DrugBank ID: db01065
DrugCentral: melatonin
Synonymous :5-methoxy-n-acetyltryptamine | melatonin | melatonina | mélatonine | n-[2-(5-methoxyindol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide | n-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of melatonin gene in 53 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32194980 Using network proximity analyses of drug targets and HCoV-host interactions in the human interactome, we prioritize 16 potential anti-HCoV repurposable drugs (e.g., melatonin, mercaptopurine, and sirolimus) that are further validated by enrichment analyses of drug-gene signatures and HCoV-induced transcriptomics data in human cell lines. […] We further identify three potential drug combinations (e.g., sirolimus plus dactinomycin, mercaptopurine plus melatonin, and toremifene plus emodin) captured by the “Complementary Exposure” pattern: the targets of the drugs both hit the HCoV-host subnetwork, but target separate neighborhoods in the human interactome network.
32217117 This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. […] Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule, is protective against ALI/ARDS caused by viral and other pathogens. […] Melatonin is effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improving sleeping quality, which might also be beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. […] Notably, melatonin has a high safety profile. […] There is significant data showing that melatonin limits virus-related diseases and would also likely be beneficial in COVID-19 patients.
32313880 Thus, as alternative potentially more direct “broad-spectrum” COVID-19 therapeutics, several natural and synthetic PAK1-blockers such as propolis, melatonin, ciclesonide, hydroxy chloroquine (HQ), ivermection, and ketorolac, which are readily available in the market, are introduced here.
32314850 Viral, or preexistent, suppression of pineal melatonin disinhibits neutrophil attraction, thereby contributing to an initial “cytokine storm”, as well as the regulation of other immune cells. […] Melatonin induces the circadian gene, Bmal1, which disinhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), countering viral inhibition of Bmal1/PDC. […] Pineal melatonin suppression attenuates this, preventing the circadian “resetting” of mitochondrial metabolism. […] Consequently, pineal melatonin regulates mitochondrial melatonin and immune cell phenotype.
32347747 Children don’t suffer from COVID-19 as much as their grandparents and have a much higher melatonin level. […] Bats are nocturnal animals possessing high levels of melatonin, which may contribute to their high anti-viral resistance. […] Viruses induce an explosion of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age. […] The programmed cell death coronaviruses cause, which can result in significant lung damage, is also inhibited by melatonin. […] Melatonin blocks these inflammasomes. […] Melatonin improves sleep habits, reduces anxiety and stimulates immunity. […] Melatonin is known to prevent fibrosis. […] Mechanical ventilation may be necessary but yet imposes risks due to oxidative stress, which can be reduced by melatonin. […] Thus, by using the safe over-the-counter drug melatonin, we may be immediately able to prevent the development of severe disease symptoms in coronavirus patients, reduce the severity of their symptoms, and/or reduce the immuno-pathology of coronavirus infection on patients’ health after the active phase of the infection is over.
32422305 Vitamin D and melatonin could be good options for achieving this aim, taking into account that they have many shared underlying mechanisms that are able to modulate and control the immune adequately and oxidative response against COVID-19 infection, possibly even through a synergistic interaction. […] The renin-angiotensin system exaltation with consequent inflammatory response has a leading role in the physiopathology of COVID-19 infection; and it may be down-regulated by vitamin D and melatonin in many organs.
32454157 Melatonin is an immunoregulator, anti-pyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and ER stress modulator during viral infections.
32493475 Primary objective: to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. […] Secondary objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment on prevention of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin to prevent the development of severe COVID-19 in the participants enrolled in this study who develop SARS-CoV-2 infection along the trial.To evaluate the duration of COVID-19 symptoms in participants receiving melatonin before the infection.To evaluate seroconversion timing post-symptom onset. […] Exploratory objectives:To compare severity of COVID-19 between men and women.To evaluate the influence of sleep and diet on prevention from SARS-CoV-2 infection.To evaluate the effect of melatonin on the incidence and characteristics of lymphopenia and increase of inflammatory cytokines related to COVID-19. […] This is a two-arm parallel randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of coronavirus disease 2019 among healthcare workers. […] Experimental: Melatonin (Circadin®, Exeltis Healthcare, Spain): 2 mg of melatonin orally before bedtime for 12 weeks.
32500379 Therapies with anti-viral properties that raise HO-1 include certain anesthetics (sevoflurane or isoflurane), hemin, estrogen, statins, curcumin, resveratrol, and melatonin.
32533957 Risk was reduced in those who had pneumococcal polysaccharide or influenza vaccine, or were on melatonin, paroxetine, or carvedilol.
