DrugBank ID: db00184
DrugCentral: nicotine
Synonymous :(−)-nicotine | (s)-(−)-nicotine | (s)-3-(1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridine | (s)-3-(n-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridine | (s)-nicotine | 3-(2-(n-methylpyrrolidinyl))pyridine | 3-(n-methylpyrollidino)pyridine | l(−)-nicotine | nicotina | nicotine betadex | nicotine polacrilex | nikotin | nikotyna

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of nicotine gene in 62 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32189428 Here, we focus on those individuals who have been exposed to nicotine prior to their exposure to the virus. […] We predict that these individuals are ‘primed’ to be at higher risk because nicotine can directly impact the putative receptor for the virus (ACE2) and lead to deleterious signaling in lung epithelial cells.
32238438 Moreover, we predict that nicotine exposure through various kinds of smoking (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or vape) can increase the risk for COVID19 neuroinfection based on known functional interactions between the nicotinic receptor and ACE2.
32305506 We decided to use the analogy of a play and speculate about the possible impact in this tragedy of 1) air pollution via the interference of nitrogen dioxide on ACE2 expression; 2) the dual role of nicotine; 3) the hypothetical involvement of ACE2 polymorphisms, the relationships of which with ethnic factors and susceptibility to cardiovascular disease seems intriguing; 4) the impact on the severity of infection of hypertension and related medications acting on the renin/angiotensin system, and, finally, 5) the possible helpful role of chloroquine, thanks to its capacity of modifying ACE2 affinity to the viral spike protein by altering glycosylation.
32385628 Although the generalized advice to quit smoking as a measure to reduce health risk remains valid, the findings, together with the well-established immunomodulatory effects of nicotine, suggest that pharmaceutical nicotine should be considered as a potential treatment option in COVID-19.
32420934 Some authors, noticing that reported smoking prevalence among hospitalized patients was substantially below smoking prevalence in the corresponding populations, speculated a protective role of nicotine.
32470789 recent studies have provided novel evidence regarding the effect of nicotine agonists on the prevention or modulation of cytokines storm and reduction of infection. […] In this study we tried to attempt to address these issues from a therapeutic perspective of nicotine agonists in this manner and we describe one of the most challenging theories of immunotherapy in coronavirus-19 (COVID-19).
32500928 Starting with the origin of the virus, we then discuss the effect of ibuprofen and nicotine on the severity of the disease.
32522666 This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. […] Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.
32552811 Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. […] Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. […] Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChRα7-dependent manner. […] Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChRα7 gene. […] Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.
32595653 Nicotine, an exogenous α7nAchR agonist, is clinically used in ulcerative colitis to counteract inflammation. […] In conclusion, our hypothesis proposes that nicotine could constitute a novel potential CRS therapy in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients.
32609839 Given the evidence of this ecological study, and of several other studies that found an underrepresentation of smoking prevalence in hospitalized cases, it may be worth examining, in laboratory experiments and controlled human trials, if nicotine offers any protection against COVID-19.
32626554 Considering the role of cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of lung diseases and the effect of nicotine on expression of the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is important to determine the implications of smoking in COVID-19.
32637059 However, the hypothesis that nicotine may have a protective effect in COVID-19 that is partially masked by smoking-related toxicity and by the abrupt cessation of nicotine intake when smokers are hospitalized should be explored in laboratory studies and clinical trials using pharmaceutical nicotine products.
32643078 Seventy-one (19.9%) of the subjects used nicotine tape, 268 (75.1%) used varenicline, and 18 (5.0%) used both.
32657671 Considering the benefits of smoking cessation in this vulnerable population, the current pandemic should be used as an opportunity to further enforce smoking cessation in mental health facilities and encourage nicotine replacement therapy alongside cessation counseling.
32710733 In addition, the functioning of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway may be determined by nicotine. […] Pharmacological nicotine products are widely available, and their role in COVID-19-mediated AKI can be further evaluated.
32752138 Both smoking and use of nicotine and flavor-containing e-cigs led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammasome-related genes. […] Specifically, chemokines including CCL20 and CXCL8 are upregulated in smokers, and CCL5 and CCR1 are upregulated in flavor/nicotine-containing e-cig users. […] Vaping flavor and nicotine-less e-cigs, however, did not lead to significant cytokine dysregulation and inflammasome activation.
