ribavirin for its medicinal treatment.
33334457 To date, there is only randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of dexamethasone in patients requiring oxygen therapy and remdesivir for shortening the time to recovery, with no specific treatment for COVID-19-associated AKI.
33336316 Remdesivir, dexamethasone, azithromycin, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta, ribavirin, tocilizumab, anakinra and sarilumab were identified as experimental drugs being used in COVID-19 trials as of November 2020.
33336780 Umifenovir, remdesivir, and fevipiravir are deemed the most hopeful antiviral agent by improving the health of infected patients.
33340409 Remdesivir is approved for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and authorized conditionally by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] A decrease of the creatinine clearance associated with remdesivir has been inconstantly reported in clinical trials with unclear relevance. […] Reporting odds ratio (ROR) compared the number of ARF cases reported with remdesivir, with those reported with other drugs prescribed in comparable situations of COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and lopinavir/ritonavir). […] The combination of the terms “acute renal failure” and “remdesivir” yielded a statistically significant disproportionality signal with 138 observed cases instead of the 9 expected. […] ROR of ARF with remdesivir was 20-fold (20.3; confidence interval 0.95 [15.7-26.3], P < 0.0001]) that of comparative drugs. […] Based on ARF cases reported in VigiBase, and despite the caveats inherent to COVID-19 circumstances, we detected a statistically significant pharmacovigilance signal of nephrotoxicity associated with remdesivir, deserving a thorough qualitative assessment of all available data. […] Meanwhile, as recommended in its Summary of Product Characteristics, assessment of patients with COVID-19 renal function should prevail before and during treatment with remdesivir in COVID-19.
33340453 We then focused on studies that included at least one of six drugs (remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta, corticosteroids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin) under evaluation for COVID-19.
33341481 Currently, some researchers and clinicians have claimed evidence exists in favor of the use of some antimalarial drugs (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) antiviral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir) vitamins, traditional Chinese medicines, and herbal medicines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33342420 Several drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Umifenovir, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, interferon, Darunavir, Favipiravir, Nitazoxanide etc. are currently undergoing clinical studies to test the safety and efficacy of the drug against this pandemic.
33345645 In October 2020, the FDA approved a repurposed antiviral, remdesivir, as the first treatment for COVID-19.
33347311 The inhibitors of the virus entry to cells and RdRp, such as Arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, EIDD-2081, and ribavirin, are in clinical trials, while most of the protease inhibitors are mainly calculated by molecular docking technology, which needs in vivo and in vitro experiments to prove the effect for SARS-CoV-2.
33350691 Remdesivir (Veklury) is the first antiviral drug approved to treat patients ages 12 and older who are hospitalized with COVID-19.
33350698 According to this study: The antiviral remdesivir is superior to placebo in the treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
33353566 We compare and contrast the use of data visualisations against traditional frequency table reporting, using published AE information in two placebo-controlled trials, of remdesivir for COVID-19 and GDNF for Parkinson disease. […] Visualisations of AEs in the COVID-19 trial communicated a risk profile for remdesivir which differed from the main message in the published authors’ conclusion.
33354635 We intend to study the compassionate use and safety profile of remdesivir in End stage renal disease patients with moderate to severe SARS CoV2 infection. […] We conducted an observational prospective study in 48 dialysis dependent patients with SARS CoV2 infection who received remdesivir as part of institutional treatment protocol. […] During the treatment period, 100 mg of remdesivir was given 4 hours before hemodialysis sessions. […] Liver function tests (LFT), Inflammatory markers such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, oxygen requirement before and after remdesivir treatment were compared. […] There were no events of significant LFT alteration with administration of 2-6 doses of remdesivir. […] Early administration of remdesivir within 48 hours of hospital admission shortened the duration of hospitalization by mean of 5.5 days(p=0.001). […] Remdesivir was well tolerated and found safe in our study.
33355053 There are few small molecule antiviral drugs like Remdesivir and Favipiravir which have shown promising results in different advanced stage of clinical trials.
33356051 In addition, all the patients received high-quality supportive care as background therapy, including the antiviral drug remdesivir and, when indicated, supplemental oxygen and glucocorticoids. […] Monoclonal antibody LY-CoV555, when coadministered with remdesivir, did not demonstrate efficacy among hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure.
33356621 Remdesivir (GS-5734), an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase with inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), was identified early as a promising therapeutic candidate for Covid-19 because of its ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] Besides, in nonhuman primate studies, remdesivir initiated 12 hours after inoculation with MERS-CoV9,10 reduced lung virus levels and lung damage. […] In this paper, we compute some of the general temperature topological properties of remdesivir that the results in this paper may be useful in finding new drug and vaccine for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.
33357185 While facing potentially high morbidity from COVID-19 without known effective therapies, the off-label use of several non-specific drugs has been advocated, including re-purposed anti-virals (e.g. remdesivir or the lopinavir/ritonavir combination), biologic agents (e.g. tocilizumab), and antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in association with or without azithromycin.
33359065 Microbiological response of SARS-CoV-2 to remdesivir in immunocompromised patients has not been evaluated. […] We present the case of a severely immunocompromised patient with persistent replication of SARS-CoV-2, who required different courses of remdesivir. […] Short courses of remdesivir might be insufficient in immunocompromised patients due to prolonged viral clearance.
