DrugBank ID: db11193
DrugCentral: papain
Synonymous :papaína

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of papain gene in 11 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32120929 Different modes of time-of-addition/removal assay indicated that tryptanthrin prevented the early and late stages of HCoV-NL63 replication, particularly by blocking viral RNA genome synthesis and papain-like protease 2 activity.
32167166 The AS-SCoV2 located in the acidic-domain of papain-like protein of SARS-CoV-2 and bat-SL-CoV-RatG13 guided us to suggest that the novel 2019 coronavirus probably emerged by genetic drift from bat-SL-CoV-RaTG13. […] The implication of this amino acid signature in papain-like protein structure arrangement and function is something worth to be explored.
32181901 Among the nonstructural proteins, the leader protein (nsp1), the papain-like protease (nsp3), the nsp4, the 3C-like protease (nsp5), the nsp7, the nsp8, the nsp9, the nsp10, the RNA-directed RNA polymerase (nsp12), the helicase (nsp13), the guanine-N7 methyltransferase (nsp14), the uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (nsp15), the 2’-O-methyltransferase (nsp16), and the ORF7a protein could be built on the basis of homology templates.
32188728 Coronaviruses express a multifunctional papain-like protease, termed PLP2. […] The coronavirus papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) domain possesses protease activity, which cleaves the viral replicase polyprotein, and also DUB activity (de-conjugating ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like molecules from modified substrates) using identical catalytic residues.
32216114 Coronaviral proteases, including main proteases and papain-like proteases (PLP), are attractive antiviral targets because of their essential roles in polyprotein processing and thus viral maturation. […] Here, we describe the biochemical and structural identification of recombinant SADS papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) domain of nsp3.
32281328 The crystal structures of 3 CL protease(Mpro) and papain-like protease(PLP) were obtained from PDB database and homologous modeling respectively, and were used to conduct virtual screening of TCMD 2009 database by CDOCKER program.
32292689 Structure and screening results of important targets such as 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Spike, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and papain like protease (PLpro) were discussed in detail.
32375574 Lopinavir has the highest binding affinities to the pocket site of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A and 3-Chymotrypsin like protease while redemsivir has the highest binding affinities for vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and papain-like proteins.
32428392 As a betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 encodes for a papain-like protease (PLpro) that is likely responsible for cleavage of the CoV viral poly-peptide.
32429099 Coronaviruses code for an important multifunctional enzyme named papain-like protease (PLP), that has many roles in pathogenesis.
32450166 Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites.
32476574 Thus, three fumiquinazoline alkaloids scedapin C (15), quinadoline B (19) and norquinadoline A (20), the polyketide isochaetochromin D1 (8), and the terpenoid 11a-dehydroxyisoterreulactone A (11) exhibited high binding affinities on the target proteins, papain-like protease (PLpro), chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp), non-structural protein 15 (nsp15), and the spike binding domain to GRP78.
32530284 We introduce mutation ratio and mutation h-index to characterize the protein conservativeness and unveil that SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein, main protease, and endoribonuclease protein are relatively conservative, while SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and papain-like protease are relatively nonconservative.
32543978 Here using molecular docking approach, and combined molecular dynamics and MM-GBSA based free energy calculations approach, we study the potency of the four selected phytochemicals namely andrographolide (AGP1), 14-deoxy 11,12-didehydro andrographolide (AGP2), neoandrographolide (AGP3) and 14-deoxy andrographolide (AGP4) from A. paniculata plant against the four key targets including three non-structural proteins (3 L main protease (3CLpro), Papain-like proteinase (PLpro) and RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp)) and a structural protein (spike protein (S)) of the virus which are responsible for replication, transcription and host cell recognition.
32568618 The study design was composed of some major aspects: (a) classification QSAR based data mining of diverse SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibitors, (b) QSAR based virtual screening (VS) to identify in-house molecules that could be effective against putative target SARS-CoV PLpro and (c) finally validation of hits through receptor-ligand interaction analysis.