32753136 Men were older (mean age, 55.0±17.7 years vs 51.1±17.9 years; P<.001 and had a higher prevalence of hypertension diabetes coronary disease obstructive pulmonary nicotine dependence heart failure but lower obesity.> </.001>
32757420 Additionally, the postulated protective effects of nicotine and nitric oxide, which may presumably reduce the risk of a “cytokine storm” in infected individuals, deserve assessment by controlled clinical trials.
32757951 The reports suggesting a beneficial effect of nicotine on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity may encourage smoking.
32763662 Apart from nicotine or other chemicals contained in tobacco smoke, we propose that a single-stranded RNA virus that infects tobacco leaves, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), might be implicated in this effect.
32788164 Plausible biologic mechanisms by which smoking might be protective in COVID-19 include an anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine, a blunted immune response in smokers (reducing the risk of a cytokine storm in COVID-19) and increased nitric oxide in the respiratory tract (which may inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 and its entry into cells).
32790936 Although conflicting hypotheses on the potential role of nicotine in COVID-19 pathology have recently been offered, we believe that nicotine itself, through its interaction with the nicotinic cholinergic system, as well as ACE2, may not only be of use in a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, but may also be of potential use in COVID-19. […] Thus, on one hand, while we strongly support smoking cessation as a means of harm reduction associated with COVID-19, on the other hand, we support a potential therapeutic role for nicotine, nicotinic agonists, or positive allosteric modulators of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in COVID-19, owing to their varied effects including mood regulation, anti-inflammatory, and purported interference with SARS-CoV-2 entry and/or replication.
32796217 PLH were more likely to be men, African-American, obese and have concurrent hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and nicotine dependence compared with non-PLH cohort (all P values <0.05). […] We performed 1 : 1 matching for BMI, diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung diseases, chronic kidney disease, race, history of nicotine dependence and sex.
32800868 Overall, pathophysiological data showed an increased risk of infections for individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUD) and a possible protective role of nicotine.
32802824 In the era of this pandemic, the role of medicinal nicotine in the prevention and treatment of #COVID19 disease should be evaluated in placebo-controlled trials, while smoking cessation should be further promoted as a general public health measure
32823591 Nicotine and other nicotinic cholinergic agonists may protect nAChRs and thus have therapeutic value in COVID-19 patients.
32835124 Nicotine patches and Colchicine have also been suggested as potential therapies due to Furin mediated inhibition of COVID-19.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32878480 The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is linked to an increasing number of risk factors, including exogenous (environmental) stimuli such as air pollution, nicotine, and cigarette smoke.
32890356 The aim of this paper is to enhance the importance of providing up to date informations about nicotine and tobacco use in connection with the SARS-CoV-2-related conditions. […] Nicotine replacement therapy and quitline counseling were provided and no major withdrawal symptoms were declared.
32896206 In experimental rodent studies initially designed to study the effect of electronic cigarette use on the cardiovascular system, we observed an E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury-like condition that occurred acutely after use of a nichrome heating element at high power, without the use of tetrahydrocannabinol, vitamin E, or nicotine. […] Electronic cigarette users should be cautioned about the potential danger of operating electronic cigarette units at high settings; the possibility that certain heating elements may be deleterious; and that E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury may not be dependent upon tetrahydrocannabinol, vitamin E, or nicotine.
32918300 To estimate (1) associations between self-reported COVID-19, hand-washing, smoking status, e-cigarette use and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use and (2) the extent to which COVID-19 has prompted smoking and vaping quit attempts and more smoking inside the home. […] With the exception of hand-washing before face-touching, engagement in hand-washing behaviours was high (> 85%), regardless of nicotine use. […] In England, current smokers and long-term ex-smokers appear to have higher odds of self-reported COVID-19 compared with never smokers in adjusted analyses, but there were no large differences between people who used nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes. […] Engagement in hand-washing appears to be high, regardless of nicotine or tobacco use.
