DrugBank ID: db00331
DrugCentral: metformin
Synonymous :1,1-dimethylbiguanide | dimethylbiguanid | metformin | metformina | metformine | metforminum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of metformin gene in 56 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32328850 Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc.
32382358 We discuss the potential contribution of two traditional oral antidiabetic agents, metformin and pioglitazone, to the improvement of liver injury in COVID-19.
32413342 Metformin and SGLT2 inhibitors should be discontinued in patients with severe forms of COVID-19 owing to the risks of lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis.
32420614 She had a body mass index (BMI) of 35, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin and insulin, renal tubular acidosis, asthma and vitamin D deficiency.
32446312 Metformin was proposed to be a candidate for host-directed therapy for COVID-19. […] In this study, we compared the outcome of metformin users and nonusers in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes. […] Hospitalized diabetic patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the Tongji Hospital of Wuhan, China, from January 27, 2020 to March 24, 2020, were grouped into metformin and no-metformin groups according to the diabetic medications used. […] A total of 283 patients (104 in the metformin and 179 in the no-metformin group) were included in this study. […] The fasting blood glucose level of the metformin group was higher than that of the no-metformin group at admission and was under effective control in both groups after admission. […] The length of hospital stay did not differ between the two groups (21.0 days for metformin versus 19.5 days for no metformin, P = 0.74). […] However, in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the metformin group (3/104 (2.9%) versus 22/179 (12.3%), P = 0.01). […] Antidiabetic treatment with metformin was associated with decreased mortality compared with diabetics not receiving metformin. […] This retrospective analysis suggests that metformin may offer benefits in patients with COVID-19 and that further study is indicated.
32463794 Metformin is capable of suppressing one of the molecular triggers of the proinflammatory and prothrombotic processes of urban PM air pollution, namely the mitochondrial ROS/Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC)/IL-6 cascade. […] Given the linkage between mitochondrial functionality, ion channels, and inflamm-aging, the ability of metformin to target mitochondrial electron transport and prevent ROS/CRAC-mediated IL-6 release might illuminate new therapeutic avenues to quell the raging of the cytokine and thrombotic-like storms that are the leading causes of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in older people. […] The incorporation of infection rates, severity and lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infections as new outcomes of metformin usage in elderly populations at risk of developing severe COVID-19, together with the assessment of bronchial/serological titers of inflammatory cytokines and D-dimers, could provide a novel mechanistic basis for the consideration of metformin as a therapeutic strategy against the inflammatory and thrombotic states underlying the gerolavic traits of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32482587 The analyzed drugs were paracetamol, ascorbic acid, dapagliflozin plus metformin, rosuvastatin plus ezetimibe, formoterol, and hydroxychloroquine, as these pharmaceutical substances registered the highest growth rate in sales and shortages when compared to the same period in the previous year.
32495148 A recent experimental study has suggested an increased toxicity of hydroxychloroquine in association with metformin in mice. […] The present study was undertaken to investigate the reality of this putative drug-drug interaction between hydroxychloroquine and metformin using pharmacovigilance data. […] Data with hydroxychloroquine (or metformin) alone were compared with the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin. […] In comparison with hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 57.7 (23.9-139.3). […] In comparison with metformin alone, hydroxychloroquine + metformin was associated with an ROR value of 6.0 (2.6-13.8). […] Our study identified a signal for the association hydroxychloroquine + metformin that appears to be more at risk of fatal outcomes (particularly by completed suicides) than one of the two drugs when given alone.
32592841 Metformin, as a strong base, a potential regulator of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and endosomal Na+/H+ exchangers (eNHEs), additionally a regenerative agent for lung fibrosis, seems to be beneficial for patients in acute, chronic and recovery phases of COVID-19.
