DrugBank ID: db00848
DrugCentral: levamisole
Synonymous :levamisol | levamisole | levamisolum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of levamisole gene in 9 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32752939 Levamisole-adulterated cocaine poses a particular concern given that documented risk of agranulocytosis and severe neutropenia that may put those exposed at risk of bacterial superinfections and other complications as well as potentially increasing exposure.
32903227 In this letter, we discussed the Levamisole, which is an anthelmintic agent with immunomodulatory effects, could be used effectively both for antiviral therapy and especially in COVID-19 patients with diarrhea.
33298746 Discovered in the 1960s, the common anthelminthic levamisole has seen widespread use in veterinary applications. […] Due to reports of severe adverse effects, the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew levamisole’s approval for human use in 2000; however, medical options outside the US and illicit options worldwide allow continued accessibility to levamisole. […] Levamisole has a broad range of immunomodulatory effects, including both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune responses. […] Individuals with levamisole-compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infections, including COVID-19. […] Since the early 2000’s, levamisole has been frequently used as an adulterating agent in illicit street drugs, especially cocaine, fentanyl, and heroin. […] Although its prevalence has varied over time and geographically, levamisole has been detected in up to 79% of the street supply of cocaine at levels up to 74% by weight. […] Levamisole is not currently included in routine drug testing panels, although a variety of confirmatory testing techniques exist across a range of antemortem and postmortem specimen options. […] Because of its varying presence in illicit drug markets, both the medical and forensic communities need to be aware of levamisole and its potential impact on toxicological investigations.