33359141 Even with the recent approval of the anti-viral drug, remdesivir, and Emergency Use Authorization of monoclonal antibodies against S protein, bamlanivimab and casirimab/imdevimab, efficient and safe COVID-19 vaccines are still desperately demanded not only to prevent its spread but also to restore social and economic activities via generating mass immunization.
33361753 Provide a timely, rigorous and continuously updated summary of the evidence on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. […] Eligible studies were randomized trials evaluating the effect of remdesivir versus placebo or no treatment. […] Finally, we included three randomized trials evaluating remdesivir in addition to standard care versus standard care alone. […] The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of remdesivir on mortality (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.05; very low certainty evidence) and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.24; very low certainty evidence). […] On the other hand, remdesivir likely results in a large increase in the incidence of adverse effects in patients with COVID-19 (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.84; moderate certainty evidence). […] The evidence is insufficient for the outcomes critical for making decisions on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, so it is impossible to balance potential benefits, if there are any, with the adverse effects and costs.
33362383 Drugs suitable to manage COVID-19 in patients with liver disease might include remdesivir intravenously, nitazoxanide + sofosbuvir, ivermectin, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, and low molecular weight heparin in certain situations.
33364959 Remdesivir and favipiravir may shorten the recovery time; lopinavir/ritonavir does not demonstrate treatment efficacy in severe patients.
33365358 Low-molecular-weight heparin, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest.
33369768 Remdesivir was recently approved to treat COVID-19. […] This study reports that remdesivir at nanomolar concentrations inhibits carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) through covalent modifications. […] The combination of high potency with irreversible inhibition concludes that cautions must be exercised when remdesivir is used along with drugs hydrolyzed by CES2.
33371833 This study aims to compile and analyze the efficient value of Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine and give an insight to their drug profile in the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients. […] The literature search from PubMed, Crossref, Springer, Bentham Sciences, Google Scholar, DOAJ, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE by using keywords like COVID-19, SAS-COV-2, Remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine was done and ap-propriate peer-reviewed review articles, as well as research articles, were included and compiled in this review paper. […] The results of this study indicate that remdesivir in 5/10 studies from collected literature show a reduction in time of recovery and 5/10 shows no variance and having limitations. […] There is a need to assess more pharmacokinetics and randomized controlled trials (RCT) for both remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine. […] Furthermore, studies should be conducted in different combinations along with hydroxychloro-quine and remdesivir to get efficient results.
33372806 From these, 36 phytocompounds with binding affinities higher than the approved reference drugs (remdesivir and sobosivir), were further docked targeting the active sites of SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and HCV RdRp. […] A hit list of 7 compounds alongside two positive controls (remdesivir and sofosbuvir) and two negative controls (cinnamaldehyde and Thymoquinone) were further docked into the active site of 8 different conformations of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gotten from molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) system equilibration. […] These phytochemicals, in addition to other promising antivirals such as remdesivir and sofosbuvir, may be exploited towards the development of a cocktail of anti-coronavirus treatments in COVID-19.
33372818 SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed by viral Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and she received remdesivir and COVID-19 convalescent plasma. […] During her ECMO course, she was treated with remdesivir, intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and anakinra.
33373324 Several drugs have been identified which including remdesivir, two antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) and immunosuppressive agents.
33374333 Plasma efficacy was inferior to remdesivir in endpoints such as the necessity and duration of oxygen therapy, the duration of hospitalization, and mortality rate, and inferior to other drugs in the case of the duration of hospitalization and the necessity of constant oxygen therapy, but comparable in most other measured endpoints. […] A comparison of a 30-day mortality rate in patients who received plasma and remdesivir (4/25, 16%) and who received only plasma (6/53, 11%) showed no significant difference. […] Convalescent plasma efficacy is inferior to remdesivir when treating COVID-19 patients but the addition of remdesivir to plasma does not improve the treatment effectiveness.
33376043 In addition, docking simulation showed that lycorine interacts with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp at the Asp623, Asn691, and Ser759 residues through hydrogen bonding, at which the binding affinities of lycorine (-6.2 kcal/mol) were higher than those of remdesivir (-4.7 kcal/mol).
33376954 In this article, we reviewed almost all the RCT reports on monotherapies and combined therapies with antiviral agents for COVID-19, and found that among the reports on monotherapies, only remdesivir, and among combined antiviral agents, only the combined regimen with interferon-β1b, lopinavir-ritonavir and ribavirin were effective and safe based on evidences from RCTs.
33377451 For COVID-19 patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we recommend against using remdesivir outside of a clinical trial.
33378357 Based on RCTs, the risk of progression to severe course and mortality was significantly reduced with corticosteroids (odds ratio (OR) 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.86, p = 0.032, and OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.91, p = 0.002, respectively) and remdesivir (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.50, p < 0.001, and OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98, p = 0.041, respectively) compared to standard care for moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in non-ICU; corticosteroids were also shown to reduce mortality rate (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.73, p < 0.001) for critically ill patients in ICU. […] In this NMA, we found that anti-inflammatory agents (corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anakinra, and IVIG), convalescent plasma, and remdesivir were associated with improved outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
33382685 For the first time, our study discovered that Pralatrexate is able to potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication with a stronger inhibitory activity than Remdesivir within the same experimental conditions.