32668399 A combination of Metformin and Sulfonylureas (SU) was most commonly associated with the risk of hypoglycemia (65.75%) followed by insulin (33.56%). […] Subjects who received insulin reported a lower blood glucose value (50.75 ± 8.20 mg/dL) as compared to those receiving a combination of metformin and SU (60.95 ± 7.10 mg/dl).
32685191 There are many common compounds that can increase the expression of the ACE2 receptor including Vitamin C, Metformin, Resveratrol, Vitamin B3 and Vitamin D.
32750451 Metformin remains the first-line pharmacological choice for the management of hyperglycaemia in T2DM. […] Because metformin exerts various effects beyond its glucose-lowering action, among which are anti-inflammatory effects, it may be speculated that this biguanide might positively influence the prognosis of patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19. […] The present concise review summarizes the available data from observational retrospective studies that have shown a reduction in mortality in metformin users compared with non-users, and briefly discusses the potential underlying mechanisms that might perhaps explain this favourable impact.
32758336 As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.
32808185 The expression level of TMPRSS2 was increased noticeably with a number of medications such as metformin.
32818905 Metformin is a widely available anti-diabetic agent that has an excellent safety profile, and clinical and preclinical data suggest metformin may offer cardiopulmonary protection in COVID-19 via enhanced ACE2 expression.
32838195 Firstly, AMPK mediated phosphorylation of ACE-2 by metformin as well as the drug’s alkaline properties may interrupt the natural disease progression.
32844132 Metformin is one of the drugs which is most commonly used for the treatment of diabetes patients. […] This study aims to analyze the potential benefit of metformin use in reducing the mortality rate from COVID-19 infection. […] All articles published on COVID-19 and metformin were retrieved. […] Our meta-analysis showed that metformin use is associated with reduction in mortality rate from COVID-19 infections [RR 0.54 (95% CI 0.32-0.90), p = 0.02, I2 = 54%, random-effect modelling]. […] Metformin has shown benefits in reducing the mortality rate from COVID-19 infections. […] Patients with diabetes should be advised to continue taking metformin drugs despite COVID-19 infection status.
32861268 Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. […] Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. […] Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. […] Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.
32900588 The present narrative review discusses the potential anti-inflammatory properties of certain antidiabetic drugs (i.e. metformin, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, saxagliptin, liraglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, canagliflozin), with a focus on CRP, IL-6 and ferritin.
32902818 We review the possibility of this approach by examining available evidence in metformin: a generic drug with a proven safety record that will be used in a large-scale multicenter clinical trial. […] Though rigorous translational research and clinical trials are needed to test this empirically, metformin may improve host immune defenses and confer protection against long-term health consequences of infectious disease, age-related chronic diseases, and geriatric syndromes.
32933031 In combination with or independent of the latest tested approaches, we propose the evaluation, in the short term, of treatments with DNase-1, with the anti-diabetic Metformin, or with drugs targeting elastase (i.e., Silvelestat).
32955785 Although metformin has been recommended as a host-directed therapy for COVID-19, there are some opposite views. […] The effects of metformin on the disease severity of patients with COVID-19 with diabetes during hospitalization remains unclear. […] This study aimed to determine the effect of metformin on disease severity. […] We enrolled 110 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with diabetes prescribed either metformin or non-metformin hypoglycemic treatment for a case-control study. […] Blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase levels of the metformin group were higher than those of the non-metformin group at admission. […] Strikingly, the percentage of patients who experienced life-threatening complications was significantly higher in the metformin group (28.6% (16/56) vs. […] Antidiabetic therapy with metformin was associated with a higher risk of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 with diabetes during hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio = 3.964, 95% confidence interval 1.034-15.194, P = 0.045). […] This retrospective analysis suggested a potential safety signal for metformin, the use of which was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. […] We propose that metformin withdrawal in patients with COVID-19 be considered to prevent disease progression.