32941292 Preferences were assessed in relation to: (i) specific forms of tobacco cessation support (eg, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and various counseling formats); (ii) information sources (eg, government officials, doctors); and (iii) channels via which to receive relevant information (eg, television, social media).
32970973 Additional topics included affordable telehealth services, research from France on the relationship between nicotine and COVID-19, concerns about gambling addiction, and changing patterns in substance misuse as drug availability varies.
33029618 Changes in smoking patterns varied with nicotine dependence, motivation to quit, and financial stability since COVID-19.
33033170 Further, we have shown possible interactions between nicotine/smoking and ACE2 in the lungs and brain which could aggravate the transmission and pathobiology of COVID-19 resulting in a poor disease outcome. […] It focuses on the potential negative impact of tobacco and nicotine exposure on the outcomes of this disease by interaction with the ACE2 receptor.
33052306 without nicotine). […] Following these receptors possessed conserved Trp302 and Cys344 amino acids between them for nicotine binding. […] However, nicotine showed a higher binding affinity score of -6.33 kcal/mol for the sACE2-INS1 complex than the sACE2 alone with -5.24 kcal/mol. […] A lowered inhibitory constant value of 22.95μM recorded while nicotine interacted with the sACE2-INS1 complex over the sACE2 alone with 151.69 μM. […] In summary, nicotine showed a profound binding affinity for the sACE2-INS1 complex than the sACE2 alone paving for the clinical trials to validate its therapeutic efficacy as a bitter compound against the SARS-CoV-2 virulence.
33080900 interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) human receptor with two bioactive compounds, i.e., nicotine and caffeine, via molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. […] The simulations reveal the efficient blocking of ACE2 by caffeine and nicotine in the exposure to the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] We have selected the two most important active sites of ACE2-S protein, i.e., 6LZG and 6VW1, which are critically responsible in the interaction of S protein to the receptor and thus, we investigated their interaction with nicotine and caffeine through MD simulations. […] Caffeine and nicotine are interesting structures for interactions because of their similar structure to the candidate antiviral drugs. […] Our results reveal that caffeine or nicotine in a specific molar ratio to 6LZG shows a very strong interaction and indicate that caffeine is more efficient in the interaction with 6LZG and further blocking of this site against S protein binding. […] Further, we investigated the interaction of ACE2 receptor- S protein with nicotine or caffeine when mixed with candidate or approved antiviral drugs for SARS-CoV-2 therapy. […] Our MD simulations suggest that the combination of caffeine with ribavirin shows a stronger interaction with 6VW1, while in case of favipiravir+nicotine, 6LZG shows potent efficacy of these interaction, proposing the potent efficacy of these combinations for blocking ACE2 receptor against SARS-CoV-2.
33089562 Covariates included age, sex, social grade, region and level of nicotine and alcohol dependence (as relevant).
33134226 The authors state that their observations might be due to the effects of nicotine.
33203793 In mice exposed to nicotine, ACE2 was not changed in olfactory bulbs but in the lungs, ACE2 was upregulated in females and downregulated in males.
33224040 Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are a modern nicotine delivery system that rapidly grew in widespread use, particularly in younger populations. […] Given the long history of the comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine use, the rising prevalence of ECs raises the question as to their role in the consumption of alcohol.
33253975 Current review indicates that nicotine exposure is linked to cardiopulmonary vulnerability to COVID-19 and tobacco use can be a potential risk factor for not only getting the viral infection but also its severe manifestations. […] The current pandemic provides a teachable moment to break the cycle of nicotine addiction and accelerate national tobacco control programs to achieve a tobacco-free world.
33254478 Associated factors such as nicotine can also be considered in the context of a broad chemoprophylactic hypothesis in patients with psychiatric disorders taking different psychoactive substances.
33269148 We discuss how his excessive use of nicotine replacement therapy may have contributed to his emerging unscathed from COVID-19. […] Nicotine, an α7-nACh receptor agonist, may boost the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and hinder the uncontrolled overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is understood to be the main pathway to poor outcomes and death in severe COVID-19.