33384519 Out of various antiviral used, the only remdesivir showed a positive result in a case series. […] The study showed slightly favorable results with HCQ, monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, and CP in treating COVID-19 patients.
33388022 Notably, the current recommended drugs for the treatment of severe COVID-19, dexamethasone and remdesivir, may cause hyperglycemia, an adverse effect that physicians should bear in mind, when caring for patients with DM and COVID-19.
33388129 However, remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug originally developed for the treatment of Ebola virus, was found to inhibit the replication of a wide range of human and animal coronaviruses in vitro and in preclinical studies. […] It is therefore not surprising that when the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus emerged in late 2019 in China, causing global health concern due to the virus strong human-to-human transmission ability, remdesivir was one of the first clinical candidates that received attention. […] After in vitro studies had shown its antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, and a first patient was successfully treated with the drug in the USA, a number of trials on remdesivir were initiated. […] Several had encouraging results, particularly the ACTT-1 double blind, randomized, and placebo controlled trial that has shown shortening of the time to recovery in hospitalized patients treated with remdesivir. […] Here, we provide an overview of remdesivir discovery, molecular mechanism of action, and initial and current clinical studies on its efficacy.
33388249 During the hospital stay, 5 received drugs (e.g., remdesivir) in addition to convalescent plasma therapy.
33389441 In this study, detailed molecular docking and dynamics simulations are used to evaluate the binding affinity of a clinically approved drug, sofosbuvir, with the solved structure of the viral protein RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and compare it to the clinically approved drug, Remdesivir. […] Sofosbuvir was found to bind nsp12 with comparable binding energies to that of Remdesivir, which has been reported for its potential against COVID-19 RdRp and is currently approved by the FDA.
33389708 Remdesivir, an investigational broad-spectrum antiviral agent has previously demonstrated in vitro activity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and in vivo efficacy against other related coronaviruses in animal models. […] The current therapeutic studies demonstrate clinical effectiveness of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients by shortening time to clinical recovery, and hospital stay. […] In this review, we critically analyze the current evidence of remdesivir against COVID-19 and dissect the aspects over its safety and efficacy. […] Based on existing data, remdesivir can be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19.
33390423 At present, several existing licensed drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and remdesivir have been used because of their potential efficacy in inhibiting COVID-19.
33390567 Food and Drug Administration approved remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug with broad antiviral activity, for adults and children (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 40 kg) who need to be admitted to hospital for covid-19 treatment. […] In order to monitor the optimization of patient clinical response profile, as well as address the challenges associated with remdesivir metabolism, highly sensitive, selective and accurate analytical methods are necessary. […] This review clearly covers all the analytical methods developed for the identification and quantitative determination of remdesivir and its metabolites in biological matrices, which helps the researchers in developing new methods for the analysis of remdesivir by considering the pros and cons of the previously reported methods.
33397449 SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment.
33398223 Hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir is found to be safe in limited studies in a patient with cirrhosis and COVID-19.
33398609 Antiviral drugs, in particular Remdesivir, should be administered soon after symptoms onset, in the viraemic phase of the disease; whereas, immunomodulatory agents, such as tocilizumab, anakinra and steroids, may have better results if administered in pneumonia/hyperinflammatory phases.
33400975 The antiviral drug, remdesivir, and the anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone, have shown beneficial effects.
33402839 However, retrospective observational studies reported the efficacy of remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir in reducing viral load, although there have been concerns with lopinavir/ritonavir and, more recently, remdesivir.
33403227 In addition, although remdesivir was recently approved by the FDA to be used as a clinical drug against COVID-19, it hasn’t stood out yet as a proven form of therapeutics.
33403981 Here we describe the rapid review and evidence-to-decision process, using remdesivir and dexamethasone as examples.
33404204 Remdesivir (RDV), a prodrug and requires intracellular conversions to the active triphosphate nucleoside (TN) has surfaced as an active anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug.
33407777 In the context of the current worldwide pandemic, SOC can include medicines that are being used in clinical practice (e.g. lopinavir/ritonavir; hydroxy/chloroquine, tocilizumab, etc.), as well as those authorised for COVID (e.g., remdesivir).
33409034 Current treatment guidelines support use of remdesivir as well as dexamethasone in hypoxic patients. […] Methods and outcomes We report our experience among six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who received ICS, remdesivir and dexamethasone for treatment as well as their outcomes.
33410987 Remdesivir, baricinitib, and anakinra can be used concomitantly with antipsychotics without risk of drug-drug interaction (except for hematological risk with clozapine and baricinitib).
33412235 On comparison with the known SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitor -lopinavir and RdRp inhibitor -remdesivir, apigenin-o-7-glucuronide was found to be a phenomenal inhibitor of both protease and polymerase, as it strongly interacts with their active sites and exhibited remarkably high binding affinity.
33415116 Worldwide, the clinical studies of the most impactful drugs, remdesivir and dexamethasone in ACTT-1, RECOVERY, and Solidarity, have studied hospitalized patients.
33416020 Additional rounds of docking, MD simulations and MM-PBSA calculations with remdesivir suggested that this compound can also work as a multi-target drug against SARS-CoV-2.