32574327 Here, we suggest melatonin be given consideration for prophylactic use or treatment alone or in combination with other drugs. […] Melatonin’s multiple actions as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral (against other viruses) make it a reasonable choice for use. […] Melatonin is readily available, can be easily synthesized in large quantities, is inexpensive, has a very high safety profile and can be easily self-administered. […] Melatonin is endogenously-produced molecule in small amounts with its production diminishing with increased age. […] Under the current critical conditions, large doses of melatonin alone or in combination with currently-recommended drugs, e.g., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, to resist COVID-19 infection would seem judicious.
32597503 Melatonin is a chronobiotic hormone, which can regulate human diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, respiratory disorders, and microbial infections by regulating redox system. […] Melatonin exhibits innate immunomodulation by communicating with immune system and influencing neutrophils to fight infections and inflammation. […] Therefore, we hypothesized that redox modulators like melatonin can protect neutrophil health and functions under GSH and GR activity-deficient conditions. […] We demonstrate the dual role of melatonin, wherein it protects neutrophils from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS generation; in contrast, it restores neutrophil functions like phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETosis in GSH and GR activity-deficient neutrophils by regulating ROS levels both in vitro and in vivo. […] Melatonin mitigates LPS-induced neutrophil dysfunctions by rejuvenating GSH redox system, specifically GR activity by acting as a parallel redox system. […] Our results indicate that melatonin could be a potential auxiliary therapy to treat immune dysfunction and microbial infections, including virus, under chronic disease conditions by restoring neutrophil functions. […] Further, melatonin could be a promising immune system booster to fight unprecedented pandemics like the current COVID-19. […] However, further studies are indispensable to address the clinical usage of melatonin.
32606050 We discuss one treatment strategy that combines anti-inflammatory (melatonin) and antiviral (toremifene) agents for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 from network medicine-based findings. […] A preliminary analysis reveals a high potential for the synergistic effects of melatonin and toremifene to reduce viral infection and replication, and the aberrant host inflammatory responses, offering strong biologic plausibility as an effective therapy for COVID-19.
32615182 Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling hormone synthesized and secreted primarily by the pineal gland. […] Since Covid-19 infection and complications involve severe inflammation and oxidative stress in people with obesity and diabetes, we anticipated the inclusion of melatonin, as powerful antioxidant, within proposed treatment protocols. […] In this context, melatonin is a potential and promising agent to help overcome Covid-19 infection and boost the immune system in healthy persons and obese and diabetic patients. […] This review summarizes some evidence from recently published reports on the utility of melatonin as a potential adjuvant in Covid-19-infected individuals with diabetes and obesity.
32657483 In this review, we aimed to update knowledge about pathogenesis, clinical features and pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 and review the potential beneficial effects of ancient antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecule melatonin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
32679150 The PPI-CPI network (118 nodes and 293 edges) exhibited a top-ranked sub-network (35 nodes and 174 connectivities) with 12 hub-bottleneck nodes having two drugs chloroquine and melatonin in association with 10 proteins corresponding to six upregulated and four downregulated genes. […] The present study reveals that between chloroquine and melatonin, melatonin appears to be more promising repurposed drug against MMP9 for better immunocompromisation in COVID-19.
32758298 • Primary objective: to evaluate the effect of intravenous melatonin (IVM) on mortality in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19. […] In addition, patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive: • Experimental group (12 patients): 7 days of 5 mg per Kg of actual body weight per day of intravenous melatonin every 6 hours.
32758906 Next, increased exposure to light at night may inhibit the production of melatonin, which has been observed to enhance DNA repair and shown to upregulate expression of Bmal1, an established inhibitor of herpes simplex virus and influenza.
32768490 Melatonin, a multifunctional neurohormone mainly synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland, plays some roles in the treatment of viral infections. […] Regarding a deadly outbreak of COVID-19 across the world, we decided to discuss melatonin functions against various viral infections including COVID-19. […] Therefore, in this review, we summarize current evidence on melatonin therapy for viral infections with focus on possible underlying mechanisms of melatonin actions.
32770854 The pharmacological properties of melatonin are well known. […] However, there is noticeable the lack of clinical trials that confirm the efficacy, security, absence of side effects in the short and long term, and the effective doses of melatonin. […] Melatonin has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mitochondrial protective effects, and its efficacy has been demonstrated in multiple experimental models of disease and in a clinical trial in sepsis. […] Because COVID-19 courses with a severe septic response, multiple reviews proposing melatonin as a treatment for COVID-19 have been published. […] Nevertheless, there is a lack of experimental and clinical data on the use of melatonin on SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Accordingly, we designed a clinical trial with an injectable formulation of melatonin for intravenous perfusion in ICU patients suffering from COVID-19 that has been just approved by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS). […] The trial will allow by the first time understand the doses and efficacy of melatonin against COVID-19.