32579258 MPA targets coronaviral papain-like protease and its study would be useful in the development of novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
32597315 SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) was used to virtually screen 1697 clinical FDA-approved drugs.
32617527 Molecular docking results against protein targets Furin, papain like proteases, RdRp and Spike glycoprotein had shown paritaprevir, ritonavir, entecavir and chloroquine derivatives are the best drugs to inhibit multi targets of coronavirus infection including natural compounds corosolic acid, baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid with minimal inhibitory concentrations.
32686993 Among the predicted drugs compounds, clemizole, monorden, spironolactone and tanespimycin showed high binding energies; among the studied repurposing compounds, remdesivir, simeprevir and valinomycin showed high binding energies; among the predicted acidic compounds, acetylursolic acid and hardwickiic acid gave high binding energies; while among the studied anthraquinones and glycosides compounds, ellagitannin and friedelanone showed high binding energies against 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (nsp13), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), 2’-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) of SARS-CoV-2 and DNA-PK and CK2alpha in human.
32691680 In the present research endeavour the inhibitory prospects of cyanobacterial metabolites were assessed at the active binding pockets of the two vital SARS-CoV-2 proteases namely, main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) that proteolytically process viral polyproteins and facilitate viral replication, employing an in silico molecular interaction-based approach.
32718300 During infection, the ssRNA of SARS-CoV2 is translated into large polyproteins forming viral replication complex by specific proteases like 3CL protease and papain protease. […] This is also another target to control the virus infection where darinaparsin also perform the inhibitory role to proteases of 3CL protease (-7.69 kcal/mol) and papain protease (-8.43 kcal/mol).
32722864 We present a docking-based screening using a quantum mechanical scoring of a library built from approved drugs and compounds undergoing clinical trials, against three SARS-CoV-2 target proteins: the spike or S-protein, and two proteases, the main protease and the papain-like protease.
32726803 The papain-like protease PLpro is an essential coronavirus enzyme that is required for processing viral polyproteins to generate a functional replicase complex and enable viral spread1,2.
32729180 The targets include spike glycoprotein and various host proteases mediating the entry of the virus into the cells, viral chymotrypsin- and papain-like proteases, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase.
32729392 In this study, drug re-purposing and computational approaches were employed to identify high affinity inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (3CLpro), Papain-like protease (PLpro) and the receptor domain of Spike protein.
32738628 Considering the published literature on medicinal importance, 154 phytochemicals with analogous structure from limonoids and triterpenoids were selected to search potential inhibitors for the five therapeutic protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., 3CLpro (main protease), PLpro (papain-like protease), SGp-RBD (spike glycoprotein-receptor binding domain), RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2).
32744711 In this work, we choose resveratrol (RV) derivatives (22 cases) and two newly released coordinate structures for COVID-19 as receptors [Papain-like Protease of SARS CoV-2 (PBD ID: 6W9C) and 2019-nCoV RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (PBD ID: 6M71)].
32770392 The 217-kDa large Nsp3 spans one polypeptide chain, but comprises multiple independent, yet functionally related domains including the viral papain-like protease.
32772313 3C-like protease, papain-like protease, and spike protein. […] Finally, the docking was performed using autodock4 to identify the binding efficacy of anthraquinone derivatives with 3C-like protease, papain-like protease, and spike protein. […] Similarly, docking study revealed torososide B to possess the highest binding affinity with papain-like protease and 3C-like protease and 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-O-(6’-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside with spike protein.
32803496 The 217-kDa large Nsp3 protein contains multiple structurally independent, yet functionally related domains including the viral papain-like protease and Nsp3b, a macrodomain (MD).
32828694 The identification of the antibodies, showed the presence of an alloantibody with anti-Lewis b specificity, which was reactive at room temperature, in the anti-human globulin phase (AGH) and with papain-treated red blood cells.
32837954 For this purpose, five proteins of COVID-19 (3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Papain-Like protease (PLpro), cleavage site, HR1 and RBD in Spike protein) were selected as target proteins for drug repositioning.