33418595 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 21 patients (11 %), favipiravir to 26 patients (13 %) and remdesivir to 13 patients (6 %).
33421347 DDI may occur in patients under treatment with medications used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; i.e., chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and remdesivir) and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as QT-prolongation, retinopathy, increased risk of infection, and hepatotoxicity.
33421473 In-silico screening, molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis suggest ribavirin, and remdesivir have good interaction with the binding site of the RdRp protein as compared to other antiviral investigated. […] Hence, ribavirin and remdesivir were used for the denovo fragments based antiviral design.
33422642 The nucleotide analogue prodrug remdesivir was among the first antiviral therapies to be tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for COVID-19. […] We included RCTs comparing the efficacy and safety of remdesivir to control/placebo in COVID-19. […] At a follow-up of 28-29 days from randomization, very low certainty evidence showed that use of remdesivir compared with control group (placebo and/or standard of care) was not associated with a significant decrease in time to clinical improvement (standardized mean difference -0.80 day; [CI, -2.12, 0.53]). […] However, moderate certainty of evidence showed that remdesivir was associated with higher rates of recovered patients (risk difference [RD] 0.07 [0.05, 0.08]) and discharged patients (RD 0.07 [0.03, 0.11]) and lower rates of developing serious adverse events (RD -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01]) compared with control. […] Patients given remdesivir are more likely to demonstrate recovery and were associated with higher rates of hospital discharge, but not with significant reduction in mean time to clinical improvement or mortality.
33425407 Remdesivir is a nucleoside analog prodrug with broad-spectrum antiviral activity, including against coronaviruses. […] This has prioritized the inclusion of remdesivir in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical trials. […] The United States Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency use authorization for remdesivir. […] This emergency use authorization does not recommend the use of remdesivir in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 30 mL/min unless the benefits outweigh the risks. […] To date, there are no studies and scant information in the literature evaluating remdesivir utilization in patients with eGFR less than 30 mL/min or receiving hemodialysis. […] With little utilization data for patients with acute or chronic kidney injury, remdesivir may not be considered, leaving this patient population without the opportunity of a potentially beneficial treatment option. […] We present a case of one patient with eGFR less than 30 mL/min that required hemodialysis in which remdesivir was safely initiated, with therapy completed without any serious adverse events.
33425648 ) with better pharmacokinetics and bioavailability compared to Remdesivir which is currently used compassionately.
33425697 -glucopyranosyl-andrographolide have lower free binding energy and highest similarity in types of interaction with amino acid residues compared to its co-crystal ligands (6LU7) and Indinavir or Remdesivir.
33428032 In this review, we summarize mainly the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, the antiviral drugs Favipiravir and Remdesivir, and JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib, discussing their biological activities, clinical trials and synthesis progress.
33430746 However, for the critically ill patient, plasma therapy, dexamethasone, and remdesivir are included in the treatment protocol.
33430891 Intervention group: standard of care at the discretion of the researcher, including lopinavir/ritonavir (200/50 mg, 2 tablets twice daily, per os, for 7 to 14 days) ± remdesivir (a single intravenous loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by once-daily intravenous maintenance doses of 100 mg from day 2 to 5), or no drug treatment, + methylprednisolone (once-daily intravenous infusion of 120 mg on days 1, 2 and 3). standard of care at the discretion of the researcher, including lopinavir/ritonavir (200/50 mg, 2 tablets every 12 hours, per os, for 7 to 14 days) ± remdesivir (a single intravenous loading dose of 200 mg on day 1 followed by once-daily intravenous maintenance doses of 100 mg from day 2 to 5), or no drug treatment, + placebo (once-daily intravenous infusion of 100 mL of 0.9% saline on days 1, 2 and 3). ≥15% from baseline, together with laboratory and radiological deterioration.
33435273 Our in vitro studies, using a variety of model systems, explored the interactions of the antimalarial agents chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; the antihelmintic ivermectin; and the proposed antiviral compounds ritonavir, lopinavir, favipiravir, and remdesivir with the ABCB1/Pgp, ABCG2/BCRP, and ABCC1/MRP1 exporters, as well as the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)2B1 and OATP1A2 uptake transporters.
33436624 Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. […] The active form of remdesivir acts as a nucleoside analog and inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. […] Remdesivir is incorporated by the RdRp into the growing RNA product and allows for addition of three more nucleotides before RNA synthesis stalls. […] Here we use synthetic RNA chemistry, biochemistry and cryo-electron microscopy to establish the molecular mechanism of remdesivir-induced RdRp stalling. […] We show that addition of the fourth nucleotide following remdesivir incorporation into the RNA product is impaired by a barrier to further RNA translocation. […] In the structure of the remdesivir-stalled state, the 3’-nucleotide of the RNA product is matched and located with the template base in the active center, and this may impair proofreading by the viral 3’-exonuclease.
33442304 Just based on experience coming from the use of antiviral agents to treat other viruses (eg, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir) and supposed antiviral or immunomodulatory activities of drugs with no approved antiviral indications (eg hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab), clinicians have faced the ongoing pandemic.