32772307 Here, we discuss the COVID-19 outbreak in a neuroinvasiveness context and suggest the therapeutic use of high doses of melatonin, which may favorably modulate the immune response and neuroinflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2. […] However, clinical trials elucidating the efficacy of melatonin in the prevention and clinical management in the COVID-19 patients should be actively encouraged.
32777902 The aim of this review is to summarize current studies on the relationship between melatonin and aging. […] Melatonin is the main hormone of the pineal gland. […] Melatonin is known to influence many biological processes in the body, including circadian rhythms, the immune system, and neuroendocrine and cardiovascular functions.Melatoninrhythms also reflect the biological process of aging. […] Melatonin levels decline considerably with aging and its decline is associated with several age-related diseases. […] Melatonin plays a pivotal role in preventing age-related oxidative stress. […] Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatality rates increase with chronic diseases and age, where melatonin levels decrease. […] For this reason, melatonin supplementation in elderly could be beneficial in COVID-19 treatment. […] Therefore, studies on the usage of melatonin in COVID-19 treatment are needed.
32801840 Some other agents such as vitamin D and melatonin, which were recommended as potential adjuvant treatments for COVID-19 infection are also presented.
32825327 There is a growing consensus that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin are of great importance in preserving the body functions and homeostasis, with great impact in the peripartum period and adult life. […] Melatonin promotes adaptation through allostasis and stands out as an endogenous, dietary, and therapeutic molecule with important health benefits. […] The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin are intertwined and are exerted throughout pregnancy and later during development and aging. […] Melatonin supplementation during pregnancy can reduce ischemia-induced oxidative damage in the fetal brain, increase offspring survival in inflammatory states, and reduce blood pressure in the adult offspring. […] In adulthood, disturbances in melatonin production negatively impact the progression of cardiovascular risk factors and promote cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. […] The most studied cardiovascular effects of melatonin are linked to hypertension and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the most promising ones are linked to regaining control of metabolic syndrome components. […] In addition, there might be an emerging role for melatonin as an adjuvant in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19). […] The present review summarizes and comments on important data regarding the roles exerted by melatonin in homeostasis and oxidative stress and inflammation related pathologies.
32847033 We and others have reported melatonin to be an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule with a high safety profile. […] As melatonin shows no harmful adverse effects in humans, it is imperative to introduce this indoleamine into clinical trials where it might be beneficial for better clinical outcomes as an adjuvant treatment of COVID-19-infected patients. […] Herein, we strongly encourage health care professionals to test the potential of melatonin for targeting the COVID-19 pandemic.
32848776 Initial candidate interventions include prophylaxis to augment epithelial defense (e.g., AT1 receptor blockade, type III and type I interferons, melatonin, calcitriol, camostat, and lopinavir) and to reduce viral load (e.g., remdesivir, ivermectin, emetine, Abelson kinase inhibitors, dopamine D2 antagonists, and selective estrogen receptor modulators).
32863490 Melatonin is a natural hormone from the pineal gland that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. […] We examined the structure and physico-chemical properties of melatonin using electronic structure methods and molecular-mechanics tools. […] The results provide a wealth of information about melatonin’s electronic properties, which will enable the prediction of its bioactivity. […] Excellent docking scores of -7.28, -7.20, and -7.06 kcal/mol indicate that melatonin can help to defend against the viral load in vulnerable populations.
32867244 The pro-inflammatory cytokine induced gut permeability/dysbiosis and suppression of pineal melatonin are aspects of the wider pathophysiological underpinnings regulated by the AhR.
32920757 In this communication, we aimed to evaluate the significance of CD147 protein and the potential protective effect of melatonin that is mediated by this protein in COVID-19. […] Melatonin use previously was shown to reduce cardiac damage by blocking the CD147 activity. […] Hence, melatonin, a safe drug, may prevent severe symptoms, reduce symptom severity and the adverse effects of the other antiviral drugs in COVID-19 patients. […] In conclusion, the use of melatonin, which is reduced in the elderly and immune-compromised patients, should be considered as an adjuvant through its CD147 suppressor and immunomodulatory effect.
32922174 We identified 59 hit compounds and among them, melatonin stood out due to its prominent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities; it can reduce oxidative stress, defence cell mobility and efficiently combat the cytokine storm and sepsis. […] In addition, melatonin is an inhibitor of calmodulin, an essential intracellular component to maintain angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) on the cell surface. […] Interestingly, one of the most promising hits in our docking study was melatonin. […] Consequently, melatonin can have response potential in early stages for its possible effects on ACE-2 and Mpro, although it is also promising in more severe stages of the disease for its action against hyper-inflammation.