32845033 The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus encodes an essential papain-like protease domain as part of its non-structural protein (nsp)-3, namely SARS2 PLpro, that cleaves the viral polyprotein, but also removes ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein modifications as well as, with lower activity, Lys48-linked polyubiquitin.
32848790 In addition, natural products were shown to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 life-cycle related proteins such as papain-like or chymotrypsin-like proteases.
32850963 This virus, termed SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2), contains Papain-like protease (PLpro) involved in viral replication and immune response evasion.
32874702 The papain-like protease (PLpro) is vital for the replication of coronaviruses (CoVs), as well as for escaping innate-immune responses of the host.
32881661 We had perform molecular docking studies on three different proteins of novel corona virus namely COVID-19 main protease (3CL pro), papain-like protease (PL pro) and spike protein (S) attached to ACE2 binding domain.
32895623 The papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays essential roles in virus replication and immune evasion, presenting a charming drug target.
32902889 The papain-like protease (PLpro) is an important enzyme for coronavirus polyprotein processing, as well as for virus-host immune suppression.
32911757 In the current literature scenario, the papain-like and the 3-chymotrypsin-like proteases seem to be the most deeply investigated and a number of isolated natural (poly)phenols has been screened for their efficacy.
32915473 The gold metallodrugs were also efficient inhibitors of the papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, which is a key enzyme in the viral replication.
32927129 Swiss-model was used to construct the structure of the N-terminal RNA-binding domain (NRBD) of the nucleoprotein (NC), papain-like protease (PLpro), and RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32930481 Inhibition of coronavirus (CoV)-encoded papain-like cysteine proteases (PLpro) represents an attractive strategy to treat infections by these important human pathogens.
32947136 3-Chymotrypsin like protease (also known as Mpro) and papain-like protease, have emerged as the potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery against coronaviruses owing to their crucial role in viral entry and host-cell invasion.
32962355 The papain-like protease (PLpro) is an attractive drug target due to its essential roles in the viral life cycle.
32964796 Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor); AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase; BMM: bone marrow macrophage; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary/cell line; CoV: coronaviruses; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; DMV: double-membrane vesicle; EAV: equine arteritis virus; EDEM1: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HCoV: human coronavirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSV: herpes simplex virus; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; IFN: interferon; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCoV: mouse coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (autophagy receptor that directs cargo to phagophores); nsp: non-structural protein; OS9: OS9 endoplasmic reticulum lectin; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLP: papain-like protease; pMEF: primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; Vps: vacuolar protein sorting.
32979476 These targets including an important host cell receptor, i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 and several viral proteins e.g. spike glycoprotein (S) containing S1 and S2 domains, SARS CoV Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro), helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
32979815 Human ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-2 (USP2) inhibitors, such as thiopurine analogs, have been reported to inhibit SARS-CoV papain-like proteases (PLpro).
32982616 In fact, numerous flavonoids were found to have antiviral effects against SARS-and MERS-CoV by mainly inhibiting the enzymes 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro).
32993173 Frequent targets are the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the viral proteases such as papain-like protease (PLpro) and main protease (Mpro).
32998368 Papain-like proteases (PLpro) of coronaviruses (CoVs) support viral reproduction and suppress the immune response of the host, which makes CoV PLpro perspective pharmaceutical targets.
32999768 Using the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) as a template, we developed a pharmacophore model of functional centers of the PLpro inhibitor-binding pocket.
33016666 The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent 26 RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein.
33034398 The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein.
33035337 Currently, we know that the SARS-CoV-2 virus encodes about 29 proteins such as spike protein, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Papain-like protease (PLpro), and nucleocapsid (N) protein.
33041371 The present work examines the inhibitory activity of Neem extracts on Papain like protease (PLpro) of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
33043784 To identify therapeutics that can be repurposed as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals, we developed and initiated a high-throughput cell-based screen that incorporates the essential viral papain-like protease (PLpro) and its peptide cleavage site into a luciferase complementation assay to evaluate the efficacy of known drugs encompassing approximately 15,000 clinical-stage or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecules.