32973814 Metformin, a widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus and metabolic syndrome, has immunomodulatory activity that reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines using macrophages and causes the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). […] Metformin also inhibits the cytokine production of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. […] Importantly, treatment with metformin alleviates various lung injuries in preclinical animal models. […] In addition, a recent proteomic study revealed that metformin has the potential to directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Furthermore, retrospective clinical studies have revealed that metformin treatment reduces the mortality of T2D with COVID-19. […] Therefore, metformin has the potential to be repurposed to treat patients with COVID-19 at risk of developing severe illness. […] This review summarizes the immune pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and addresses the effects of metformin on inhibiting cytokine storms and preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as its side effects.
33050869 Hydroxychloroquine is also used as an anti-diabetic drug and has been approved in India as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control of patients on metformin, sulfonylurea combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
33066762 His type 2 diabetes was treated only with metformin and his latest Hb1Ac was 6.1%.
33078484 Finally, reference is given to two common drugs, corticosteroids and metformin, in COVID-19 and how they might influence AF incidence.
33081905 Metformin has been shown to be effective in HDT and can assist in the treatment of the viral and bacterial infectious disease. […] This paper discusses the rationality and potential therapeutic mechanism of metformin in the treatment of severe COVID-19. […] It was speculated that the use of metformin for controlling blood glucose in severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes may prevent or inhibit the occurrence of ARDS, thereby reducing the mortality of COVID-19 patients. […] The possible mechanism is that metformin could inhibit cytokine storm via suppressing interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling, prevent the process of lung fibrosis, suppress endocytosis, thereby elevating angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression.
33160030 Previous studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the association between metformin use and clinical outcomes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] This study aimed to evaluate the association between metformin use and clinical outcomes in DM patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were divided into three groups depending on metformin use: CON (those not taking DM medication); N-MFOM (those taking DM medications other than metformin); and MFOM (those taking metformin for DM). […] No definite association could be found between metformin use and clinical outcomes, including survival. […] However, given the disproportionate participant numbers in our groups and small number of events, further studies are needed to determine whether the use of metformin has favourable or unfavourable effects in DM patients with COVID-19.
33190637 Our main objective was to examine the association between in-hospital death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering drug both individually and in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19. […] A total of 2666 patients were found in the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry, 1297 on glucose-lowering drugs in monotherapy and 465 in combination with metformin. […] After propensity matching, 249 patients on metformin, 105 on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 129 on insulin, 127 on metformin/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 34 on metformin/sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and 67 on metformin/insulin were selected.
33232684 The COVID-19 pandemic presents an urgent need to investigate whether existing drugs can enhance or even worsen prognosis; metformin, a known mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitor, has been identified as a potential agent. […] We sought to evaluate mortality benefit among older persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were taking metformin as compared to those who were not. […] The COVID-19-infected residents were divided into 4 groups: (1) residents administered metformin alone or in combination with other medications, (2) residents who used long-acting or daily insulin, (3) residents administered other diabetes medications, and (4) residents not administered diabetes medication, including individuals without diabetes and patients with untreated diabetes. […] Relative to those not receiving diabetes medications, residents taking metformin were at significantly reduced hazard of death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.84] over the subsequent 30 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. […] Our data suggest a reduction in 30-day mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents who were on metformin-containing diabetes regimens. […] These findings suggest a relative survival benefit in nursing home residents on metformin, potentially through its mTOR inhibition effects. […] A prospective study should investigate the therapeutic benefits of metformin among persons with COVID-19.
33251580 ACE1 and ACE2 levels were not upregulated by antidiabetic treatment (metformin, insulin or thiazolidinedione).
33296788 On the other hand, metformin use [0.3(0.2-4), P = .032] and DPP-4 inhibitors use [0.3(0.2-3), P = .040] were associated with decreased length of ICU stay. […] QTc interval prolongation [0.4(0.1-0.9), P = .017] was associated with increased length of hospital stay, while using metformin [0.4(0.2-3), P = .022] was associated with decreased length of hospital stay. […] The risk for in-hospital death was associated with high neutrophil% [1(1-1.4), P = .045], while metformin use was associated with decreased risk for in-hospital death [0.1(0.1-0.6), P = .025]. […] Metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors use were associated with favorable in-hospital outcomes, while insulin use was associated with extensive lung injury and post-acute COVID-19 pneumonia partial recovery.