32992875 Melatonin is a molecule that can enhance the host’s tolerance against pathogen invasions. […] Due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities, melatonin has the capacity to reduce the severity and mortality of deadly virus infections including COVID-19. […] Melatonin is synthesized and functions in mitochondria, which play a critical role in viral infections. […] Not surprisingly, melatonin synthesis can become a target of viral strategies that manipulate the mitochondrial status. […] For example, a viral infection can switch energy metabolism from respiration to widely anaerobic glycolysis even if plenty of oxygen is available (the Warburg effect) when the host cell cannot generate acetyl-coenzyme A, a metabolite required for melatonin biosynthesis. […] Under some conditions, including aging, gender, predisposed health conditions, already compromised mitochondria, when exposed to further viral challenges, lose their capacity for producing sufficient amounts of melatonin. […] Thus, the maintenance of mitochondrial function by melatonin supplementation can be expected to generate beneficial effects on the outcome of viral infectious diseases, particularly COVID-19.
33006999 The drug combination of pirfenidone and melatonin has been identified as a candidate treatment that may contribute to reduce the virus infection. […] Simultaneously, GUILDify v2.0 web server has been used as an alternative method to corroborate the effect of pirfenidone and melatonin against the infection of SARS-CoV-2.
33015537 Several factors, including higher stress due to social isolation, diminished melatonin levels with age, and higher exposure of individuals to light at the evening, which reduces melatonin levels and disrupts circadian rhythmicity are relevant for maintaining the circadian health in aged individuals. […] It involves adequate sleep hygiene, timed light exposure, and the use of a chronobiotic medication like melatonin, which affects the output phase of circadian rhythms thus controlling the biological clock. […] Besides, the therapeutic potential of melatonin as an agent to counteract the consequences of COVID-19 infections has been advocated due to its wide-ranging effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and as an immunomodulatory agent, as well as to a possible antiviral action.
33045209 Several drugs that are often used in dermatology are among the potentially useful treatments: ivermectin, antiandrogenic agents, melatonin, and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
33106171 We will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Melatonin, compared to the standard therapeutic regimen on clinical symptoms and serum inflammatory parameters in patients with confirmed COVID-19, who are moderately ill. […] History of known allergy to Melatonin. […] Intervention group: The standard treatment regimen for COVID-19, according to the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education’s protocol, along with Melatonin capsules at a dose of 50 mg daily for a period of seven days. […] The standard therapeutic regimen for COVID-19 along with Melatonin-like placebo capsules at a dose of one capsule daily for a period of seven days. […] Both Melatonin and placebo capsules were prepared at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
33108677 Melatonin was discovered more than 60 years ago. […] However, many fundamental issues have not yet been solved such as the subcellular localization of melatonin synthesis and the full spectrum of its molecular targets. […] In addition, a considerable number of controversies persist in the field, mainly concerning how many functions melatonin has.
33156843 We identified that melatonin usage (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.91) is significantly associated with a 28% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. […] Using a PS matching user active comparator design, we determined that melatonin usage was associated with a reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positive test result compared to use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.90). […] Importantly, melatonin usage (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.75) is associated with a 52% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2 in African Americans after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking history, and various disease comorbidities using PS matching. […] In summary, this study presents an integrative network medicine platform for predicting disease manifestations associated with COVID-19 and identifying melatonin for potential prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
33225948 A total of 327 TICAMs were mentioned across eligible articles, with the most common ones including: traditional Chinese medicine (n = 94), vitamin D (n = 67), melatonin (n = 16), phytochemicals (n = 12), and general herbal medicine (n = 11).
33245701 Poor sleep is another factor leading to impaired immunity, likely due to the coinciding melatonin depletion. […] Melatonin has been found to have antiviral and immune-enhancing effects, and it has been proposed that this hormone may be beneficial in COVID-19 patients.
33247469 However, the ensuing cytokine storm and the effect of higher melatonin in children are age-dependent and could explain decreased disease variability in children.