33052144 This paper presents identification of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease from tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus porrigens, using molecular docking method. […] Binding affinities were compared with those obtained with Lopinavir as a SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitor. […] Overall, our findings indicate that Schizanthine Z binds to the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease with relatively high affinity and favorable ADME properties.
33058970 There are several families of cysteine proteinases with different folds - for example the (chymo)trypsin fold family and papain-like fold family - but in both families the hydrolase activity of cysteine proteinases requires a cysteine residue as the catalytic nucleophile. […] In this work, we have analyzed the topology of the active site regions in 146 three-dimensional structures of proteins belonging to the Papain-like Cysteine Proteinase (PCP) superfamily, which includes papain as a typical representative of this protein superfamily. […] Seven variants of the mutual arrangement of the amino-acid side chains of the catalytic triad - nucleophile, base and residue Xaa - within the same fold clearly demonstrate how enzymes with the papain-like fold adapt to the need to perform diverse functions in spite of their limited structural diversity.
33067239 Viral papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro, NSP3) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication and represents a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs.
33085084 These studies unravel multiple structural and nonstructural specifics of SARS-CoV-2, such as a unique FURIN cleavage site, papain-like protease (SCoV2-PLpro), ORF3b and nonstructural proteins, and dynamic conformational changes in the structure of spike protein during host cell fusion, which give it an edge in infectivity and virulence over previous coronaviruses causing pandemics.
33106741 Viral Papain-Like cysteine protease (PLpro), similar to papain and the cysteine deubiquitinase enzyme, has been a popular target for coronavirus inhibitors, as an indispensable enzyme in the process of coronavirus replication and infection of the host.
33109027 Herein, we systemically discuss the structural-functional relationships of the spike, 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as these are prominent structural features of corona virus.
33137165 Papain-like peptidases (PLPs) and chymotrypsin-like cysteine 3C-like peptidase are essential for coronaviral replication and represent attractive antiviral drug targets. […] In this review, viral and host peptidases involved in CoV cell entry and replication are discussed in depth, with an emphasis on papain-like cysteine cathepsins.
33154404 In this study, we have used the Drugbank database to screen compounds against the most important viral targets namely 3C-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the spike (S) protein.
33176643 Papain like protease (PLpro), a multifunctional polyprotein facilitates the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and evades it from the host immunological response by antagonizing cytokines, interferons and may be considered as potential drug target to combat the current pandemic.
33183205 This study emphasized on important covalent and non-covalent small molecule inhibitors which effectively inhibited chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) of two SARS coronaviruses i.e. 
33186044 Coronaviruses also possess a papain-like protease, another essential enzyme, still poorly characterized and not equally conserved, limiting the identification of broad-spectrum agents.
33191083 This extensive study meticulously focused on two viral proteases such as main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro), those are essential for viral replication.
33199981 Moreover, MRJPs can exert an inhibitory influence, via different mechanisms, for SARS-CoV-2 non-structural proteins (main and papain proteases, RNA replicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and methyltransferase).
33200683 With very few success stories, the therapeutic targeting of this epidemic has been mainly attributed to main protease (Mpro), whilst Papain-like proteases (PLpro) also plays a vital role in the processing of replicase polyprotein.
33201386 Papain-like protease (PLpro) of the viral polyproteins is essential for maturation and infectivity of the virus, making it one of the prime targets explored for SARS-CoV-2 drug design.
33207070 We further focused on non-synonymous mutational distributions on four key viral proteins, spike with 75 mutations, RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase with 41 mutations, 3C-like protease with 22 mutations, and Papain-like protease with 10 mutations.
33210953 (papain-like protease), RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), S protein (viral spike glycoprotein), TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2), ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and AT2 (angiotensin AT2 receptor) are important targets.
33246378 ) and the papain-like protease (PLP) are conserved among the three pathogens and started to be considered as exciting drug targets for developing antivirals.
