DrugBank ID: db00507
DrugCentral: nitazoxanide
Synonymous :nitaxozanid | nitaxozanide | nitazoxanida | nitazoxanide | nitazoxanidum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of nitazoxanide gene in 41 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32293834 Nitazoxanide and ivermectin were also included in this review as they have recently been reported to have an activity against SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro and are licensed for the treatment of some other human infections.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32343658 High in vitro activity has been found for the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, for the antimalarial drug chloroquine, and for nitazoxanide, a drug used to treat protozoan infections.
32360581 This article illustrates some structural and functional relationships that may gather these drugs and the author, basing on a combined pathophysiological and pharmacological approach, recommends the FDA-approved antidiarrhea drug; nitazoxanide, which has been previously suggested but unfortunately widely ignored, to be tested in combination with azithromycin for their potential activity against SARS CoV-2, soonest.
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32405422 One drug that has shown promising results in vitro is nitazoxanide. […] Unlike other postulated drugs, nitazoxanide shows a high ratio of maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), after 1 day of 500 mg twice daily (BD), to the concentration required to inhibit 50% replication (EC50) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Cmax : EC50 roughly equal to 14:1). […] As such, it is important to investigate the safety of nitazoxanide for further trials. […] We aimed to conduct a review of the safety of nitazoxanide for any prior indication and calculate its minimum costs of production. […] A review of nitazoxanide clinical research was conducted using EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, supplemented by […] We searched for phase 2 or 3 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nitazoxanide with placebo or active control for 5-14 days in participants experiencing acute infections of any kind. […] Nine RCTs of nitazoxanide were identified for inclusion. […] There were no teratogenic concerns, but the evidence base was very limited.Based on a weighted-mean cost of US $61/kg, a 14-day course of treatment with nitazoxanide 500 mg BD would cost $1.41. […] Nitazoxanide demonstrates a good safety profile at approved doses. […] We estimate that it would be possible to manufacture nitazoxanide as generic for $1.41 for a 14-day treatment course at 500 mg BD, up to $4.08 at 1100 mg TDS. […] If efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is demonstrated in clinical studies, nitazoxanide may represent a safe and affordable treatment in the ongoing pandemic.
32438446 A more in-depth assessment demonstrated that only nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted) and sulfadoxine achieved plasma concentrations above their reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity across their entire approved dosing interval. […] Nitazoxanide and sulfadoxine also exceeded their reported EC50 by 7.8- and 1.5-fold in lung, respectively.
32448490 In the present article, we made an attempt to review the behavior of the virus around the world, epidemiology, a pathway for influx into the host cells, clinical presentation, as well as the treatments currently in use and future approaches; nitazoxanide may be our dream drug.
32513231 Hydroxychloroquine + Nitazoxanide in reducing the need for invasive mechanical ventilatory support for patients with COVID-19. […] Nitazoxanide has powerful antiviral effects and proven efficacy against a range of viruses including SARS and MERS. […] Dual therapy - Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg taken orally every 12 hours for two days and then 200 mg taken orally every 12 hours for four days + Nitazoxanide 500 mg orally every 6 hours taken with food, for seven days.
32555974 These include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV / r), in addition to treatment with convalescent plasma.
32563698 They are all old drugs as follows, anisomycin, antimycin A, atovaquone, chloroquine, conivaptan, emetine, gemcitabine, homoharringtonine, niclosamide, nitazoxanide, oligomycin, salinomycin, tilorone, valinomycin, and vismodegib.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32725286 The FDA-approved antiparasitic drug, nitazoxanide (NTZ), has been found to have antiviral activity against different viral infections such as coronaviruses, influenza, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other viruses signifying its potential as a broad spectrum antiviral drug.
32752944 Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32820005 No significant anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was found for several compounds reportedly active against SARS-CoV-2 such as lopinavir, nelfinavir, nitazoxanide, favipiravir, and hydroxychroloquine.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32876249 Clinical trials were planned and are in progress to investigate whether drugs used for influenza, HIV and other viruses, and also anthelmintics (ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide), and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) showing antiviral activity in in vitro assays, are effective and safe for Covid-19.
32895447 Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is effective against helminths and numerous microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33031085 Nitazoxanide has shown efficacy in vitro against coronavirus infections (MERS, SARS, SARS-CoV-2). […] The aim of this report is to describe the results of treating COVID-19 positive patients with nitazoxanide in three clinical settings: pregnancy/puerperium, hospitalized patients in an Internal Medicine Service and in an ambulatory setting. […] Nitazoxanide seems to be useful against SARS-CoV-2, not only in an early intervention but also in critical condition as well as in pregnancy without undesired effects for the babies. […] Nitazoxanide could be useful against COVID-19 as a safe and available regimen to be tested in a massive way immediately.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33085781 The PBPK model predicted tizoxanide concentrations within doses of nitazoxanide already given to humans previously. […] The reported dosing strategies provide a rational basis for design of clinical trials with nitazoxanide for the treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] A concordant higher dose of nitazoxanide is now planned for investigation in the seamless phase I/IIa AGILE trial.