33443475 Remdesivir has not shown survival benefit for patients with severe COVID-19. […] The aim is a methodological assessment of reliability and clinical applicability about findings by subgroups on the effect of remdesivir on mortality in patients with COVID-19. […] This structured interpretation of subgroup analysis suggested too much uncertainty in hypothesis about remdesivir could reduce mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 who required non-high- flow oxygen. […] Therefore, a randomized clinical trial about effect of remdesivir in mortality in patients with COVID‑19 and non-high-flow oxygen is essential.
33443836 Remdesivir in COVID-19: relatively safe but turns out to be less effective than expected.
33444702 The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus initiated a pneumonia outbreak (COVID-19) that rapidly spread worldwide and quickly became a public health emergency of international concern; However to date, except Remdesivir, there are no clinically approved specific or effective medicines to prevent or treat COVID-19.
33448738 As of today, only remdesivir has been authorized to treat COVID-19.
33450186 Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes.
33452110 Remdesivir (REM) was granted its first conditional marketing authorisation in the EU in June 2020.
33453396 The lack of effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has mandated the repurposing of several drugs, including antiretrovirals and remdesivir (RDV).
33457138 It is difficult to predict the efficacy of tocilizumab and remdesivir as only a few patients in the cohort received these drugs.
33457144 We are focusing on three things for every patient in the hospital with COVID-19, namely dexamethasone, remdesivir and enhanced anticoagulation protocols as this had shown improved mortality.
33458647 Many promising antiviral agents including lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, darunavir, and oseltamivir have been repurposed and are currently trialled in the care for COVID-19 patients.
33460356 This study consists of a qualitative content analysis of online comments about news reports of Gilead Science’s pricing of remdesivir, a re-purposed drug that shows some positive efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials.
33463727 Favorable impressions of remdesivir have been relied on for the early onset of this drug. […] Favipiravir has resulted in a higher viral clearance than remdesivir. […] Currently, remdesivir and favipiravir are advantageous drugs that should be administered in the early phases.
33468703 Moreover, our results suggest that stenoparib and remdesivir in combination may be especially potent against coronavirus infection.
33469197 Furthermore, we briefly discuss the potential of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), dolutegravir (DTG) and remdesivir (RDV) in drug repurposing and their safety in pregnancy complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
33470663 Antiviral agents such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine have been investigated as well as specific and non-specific immunomodulators in order to determine their potential efficacy against SARS-Cov2.
33472167 This multi-country study aimed to explore risk factors that drive mortality in COVID-19 patients who received neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir.
33475021 Further residues involved in binding of antimalarials with SARS-CoV-2-RdRp were compared with the residues involved in the SARS-CoV-2-RdRp complexed with remdesivir [PDB ID: 7BV2]. […] It was observed that co-crystallized remdesivir and docked antimalarials bind in the same pocket of SARS-CoV-2 -RdRp.
33476387 We studied serum specimens from 19 hospitalized adults with COVID-19 randomized to treatment with remdesivir or placebo. […] We identified no clear immunologic trends attributable to remdesivir treatment.
33483744 This report describes our process of 4 health systems coming together to agree on standard use criteria for remdesivir as a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment for patients in Utah. […] We hope our process provides a framework for remdesivir use in other states and insights on future use of other therapeutic agents that may also be in short supply, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. […] Health systems in Utah worked together as part of the state’s crisis standards of care workgroup to develop a framework for how to limit the EUA criteria for remdesivir to match available supplies. […] The unique collaboration of the 4 health systems in Utah led to statewide criteria for use of remdesivir for patients with COVID-19, ensuring similar access to this limited resource for all patients in Utah.
33489115 To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined remdesivir treatment for COVID-19. […] A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed, Embase, and to identify studies published up to October 25, 2020 that examined COVID-19 treatment with remdesivir. […] Remdesivir attenuates disease progression, leading to lower odds of MV/ECMO and greater odds of hospital discharge for COVID-19 patients. […] However, remdesivir does not affect odds of mortality.
33490902 The use of remdesivir to treat COVID-19 will likely continue before clinical trials are completed. […] Due to the lengthening pandemic and evolving nature of the virus, predicting potential residues prone to mutation is crucial for the management of remdesivir resistance. […] Using a rational ligand-based interface design complemented with mutational mapping, we generated a total of 100,000 mutations and provided insight into the functional outcomes of mutations in the remdesivir-binding site in nsp12 subunit of RdRp. […] After designing 46 residues in the remdesivir-binding site of nsp12, the designs retained 97%-98% sequence identity, suggesting that very few mutations in nsp12 are required for SARS-CoV-2 to attain remdesivir resistance. […] Several mutants displayed decreased binding affinity to remdesivir, suggesting drug resistance. […] These hotspot residues had a higher probability of undergoing selective mutation and thus conferring remdesivir resistance.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33495306 = 0.88 nM) 27.5-fold more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, with limited toxicity in cell culture.
33495739 Remdesivir, and Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine) that may increase the chance of treatment.
33495967 Primary scrutinized therapies include antiviral regimens, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunomodulating drugs, such as corticosteroids and interleukin (IL) inhibitors, and other therapies including convalescent plasma.
33499310 This review aims to describe the history, efficacy, and safety of five potential therapeutics for COVID-19, remdesivir, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma. […] Moreover, there was insufficient evidence to support repurposing remdesivir, favipiravir, and tocilizumab for COVID-19.