33297431 For patients with DM and COVID-19 who require hospitalization, insulin-based treatment is recommended with cessation of metformin and SGLT2i.
33309936 Metformin exerts anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. […] We addressed the impact of prior metformin use on prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19. […] The association between metformin use and outcomes was then estimated in a logistic regression analysis after applying a propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting approach. […] Among the 2449 patients included, 1496 were metformin users and 953 were not. […] Compared with non-users, metformin users were younger with a lower prevalence of diabetic complications, but had more severe features of COVID-19 on admission. […] The primary endpoint occurred in 28.0% of metformin users (vs 29.0% in non-users, P = 0.6134) on day 7 and in 32.6% (vs 38.7%, P = 0.0023) on day 28. […] The mortality rate was lower in metformin users on day 7 (8.2 vs 16.1%, P < 0.0001) and on day 28 (16.0 vs 28.6%, P < 0.0001). […] After propensity score weighting was applied, the odds ratios for primary outcome and death (OR [95%CI], metformin users vs non-users) were 0.838 [0.649-1.082] and 0.688 [0.470-1.007] on day 7, then 0.783 [0.615-0.996] and 0.710 [0.537-0.938] on day 28, respectively. […] Metformin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of death in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19.
33310152 In the present study we investigated the in vitro effects of Metformin in the permeability of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. […] Thus, we speculate that Metformin may deliver a new therapeutic possibility in ARDS, alone or in combination with other barrier enhancers.
33310173 To determine the association between metformin use and mortality and ARDS incidence in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes. , 2020. […] Patients were divided into two groups according to their exposure to metformin during hospitalization. […] We used mixed-effect Cox model and random effect logistic regression to evaluate the associations of metformin use with outcomes, adjusted for baseline characteristics. […] Of 328 patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes included in the study cohort, 30.5% (100/328) were in the metformin group. […] In the mixed-effected model, metformin use was associated with the lower incidence of ARDS. […] There was no significant association between metformin use and 30-day all-cause mortality. […] In the subgroup analysis, metformin use was associated with the lower incidence of ARDS in females. […] Metformin may have potential benefits in reducing the incidence of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes.
33351311 The degree of lethality was found to be significantly higher in males (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.1–3.9; p=0.022) and in patients on insulin therapy (OR=2.67; 95% CI; 1.42–5.02; p=0.002), while it was significantly lower in patients with an age <65 years (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.18–0.67; p=0.001) and in patients receiving metformin (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14–0,5; p<0.0001), antihypertensive therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.82; p=0.009), β-blockers (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.08–0.86; p=0.018), diuretics (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.17–0.93; p=0.028) and renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACE inhibitors or ARBs) (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.18–0.74; p=0.004). […] The identified risk factors for lethality in patients with type 2 DM indicate that good glycemic control and previous treatment with metformin and antihypertensive drugs (including RAS blockers) could reduce the frequency of deaths.
33352454 Non-survivors had more severe pneumonia based on imaging (p 0.029) and were less often treated with metformin (p 0.036).
33352455 Results from these observational studies suggest that amongst all the non-insulin ADA, metformin users prior to the hospitalization had improved outcomes compared to the non-users. […] Metformin and DPP-4i should be continued in patients with T2DM until hospitalization or unless contraindicated. […] The results from RCTs are needed to claim any meaningful benefit with either metformin or DPP-4i in patients with T2DM and COVID-19.
33361522 Immunometabolism-mediated approaches such as rapamycin, metformin and dimethyl fumarate, may optimize COVID-19 treatment of the elderly and patients at risk for severe disease.