33190802 With the development of this pandemic, the number of clinical studies on antiviral therapy, including remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, arbidol, interferon, favipiravir, oseltamivir, nitazoxanide, nelfinavir, and camostat mesylate, has been increasing.
33199136 The article mainly focused on the development and possible application of various FDA approved drugs, including chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, nefamostate mesylate, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, ribavirin etc., vaccines under development and various registered clinical trials exploring different therapeutic measures for the treatment of COVID-19.
33213364 The patient was managed at home, with corticosteroids, nitazoxanide and a single dose of 40 mg of subcutaneous enoxaparin.
33227285 In this review, we present Nitazoxanide a US-FDA approved antiprotozoal drug, as one such promising candidate. […] Nitazoxanide which is reported to exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various viral infections, revealed good in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture assays, suggesting potential for repurposing in COVID-19. […] Furthermore, nitazoxanide displays the potential to boost host innate immune responses and thereby tackle the life-threatening cytokine storm. […] The review juxtaposes the role of nitazoxanide in fighting COVID-19 pathogenesis at multiple levels highlighting the great promise the drug exhibits. […] The in silico data and in vitro efficacy in cell lines confirms the promise of nitazoxanide. […] Several approved clinical trials world over further substantiate leveraging nitazoxanide for COVID-19 therapy.
33291642 A virtual screening study illustrated that Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide bind to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Protein data bank (PDB) ID: 6lu7) in binding mode similar to the reported co-crystalized ligand.
33300221 The repurposing of nitazoxanide, doxycycline and azithromycin may be effective to improve the symptoms in mild and moderate COVID-19 subjects. […] Subjects were treated with azithromycin or doxycycline, and nitazoxanide was added to the treatment if the subject had diarrhoea. […] Subjects were divided into four groups: Group 1: subjects treated with azithromycin (20 subjects); Group 2: subjects treated with doxycycline (20 subjects); Group 3: subjects treated with a combination of nitazoxanide and doxycycline (20 subjects); and Group 4: subjects treated with a combination of nitazoxanide and azithromycin (20 subjects). […] In silico, results were in good accordance with the clinical outcomes, where both nitazoxanide and doxycycline achieved the best docking scores against the viral ADP-ribose phosphatase (ADPRP) and the human Adaptor-Associated Kinase 1 (AAK1). […] The clinical and computational studies applied on three FDA-approved antimicrobials together with their recent clinical findings revealed that both nitazoxanide and doxycycline have great therapeutic potential against COVID-19.
33312897 Treatments used for COVID-19 therapy; azithromycin, atazanavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and tocilizumab, interact with immunosuppressive treatments, most importantly with calcineurin inhibitors.
33333292 Sixteen synergistic and eight antagonistic combinations were identified; among 16 synergistic cases, combinations of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug nitazoxanide with remdesivir, amodiaquine, or umifenovir were most notable, all exhibiting significant synergy against SARS-CoV-2 in a cell model.
33342420 Several drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Umifenovir, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, interferon, Darunavir, Favipiravir, Nitazoxanide etc. are currently undergoing clinical studies to test the safety and efficacy of the drug against this pandemic.
33361100 Viral load was also reduced after nitazoxanide compared to placebo (p=0.006). […] The percent viral load reduction from onset to end of therapy was higher with nitazoxanide (55%) than placebo (45%) (p=0.013). […] No serious adverse events were observed.In patients with mild Covid-19, symptom resolution did not differ between nitazoxanide and placebo groups after 5 days of therapy. […] However, early nitazoxanide therapy was safe and reduced viral load significantly.
33362383 Drugs suitable to manage COVID-19 in patients with liver disease might include remdesivir intravenously, nitazoxanide + sofosbuvir, ivermectin, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, and low molecular weight heparin in certain situations.
33397457 To investigate the efficacy and safety of repurposed antiprotozoal and antiretroviral drugs, nitazoxanide and atazanavir/ritonavir, in shortening the time to clinical improvement and achievement of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity in patients diagnosed with moderate to severe COVID-19. […] Participants in the intervention group will receive 1000 mg of nitazoxanide twice daily orally and 300/100 mg of atazanvir/ritonavir once daily orally in addition to standard of care while participants in the control group will receive only standard of care.
33439937 The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33480414 We performed a review by screening in vitro and in vivo studies that assessed the antiviral activity of several antiparasitic agents: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide, atovaquone, and albendazole. […] We found two clinical studies of artesiminins and two studies of nitazoxanide for treatment of viruses other than COVID-19, all of which showed mixed results. […] For chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide and niclosamide we found in vitro studies showing some effects against a wide array of viruses.
33512353 October 2020: the nitazoxanide case.
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide.
33590901 This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving the combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin and ivermectin plus Zinc vs. those receiving supportive treatment. […] This trial concluded that combined use of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin, and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively clear the SARS-COV2 from nasopharynx in shorter time than the symptomatic therapy.