33501997 This report summarizes development of remdesivir physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that accurately describes observed adult remdesivir and metabolites exposure and predicts pediatric remdesivir and metabolites exposure. […] Adult PBPK model was applied to predict pediatric remdesivir and metabolites steady-state exposures using the Pediatric Population Model in SimCYP and incorporated the relevant physiologic and mechanistic information. […] Model development was based on adult Phase 1 exposure data in healthy volunteers who were administered a 200 mg loading dose of remdesivir IV over 0.5 hr on Day 1, then 100 mg daily maintenance doses of remdesivir intravenous (IV) over 0.5 hr starting on Day 2 and continuing through Days 5 or 10. […] Simulations indicated that use of the adult therapeutic remdesivir dosage regimen (200 mg loading dose on Day 1 then 100 mg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients ≥40 kg and a weight-based remdesivir dosage regimen (5 mg/kg loading dose on Day 1 then 2.5 mg/kg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients weighing 2.5 - <40 kg is predicted to maintain therapeutic exposures of remdesivir and its metabolites. […] The comprehensive PBPK model described in this report supported remdesivir dosing in planned pediatric clinical studies and dosing in the emergency use authorization and pediatric compassionate use programs that were initiated to support RDV as a treatment option during the pandemic.
33505872 The nucleotide inhibitors such as sofosbuvir, ribavirin, galidesivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, cefuroxime, tenofovir, and hydroxychloroquine (HCHL), setrobuvir, YAK, and IDX-184 were found to be effective in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. […] The other drugs such as favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir under the antiviral category, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors), remdesivir (RNA polymerase inhibitor) from antiviral category, cepharanthine from anti-inflammatory category, etc., have been pointed based on the previous literature published.
33506946 List the clinical data of the role of remdesivir in COVID-19, and try to make an objective evaluation and analyze its feasibility. […] The keywords of “remdesivir”, “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” were systematically searched in PubMed and Web of Science. […] After removing the repetitions, we summarize articles, letters, and comments on remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19. […] In this review, we summarize clinical case of using remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19, analyzed the final treatment results, and judged whether the drug was effective for the treatment of COVID-19. […] According to the clinical results, it was found that remdesivir was effective in the treatment of COVID-19.
33507952 We used flow cytometry and single cell RNA-sequencing to understand how the heterogeneity of this diverse cell population contributes to elements of viral tropism and pathogenesis, antiviral immunity, and treatment response to remdesivir. […] Importantly, remdesivir treatment effectively inhibited viral replication across cell types, and blunted hyperinflammatory responses.
33508271 Remdesivir (RDV) is a phosphoramidate prodrug designed to have activity against a broad spectrum of viruses.
33508618 The World Health Organization reported that four candidate drugs, including remdesivir, are ineffective or have little effect on COVID-19.
33509065 The patient was treated with different combinations of antivirals (hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir), cytokine inhibitors (anakinra and tocilizumab), glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and methylprednisolone), and an anticoagulant (enoxaparin).
33511168 However, dexa-methasone and remdesivir are appeared to be promising medical therapies.
33513400 Unlike other therapeutic agents, exogenous OXT can be used safely without the side-effects seen in remdesivir and corticosteroid.
33521757 Nucleoside analogs, such as Remdesivir and Favipiravir, can serve as the first-line broad-spectrum antiviral drugs by targeting the viral polymerases. […] This drug thus inhibits viral replication mainly by inducing mutations in progeny RNAs, different from Remdesivir or other RNA-terminating nucleoside analogs that impair the elongation of RNA products.
33523654 At the time of this manuscript’s publication, remdesivir is the only COVID-19 treatment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. […] Herein, we report that the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, GS-441524, potently inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 and other cell lines.
33525227 Preliminary reports have shown positive outcomes with Remdesivir and tocilizumab, but this needs further confirmation.
33526007 There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc.
33526440 The glucocorticoid dexamethasone is the standard of care in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to suppress the inappropriately heightened inflammatory response (cytokine storm), but the Janus kinase inhibitor baricitinib combined with remdesivir has received emergency use authorization for the same indication.
33527003 Furthermore, 5-β-glucosyl-7-demethoxy-encecalin (5GDE) and 2-oxocadinan-3,6(11)-dien-12,7-olide (BODO) were found to be potential blockers with excellent binding affinity with Mpro and ACE2 than their native inhibitors remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine respectively.
33527086 Recent efforts to repurpose drugs to combat COVID-19 have identified Remdesivir as a candidate. […] Surprisingly, however, ribavirin and favilavir do not bind the nucleotide on the complementary strand as effectively and seem to act by a different mechanism than remdesivir. […] Remdesivir exhibits similar binding interactions to the natural base adenine. […] Moreover, by analyzing remdesivir at downstream positions of the RNA, we also find that, consistent with a “delayed” termination mechanism, additional nucleotides can be incorporated after remdesivir is added, and its highly polar 1’-cyano group induces a set of conformational changes that can affect the normal RdRp complex function. […] By analyzing the fluctuations of residues that are altered by remdesivir binding, and comparing them to those induced by lethal point mutations, we find a possible secondary mechanism in which remdesivir destabilizes the protein complex and its interactions with the RNA strands.
