DrugBank ID: db02070
DrugCentral: kynurenine
Synonymous :(2s)-2-amino-4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid | 3-anthraniloyl-l-alanine | l-kynurenine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of kynurenine gene in 7 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32559180 Targeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses identified altered tryptophan metabolism into the kynurenine pathway, which regulates inflammation and immunity.
32597823 After entry into cells, corona viruses (CoV) activate aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) by an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1)-independent mechanism, bypassing the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR pathway. […] The IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway is used by multiple viral, microbial and parasitic pathogens to activate AhRs and to establish infections. […] Because lack of physical exercise activates AhRs via the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway increasing risk of infection, physical exercise should be encouraged during quarantines and stay-at-home orders during pandemic outbreaks.
32806897 Key discriminant metabolites included markers of inflammation including elevated α-1-acid glycoprotein and an increased kynurenine/tryptophan ratio.
32867244 The rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines during the ‘cytokine storm’ induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to an increase in kynurenine that activates the AhR, thereby heightening the initial pro-inflammatory cytokine phase and suppressing the endogenous anti-viral response.
33132153 The AhR-IDO1-Kynurenine pathway is an important checkpoint, which leads to fatal consequences in SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune evasion in the context of Treg/Th17 imbalance and cytokine storm.
33134953 Arginine/kynurenine ratio accurately identified coronavirus disease 2019 status, whereas creatinine/arginine ratio accurately predicted coronavirus disease 2019-associated death. […] Administration of tryptophan (kynurenine precursor), arginine, sarcosine, and/or lysophosphatidylcholines may be considered as potential adjunctive therapies.
33135582 We posit that a phenomenon known as cytokine storm dramatically activates the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), resulting in the increase in kynurenine metabolites. […] Kynurenine is metabolized by IDO-1 in the brain, producing chemokines, in which a prolonged exposure may result long-term brain impairment. […] Thereby, angiotensin II could increase kynurenine metabolites producing pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, resulting in impairment of cognitive function, enhanced oxidative stress and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
33247138 Interestingly, animals with anti-inflammatory responses including high IL-10:IL-6 and kynurenine to tryptophan ratios show less severe illness.
33302893 Concentrations of serum neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine were measured at and repeatedly after inclusion. […] Moreover, lower levels of tryptophan and higher levels of kynurenine, indicating an increased tryptophan catabolism, were seen in the group with severe cases.
33341650 Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyses the first and rate limiting step of kynurenine pathway accounting for the major contributor of L-Tryptophan degradation. […] The Kynurenine metabolites are identified as essential cofactors, antagonists, neurotoxins, immunomodulators, antioxidants as well as carcinogens.
33562472 Two important products of tryptophan metabolism, viz kynurenine and interleukin (IL)4-inducible1 (IL41)-driven indole 3 pyruvate (I3P), activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), thereby altering the nature of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.