33249989 ATG5: autophagy related 5; BECN1: beclin 1; COVID-19: coronavirus infectious disease-2019; EGR1: early growth response 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; DMVs: double-membrane vesicles; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; LC3-I: proteolytically processed, non-lipidated MAP1LC3; LC3-II: lipidated MAP1LC3; MEFs: mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NSP: non-structural protein; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PLP2-TM: membrane-associated papain-like protease 2; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TGEV: transmissible gastroenteritis virus.
33251185 Its papain-like protease (SARS-CoV-2 PLpro) is a crucial target to halt virus replication.
33261845 Studies included repurposed drugs mainly against non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV2: the main 3C-like protease (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir, Atazanavir, Nelfinavir, and Clocortolone), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Remdesivir and Ribavirin), and the papain-like protease (Mycophenolic acid, Telaprevir, Boceprevir, Grazoprevir, Darunavir, Chloroquine, and Formoterol).
33276953 SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease is considered as an important potential target for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug discovery due to its crucial roles in viral spread and innate immunity. […] Here, we have utilized an in silico molecular docking approach to identify the possible inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease, by screening 21 antiviral, antifungal and anticancer compounds. […] Among them, Neobavaisoflavone has the highest binding energy for SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease. […] These molecules could bind near the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease crucial catalytic triad, ubiquitination and ISGylation residues: Trp106, Asn109, Cys111, Met208, Lys232, Pro247, Tyr268, Gln269, His272, Asp286 and Thr301. […] Because blocking the papain-like protease is an important strategy in fighting against viruses, these compounds might be promising candidates for therapeutic intervention against COVID-19.
33294307 Our in silico study revealed that losartan and imatinib could probably: (1) decline SARS-CoV2 affinity to ACE2. (2) inhibit the main protease and furin, (3) disturb papain-like protease and p38MAPK functions.
33297920 This review discusses the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology, its target structural proteins (S- glycoprotein), non-structural proteins (3- chymotrypsin-like protease, papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and helicase) and accessory proteins, drug discovery strategies (drug repurposing, artificial intelligence, and high-throughput screening), and the current status of antiviral drug development.
33302163 From various studies on the SARS-CoV-2 reported in the literature, we chose possible drug targets (Chymotrypsin-like protease, RNA dependant RNA polymerase, Papain like protease, Spike RBD and ACE2 receptor with spike RBD) which are vital proteins.
33327866 Here, we report the first crystal structure of multiple functional domains from porcine delta-coronavirus (PDCoV) nsp3, including the macro domain (Macro), ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2) and papain-like protease (PLpro) catalytic domain.
33383190 In this review, we have recapitulated the structural details of four key viral enzymes, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3-chymotrypsin like protease, papain-like protease and helicase, and two host factors including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease involved in the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and described the potential hotspots present on these structures which could be explored for therapeutic intervention.
33391634 We generated a library of frequent fragments and polypharmacological ligands targeting various essential viral proteins such as main protease, helicase, papain-like protease, and replicase polyprotein 1ab.
33404263 In this review, a number of broad-spectrum antivirals with potential efficacy to inhibit the virus replication via targeting the virus spike protein (S protein), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) that are critical in the pathogenesis and life cycle of coronavirus, have been evaluated as possible treatment options against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients.
33450678 Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
33486202 Strategies to inhibit virus infection and replication focus on targets such as the spike protein and non-structural proteins including the highly conserved RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase, nucleotidyl-transferases, main protease and papain-like proteases.
33531496 Papain-like protease (PLpro) is one of two SARS-CoV-2 proteases potentially targetable with antivirals.
33593247 Interestingly, a predictive study performed on 3CLpro and other SARS-CoV-2 protein targets suggested the potential ability of the nucleopeptide to bind with good affinity the main protease of the virus and other relevant targets including the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, especially when complexed with RNA, the papain-like protease, and the coronavirus helicase at the nucleic acid binding site.