33527424 When patients with chronic kidney disease are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) they can face two specific problems: virus-specific immune responses may be impaired and remdesivir, an antiviral drug described to shorten recovery, is contraindicated.
33532160 From day 7, he was administered remdesivir.
33532594 IDentif.AI pinpointed the optimal combination as remdesivir, ritonavir, and lopinavir, which was experimentally validated to mediate a 6.5-fold enhanced efficacy over remdesivir alone.
33534931 There was no difference in all-cause mortality by age, gender, FIB-4 score, number of comorbidities or treatment with remdesivir and/or systemic corticosteroids.
33537767 Drug therapies used included hydroxychloroquine (69%), remdesivir (10%), and interleukin-6 antagonists (9%).
33538646 Treatment with a combination of methylprednisolone with remdesivir reduces both viral loads and lung inflammation in hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2.
33538960 This complicates the drug-disease interaction profile of the patients as both the investigational drugs (e.g., remdesivir, dexamethasone) and the agents for comorbidities can be affected by compromised CYP-mediated hepatic metabolism.
33540028 Intravenous remdesivir (RDV) was the first drug receiving Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of COVID-19. […] In this study, we have developed a Self-injectable extended release subcutaneous injection of Remdesivir (SelfExRem) for the treatment of COVID-19.
33540128 To examine the probability of mortality benefit for remdesivir and contrast with systemic corticosteroids. […] A probabilistic reanalysis of available clinical trial data for corticosteroids or remdesivir in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 using a Bayesian random effects meta-analytic approach. […] Among patients requiring ventilation, remdesivir had only a 4% probability of 1% or greater mortality benefit compared to 93% for corticosteroids. […] For patients requiring supplemental oxygen, the probability of 1% or greater survival benefit was 81% for remdesivir compared to 93% for dexamethasone. […] Finally, for patients without oxygen requirements, the probabilities of 1% or greater mortality benefit were 29% for remdesivir and 4% for dexamethasone. […] Using a Bayesian analytic approach, remdesivir had a low probability of achieving a clinically meaningful reduction in mortality, except for patients requiring supplemental oxygen.
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide. […] The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in clinical efficacy include CQ/HCQ (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, ACE2, and HO-1); azithromycin (ABCB1); LPV/r (SLCO1B1, ABCB1, ABCC2 and CYP3A); NVP (ABCC10); oseltamivir (CES1 and ABCB1); remdesivir (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and OATP1B1); anakinra (IL-1a); and TCZ (IL6R and FCGR3A).
33544720 Focusing specifically on SARS subnetwork, we identified 282 repurposable drugs, including some the most rumored off-label drugs for COVID-19 treatments (e.g., chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, heparin), as well as a new combination therapy of 5 drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir), actually used in clinical practice.
33545499 During the 2nd period dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, remdesivir, thromboprophylaxis or anticoagulation were administered according to international recommendations.
33545711 Little change was observed in the overall viral population structure following two courses of remdesivir over the first 57 days.
33546185 TG’s antiviral performance was significantly better than remdesivir and ribavirin in their respective inhibition of OC43 and RSV.
33546616 Remdesivir has been authorized for the treatment of COVID-19. […] The incidence of AKI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients being treated with remdesivir was 7% (95% CI: 3-13%) in a total of 5 studies. […] Remdesivir probably did not induce AKI in COVID-19 patients.
33548872 The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. […] The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum.
33549572 Remdesivir (RDV) exhibits potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and is currently the only drug approved for the treatment of COVID-19.
33549577 Considering the recent food and drug administration (FDA) approval of remdesivir as the first officially approved agent for COVID-19 treatment, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remdesivir administration in COVID-19 patients. […] The results showed that remdesivir administration was associated with a significant improvement in the 28-day recovery (RR=1.09, 95%CI, 1.04-1.15), low flow oxygen support through days one to 14 (RR=2.88, 95%CI, 1.80-4.60), and invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirement through days 14 to 28 of the follow-up time (RR=5.34, 95%CI, 2.37-12.05). […] The risk of experiencing serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was significantly lower (RR=0.75, 95%CI, 0.63-0.90) in the remdesivir group than the comparison/control group. […] The clinical output comparison of the 5-day and 10-day remdesivir courses revealed that the 5-day regimen might provide similar benefits while causing fewer serious ADRs than 10-day. […] The current meta-analysis provided an updated evaluation of scientific evidence on the use of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients.
33550043 Recently several drugs have been used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Nafamostat mesylate and so on. […] Remdesivir and Favipiravir were more promising despite having side effects; it had prominent efficacy and efficiency while still not yet approved as the official anti-viral drug for SARS CoV-2.
33550050 In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
33550966 Reference drug Remdesivir was used to compare the docking score of antibiotics with RdRp.
33552429 Remdesivir is an antiviral drug currently being studied as a potential treatment of pneumonia caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. […] The Adaptive Covid-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT-1) by NIH and the SIMPLE study by Gilead Sciences are two major trials that showed promising results of Remdesivir in the non-pregnant population. […] We are presenting the case of a pregnant patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and successfully treated with Remdesivir.
33552773 Much of its clinical presentation is already known, and there have been advances in its successful treatment with a food and drug administration (FDA) approved antiviral medication called remdesivir, and other proven investigational methods with clinical benefits including dexamethasone and COVID-19 antibody transfusion called convalescent plasma therapy.