33386081 This identified the most promising drug candidates that can be potentially “repurposed” against COVID-19 including common drugs used to combat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, such as simvastatin, atorvastatin and metformin.
33395778 Preliminary findings showed that mortality was reduced in those who consume metformin compared to those who did not, and given its low cost and widespread availability; metformin is an attractive and potential agent to mitigate excessive risk in diabetic populations. […] The analysis showed that metformin consumption was associated with lower mortality.
33404127 Higher percentages of prescribed angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (β, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -0.02 [-0.04 to -0.0012]; p = .042) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (β, 95% CI; -0.023 [-0.05 to -0.0028]; p = .0304) were associated with a lower first 3-week SARS-CoV-2-related death rate, whereas a higher percentage of prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) (β, 95% CI; 0.03 [0.0061-0.05]; p = .0103) was associated with a higher first 3-week death rate, even when adjusted for age and metformin use.
33412824 The analysis of drug using showed risks effect of insulin (OR 2.13) on hospitalization, sulfonylureas/glinides (OR 2.58) on intensive care and protective of metformin on death both in single component (OR 0.44) and in multicomponent (OR 0.43). data availability made it possible to monitor the occurrence and explore some of the characteristics of the cases with COVID-19 in Sicily.
33440724 In vitro findings and clinical data reveal that the FASN inhibitor, orlistat, and the AMPK activator, metformin, may inhibit coronavirus replication and reduce systemic inflammation to restore immune homeostasis.
33459077 Medical history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers and metformin were also risk factors. -statistic = 0.909).
33471718 Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the effect of pharmacologic agents used to treat T2DM, such as metformin, on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. […] Metformin increases the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a known receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Data from people with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 were used to test the hypothesis that metformin use is associated with improved survival in this population. […] Of these 131 patients, 37 used metformin with or without other antidiabetes medications. […] Among the 37 metformin-taking patients, 35 (94.6%) survived and 2 (5.4%) did not survive. […] The mortality rates in the metformin-taking group versus the non-metformin group were 5.4% (2/37) versus 22.3% (21/94). […] Using multivariate analysis, metformin was found to be an independent predictor of survival in this cohort (P = .02). […] This study reveals a significant association between metformin use and survival in people with T2DM diagnosed with COVID-19. […] These clinical data are consistent with potential benefits of the use of metformin for COVID-19 patients with T2DM.
33471720 Primary literature review included topics: “COVID-19,” “SARS,” “MERS,” “gut micro-biota,” “probiotics,” “immune system,” “ACE2,” and “metformin.” […] The potential mechanisms for interconnections between coronavirus, diabetes, and gut microbiota could be related to the immune system, ACE2 pathway, and metformin treatment.
33517358 Introducing approved drugs, such as those developed to treat diabetes (Metformin) or inflammation (Thalidomide), identified to have cytostatic activity, can enhance chemotherapy or even replace more cytotoxic drugs. […] Metformin, thalidomide and cytokines (IFN, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and others) have pleiomorphic activities, some of which can enhance tumorigenesis.
33519709 Interestingly, we found that metformin treatment prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 was independently associated with a significant reduction in mortality in subjects with diabetes and COVID-19 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.84; p=0.0210). […] Thus, these results suggest that while diabetes is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality, this risk is dramatically reduced in subjects taking metformin prior to diagnosis of COVID-19, raising the possibility that metformin may provide a protective approach in this high risk population.