33270127 Change in e-cigarette use (increase, decrease, quit, no change, and switch to another product) and access to e-cigarettes (easier or harder, and change in point-of-purchase) before and after the COVID-19 pandemic began, reasons for change, number of times e-cigarettes were used, nicotine dependence, and sociodemographic data. […] Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, 1198 of 2125 e-cigarette users (56.4%) changed their use: 388 individuals (32.4%) quit, 422 individuals (35.3%) reduced the amount of nicotine, 211 individuals (17.6%) increased nicotine use, 94 individuals (7.8%) increased cannabis use, and 82 individuals (6.9%) switched to other products. […] Underage youth reported e-cigarette deliveries from vape shops and/or dealers or friends who received such deliveries, and 63 of 229 (27.5%) self-reported accessing e-cigarettes without age verification. e-Cigarette users were 52% less likely to quit or reduce their use if they previously used e-cigarettes between 11 and 99 times (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.78), 68% less likely to quit if they previously used e-cigarettes more than 100 times (adjusted odds ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.51), and 51% were less likely to quit if they were nicotine dependent (adjusted odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.70).
33271434 Whether the COVID-19 pandemic has altered perceptions, motivation to quit, or tobacco use among cigarette smokers and nicotine e-cigarette vapers with OUD is unknown. […] A telephone survey was conducted in March-July 2020 of current cigarette smokers or nicotine vapers with OUD who were stable on buprenorphine treatment at five Boston (MA) area community health centers. […] Of these, 61 % smoked cigarettes only, 13 % vaped nicotine only, and 26 % were dual users.
33283686 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic had exhibited negative effects on patients with a nicotine use disorder because of social stress situations.
33320258 This commentary addresses the state of the evidence on tobacco products, nicotine, and COVID-19.
33360444 First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day).
  1. Conclusions: Based on our results and on evidence showing that nicotine potentiates viral infection, it is likely that nicotine is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity.
33393791 The most common comorbidities present in COVID-19 cases were any cardiovascular diseases(12.7%), obesity or overweight (11.1%), metabolic diseases (10.5%), hypertension (9.9%), neoplasms (7.9%), any lung diseases (7.5%), substance use disorders, including nicotine dependence (5.4%), and asthma (3.2%).
33411384 The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was administered to these patients as part of their initial intakes. […] The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire related to socio-demographic information and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence after obtaining agreement to participate during the pandemic period.
33420786 This finding strongly supports the need for further research on nicotine physiological pathway and its impact on COVID-19 infection whilst emphasizing that tobacco smoking should not be considered as an efficient protection against COVID-19.
33437920 Cardiovascular toxicity as a consequence of nicotine from conventional tobacco cigarette smoking is well documented. […] However, little is known about the cardiovascular consequences of nicotine e-vaping. […] We review the literature and report a case series of three cases of major adverse cardiovascular clinical effects post nicotine e-vaping. […] Three patients with known peripheral arterial disease who switched from heavy cigarette smoking consumption to a high-intensity dose of nicotine e-vaping all developed further arterial complications within 6-30 months. […] The potential role of nicotine e-vaping and the risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) will also be discussed.
33453726 Smokers should be advised to quit due to long-term health risks, but pharmaceutical nicotine or other nicotinic cholinergic agonists should be explored as potential therapeutic options, based on a recently presented hypothesis.
33459225 It is important to mention that some natural compounds such as magnolol, resveratrol, rosmarinic acid, tanshinone IIA, and nicotine have also demonstrated the potential to increase the activity or expression of ACE-2, and could therefore aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33498834 From May-June 2020, we interviewed smokers enrolled in a 12-week, pilot cessation trial providing text messaging and mailed nicotine replacement medication (NCT04020718).
33503469 Our findings provide further support to the hypothesis about the protective role of nicotine and other cholinergic agonists.
33525222 As to smoking, nicotine activation of nicotinic receptors leads to enhanced protease activation, apoptosis and inflammatory signaling through the same pathways (Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)) used by the virus increasing the inflammatory/destructive action of the virus itself.
33543440 This study could validate a new tool to evaluate nicotine dependence among Lebanese adolescents, the Adolescent Cigarette Dependence Scale (ACDS).