33552835 The antiviral drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir as inhibitors for HIV protease, nucleotide analogue remdesivir, and broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are available to treat the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
33552875 Repositioning of the drugs, such as remdesivir and chloroquine, is a rapid process for the reach of safe therapeutics, and the related clinical trials have determined effects against COVID-19.
33555378 Remdesivir, Favipiravir and Ribavirin might be a safer therapeutic option for COVID-19.
33555780 The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 outside clinical trials.
33557278 It was found that gemcitabine has a synergistic effect when combined with remdesivir. […] This report suggests that the difluoro group of gemcitabine is critical for the antiviral activity and that its combination with other evaluated antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, could be a desirable option to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33558289 In their editorial “Remdesivir for COVID-19: Why Not Dose Higher?”
33558296 Large randomized clinical trials that aimed to test four repurposed drugs, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta-1a, and remdesivir, have shown that these compounds lacked impact on the COVID-19 course. […] Its antiviral activity was 27.5-fold more potent than that of remdesivir (1).
33558301 examined the on- and off-target toxicity of remdesivir (RDV) and its parent nucleoside, GS-441524 (1).
33560863 Remdesivir is being studied and used for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To update a previous review of remdesivir for adults with COVID-19, including new meta-analyses of patients with COVID-19 of any severity compared with control. […] English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of remdesivir for COVID-19. […] Compared with control, a 10-day course of remdesivir probably results in little to no reduction in mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.82 to 1.06]; 4 RCTs) but may result in a small reduction in the proportion of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (RR, 0.71 [CI, 0.56 to 0.90]; 3 RCTs). […] Remdesivir probably results in a moderate increase in the percentage of patients who recovered and a moderate decrease in serious adverse events and may result in a large reduction in time to recovery. […] In hospitalized adults with COVID-19, remdesivir probably results in little to no mortality difference but probably improves the percentage recovered and reduces serious harms and may result in a small reduction in the proportion receiving ventilation.
33560940 Combination therapy experiment showed that the antiviral activity of LF is synergistic with remdesivir in cell culture.
33564274 Remdesivir has been recognized as an important medicine in the control of COVID-19 illness. […] Since carbon nanotubes were considered in the design of novel drug delivery vehicles, the interaction between simple CNT, functionalized CNT by carboxylic group and S-, Al-, and Si-doped CNT and Remdesivir drug were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. […] The results of this work show that the Si-doped CNT is the best drug delivery system for Remdesivir due to its better electronic, energetic, adsorption and thermodynamic properties.
33565392 The main progress in international critical care medicine in 2020 are: the reflections on the mandatory of implementation of the 1-hour cluster treatment strategy for sepsis are still continuing; the “metabolic resuscitation” therapy, represented by large dose of vitamin C, failed to yield positive results; the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with evidences indicating Dexamethasone, Remdesivir or interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b), Lopinavir/Ritonavir and ribavirin as promising therapy; conservative oxygen therapy did not exert positive effects neither for mechanical ventilated patients nor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient; the concept of lung- and diaphragm-protective mechanical ventilation illuminates a new opportunity to potentially improve clinical outcomes for critically ill patients; there was no positive evidence for stress ulcer prophylaxis and timing of endoscopy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding; early initiation of renal-replacement therapy (RRT) for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not shown positive effect.
33568967 Afterward, the outcome shows that Remdesivir is the best medicine for patients with mild symptoms of the COVID-19.
33569082 Other agents, such as convalescent plasma, eculizumab, immunoglobulins, neutralizing IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, steroids, and tocilizumab, have shown a possible impact on inpatient length of stay and mortality rate.
33572467 Brilacidin demonstrated synergistic antiviral activity when combined with remdesivir.
33576431 The median time to dexamethasone, remdesivir, and convalescent plasma administration was 4.7, 6.3, and 11.2 hours, respectively.
33585508 The result of contemporary meta-analysis suggests mortality benefit with Remdesivir in COVID-19 and median recovery time was over 2 weeks. […] The pooled mortality with Remdesivir was found to be very low, and this analysis can shed light on this potential treatment for COVID-19 patients.
33586189 Current management strategies for COVID-19 include supportive care and the use of repurposed or symptomatic drugs, such as dexamethasone, remdesivir, and anticoagulants.
33589438 Hydroxychloroquine was not beneficial at any disease stage, one RCT with anakinra was negative, one RCT with baricitinib+remdesivir was positive, and individual trials on some other compounds provided interesting, although preliminary, results.
33590992 We report a case of acute pancreatitis that developed after four days of remdesivir therapy in a patient being treated for COVID-19. […] Despite improvement in patient’s respiratory status, abdominal pain worsened and clinical signs and symptoms progressed to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis 4 days after initiation of remdesivir therapy. […] Withdrawal of remdesivir paired with medical management of acute pancreatitis led to the resolution of pancreatitis within three days. […] To our knowledge, this is the first case report depicting remdesivir as a possible cause of acute pancreatitis.
33596266 There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for COVID-19 aside from remdesivir; early efforts to identify efficacious therapeutics for COVID-19 have mainly focused on drug repurposing screens to identify compounds with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cellular infection systems.