33521772 Metformin has cytokine-reducing and sex-specific immunomodulatory effects. […] Our aim was to identify whether metformin reduced COVID-19-related mortality and whether sex-specific interactions exist. […] The independent variable of interest was home metformin use, defined as more than 90 days of claims during the year before admission to hospital. […] Propensity-matched mixed-effects logistic regression was done, stratified by metformin use. 6256 of the 15 380 individuals with pharmacy claims data from Jan 1 to June 7, 2020 were eligible for inclusion. 3302 (52·8%) of 6256 were women. […] Metformin use was not associated with significantly decreased mortality in the overall sample of men and women by either Cox proportional hazards stratified model (hazard ratio [HR] 0·887 [95% CI 0·782-1·008]) or propensity matching (odds ratio [OR] 0·912 [95% CI 0·777-1·071], p=0·15). […] Metformin was associated with decreased mortality in women by Cox proportional hazards (HR 0·785, 95% CI 0·650-0·951) and propensity matching (OR 0·759, 95% CI 0·601-0·960, p=0·021). […] Metformin was significantly associated with reduced mortality in women with obesity or type 2 diabetes who were admitted to hospital for COVID-19. […] If findings are reproducible, metformin could be widely distributed for prevention of COVID-19 mortality, because it is safe and inexpensive.
33560344 Metformin, the most commonly prescribed glucose-lowering agent, has been proposed to influence susceptibility to and outcomes of COVID-19 via multiple mechanisms. […] We investigated whether, in patients with diabetes, metformin is associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 and its outcomes. […] Adults with type 2 diabetes patients and a current prescription for metformin and other glucose lowering agents (MF+) were compared to those with a current prescription for glucose-lowering agents that did not include metformin (MF-). […] Current prescription of metformin was not associated with the risk of COVID-19 or COVID-19 related mortality. […] It is safe to continue prescribing metformin to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes, despite concerns about an impending second wave of COVID-19.
33571889 Patients were divided into groups according to how their GDM was managed during the pregnancy: Diet, Metformin (MF), Insulin and MF + Insulin groups.
33580540 Observational studies suggest outpatient metformin use is associated with reduced mortality from COVID-19 disease. […] Metformin is known to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor-necrosis alpha (TNFα), which appear to contribute to morbidity in COVID-19. […] We sought to understand whether outpatient metformin use was associated with reduced odds of severe COVID-19 disease in a large US healthcare dataset. […] Metformin is the exposure of interest, and death, admission, and ICU admission are the outcomes of interest. […] Metformin was associated with a decrease in mortality from COVID-19, OR 0.32 (0.15, 0.66, p=0.002), and in the propensity matched cohorts, OR 0.38 (0.16, 0.91, p=0.030). […] Metformin was associated with a non-significant decrease in hospital admission for COVID-19 in the overall cohort, OR 0.78 (0.58-1.04, p=0.087). […] Among the subgroup with a hemoglobin HbA1c available (n=1,193), the adjusted odds of hospitalization (including adjustment for HbA1c) for metformin users was OR 0.75 (0.53-1.06, p=0.105). […] Outpatient metformin use was associated with a lower mortality and a trend towards decreased admission for COVID-19. […] Given metformin’s low cost, established safety, and the mounting evidence of reduced severity of COVID-19 disease, metformin should be prospectively assessed for outpatient treatment of COVID-19.
33582839 The relationship between metformin therapy and the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has not been reported among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). […] We aimed to investigate whether metformin therapy was associated with the incidence of COVID-19 among type 2 DM patients in South Korea. […] Metformin users were defined as those who had been prescribed continuous oral metformin for over a period of ≥ 90 days, and the control group was defined as all other patients. […] Overall, 27,493 patients with type 2 DM (7204, metformin user group; 20,289, control group) were included. […] In the logistic regression analysis, the odds of metformin users developing COVID-19 was 30% lower than that of the control group [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.80; P < 0.001]. […] However, in the multivariate model, metformin use was not associated with hospital mortality when compared with that of the control group (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; P = 0.301). […] Metformin therapy might have potential benefits for the prevention of COVID-19 among patients with type 2 DM in South Korea.
33584268 Here, we review the role of antidiabetic agents, mainly including insulin, metformin, pioglitazone, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in DM patients with coronavirus infection, addressing the clinical therapeutic choices for these subjects.