33256258 The therapeutic potential of melatonin as a chronobiotic cytoprotective agent to counteract the consequences of COVID-19 infections has been advocated. […] Because of its wide-ranging effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory compound, melatonin could be unique in impairing the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Moreover, indirect evidence points out to a possible antiviral action of melatonin by interfering with SARS-CoV-2/angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 association. […] Melatonin is also an effective chronobiotic agent to reverse the circadian disruption of social isolation and to control delirium in severely affected patients. […] As a cytoprotector, melatonin serves to combat several comorbidities such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases, which aggravate COVID-19 disease. […] In view of evidence on the occurrence of neurological sequels in COVID-19-infected patients, another putative application of melatonin emerges based on its neuroprotective properties. […] Since melatonin is an effective means to control cognitive decay in minimal cognitive impairment, its therapeutic significance for the neurological sequels of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered. […] Finally, yet importantly, exogenous melatonin can be an adjuvant capable of augmenting the efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. […] We discuss in this review the experimental evidence suggesting that melatonin is a potential “silver bullet” in the COVID 19 pandemic.
33262177 Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
33344529 We evaluated the ameliorative effect of the proposed SARS-CoV-2 prophylactic drugs melatonin, vitamin C, and zinc on CIS-induced OS, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats. […] Forty male Swiss albino rats (200-250 g, 7-9 weeks old) were divided into five groups as controls, CIS, treated with melatonin (20 mg/kg), and vitamin C plus zinc [VitC+Zn (250 + 2.5 mg/kg)] alone or in combination (melatonin+VitC+zinc) subjected to CIS for 3 weeks. […] Treatment with melatonin and VitC+Zn alone or in combination significantly restored the altered biochemical parameters and DNA damage of stressed rats to their respective control values. […] However, the cumulative action of melatonin with VitC+Zn was more effective in alleviating the CIS-induced OS, inflammation, and DNA damage.
33349726 Pharmacological options in Italy are: melatonin 2 mg prolonged release that should be the first choice in subjects ≥55 years old and used until 13 weeks; and for a short term use (≤4 weeks) Z-drugs or short-acting benzodiazepines (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant.
33358750 Adoption of an anti-inflammatory diet, supplementation with vitamin D, glutathione, melatonin, Cordyceps, Astragalus and garlic have potential utility.
33375692 A consideration of the molecular biology underlying inflammasome priming and activation enables the prediction that a range of nutraceuticals may have clinical potential for suppressing inflammasome activity-antioxidants including phycocyanobilin, phase 2 inducers, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine, the AMPK activator berberine, glucosamine, zinc, and various nutraceuticals that support generation of hydrogen sulfide.
33381286 Knowing that sleep-wake cycle disruptions impair melatonin production, immune system response and glucose metabolism, and that individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for poor prognosis when infected by SARS-CoV-2 (especially if their blood glucose is out of target), we recommend monitoring and advising these individuals towards strategies to maintain adequate sleep quality and duration as part of their preventive and protective measures during the new pandemic routine.
33401749 Recently, extensive research-based studies have revealed and acknowledged the clinical and preventive roles of melatonin in some viral diseases. […] Melatonin has been shown to have antiviral properties against several viral infections which are accompanied by neurological symptoms. […] The beneficial properties of melatonin relate to its properties as a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory molecule and its neuroprotective effects. […] In this review, what is known about the therapeutic role of melatonin in virus-induced neuropathogenesis is summarized and discussed.
33485026 In particular, the cycle of melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol released from the pineal hormone ensures that immunity continues for 24 h. […] While 5-MTX is active in sunlight, melatonin secretion increases in the dark at night. […] 5-MTX, like melatonin, has shown antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties in studies.
33532161 It is based on affordable, commonly available components: anti-inflammatory corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, “M”), high-dose vitamin C infusion (ascorbic acid, “A”), vitamin B1 (thiamine, “T”), anticoagulant heparin (“H”), antiparasitic agent ivermectin, and supplemental components (“+”) including melatonin, vitamin D, elemental zinc, and magnesium.
33553231 Fish as a food is rich in compounds with immunoregulatory properties, among them omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, tryptophan, taurine and polyamines.
33556032 In April 2020, two independent clinical trials (CT) to assess SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis in healthcare workers were started in our Hospital: MeCOVID (melatonin vs placebo) and EPICOS (tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine vs hydroxychloroquine vs the combination of both vs placebo).
33562472 Such immune responses become further dysregulated by the increased and prolonged pro-inflammatory cytokine suppression of pineal melatonin production coupled to increased gut dysbiosis and gut permeability. […] The suppression of pineal melatonin and gut microbiome-derived butyrate, coupled to an increase in circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) further dysregulates the immune response. […] The increased risk of severe/fatal SARS-CoV-2 infection by high risk conditions, such as elderly age, obesity, and diabetes are mediated by these conditions having expression levels of melatonin, AhR, butyrate, and LPS that are closer to those driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] This has a number of future research and treatment implications, including the utilization of melatonin and nutraceuticals that inhibit the AhR, including the polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and resveratrol.