DrugBank ID: db00602
DrugCentral: ivermectin
Synonymous :ivermectin | ivermectina | ivermectine | ivermectinum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ivermectin gene in 96 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32251768 We report here that Ivermectin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic previously shown to have broad-spectrum anti-viral activity in vitro, is an inhibitor of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2 hours post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ∼5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48 h. […] Ivermectin therefore warrants further investigation for possible benefits in humans.
32293834 Nitazoxanide and ivermectin were also included in this review as they have recently been reported to have an activity against SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro and are licensed for the treatment of some other human infections.
32314704 Ivermectin and Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Keeping Rigor in Times of Urgency.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin were known to act by creating the acidic environment and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import.
32360581 Azithromycin has been shown to have a clinical efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; ivermectin has also demonstrated a remarkable experimental efficacy with a potential to be used for Coronavirus disease 2019.
32378737 Caly, Druce (1) reported that ivermectin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in vitro for up to 48 h using ivermectin at 5μM. […] The concentration resulting in 50% inhibition (IC50, 2 µM) was >35x higher than the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) after oral administration of the approved dose of ivermectin when given fasted. […] Simulations were conducted using an available population pharmacokinetic model to predict total (bound and unbound) and unbound plasma concentration-time profiles after a single and repeat fasted administration of the approved dose of ivermectin (200 μg/kg), 60 mg, and 120 mg. […] Plasma ivermectin concentrations of total (bound and unbound) and unbound concentrations do not reach the IC50 , even for a dose level 10x higher than the approved dose. […] Even with the high lung:plasma ratio, ivermectin is unlikely to reach the IC50 in lungs after single oral administration of the approved dose (predicted lung: 0.0873 µM) or at doses 10x higher that the approved dose administered orally (predicted lung: 0.820 µM). […] In summary, the likelihood of a successful clinical trial using the approved dose of ivermectin is low.
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32434058 We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion.
32436867 Patients are being treated with protease drugs are inhibitors, remdesivir, chloroquine, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitors, ivermectin, sarilumab and tocilizumab, though none of these is Food and Drug Administration approved and are undergoing trials.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32448085 For instance, the ivermectin drug (present in our list of promise candidates) was recently used successful to control viral replication in vitro. MD simulations were performed for the three best complexes and the binding energies were calculated using the MM/PBSA approach.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32458795 Mass Drug Administration and Worms Experience in Africa: Envisage Repurposing Ivermectin for SARS-COV-2.
32462282 Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug that has shown also an effective pharmacological activity towards various infective agents, including viruses.
32473310 A few clinically approved drugs, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, camostat, and ivermectin, exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and/or in a small number of patients. […] Bexarotene demonstrated the highest Cmax:EC50 ratio (1.69) which was higher than those of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin.
32479893 For decades, Ivermectin (IVM) has been recognized as a robust antiparasitic drug with excellent tolerance and safety profiles.
32513289 The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin, administered to low risk, non-severe COVID-19 patients in the first 48 hours after symptom onset to reduce the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. […] To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post treatment.2. […] To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to improve symptom progression in treated patients.3. […] To assess the safety of ivermectin at the proposed dose.5. […] Participants will be randomized to receive a single dose of 400 μg/kg ivermectin or placebo, and the number of patients in the treatment and placebo groups will be the same (1:1 ratio). […] Known history of ivermectin allergy. […] Hypersensitivity to any component of ivermectin. […] Ivermectin will be administered to the treatment group at a 400μg/Kg dose (included in the EU approved label of Stromectol and Scabioral). […] There is no current data on the efficacy of ivermectin against the virus in vivo, therefore the use of placebo in the control group is ethically justified.
32514228 Certain drugs that are clinically approved for other diseases were tested against COVID-19 as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, favipiravir, ribavirin, and remdesivir.
32533071 Ivermectin proposes many potentials effects to treat a range of diseases, with its antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties as a wonder drug. […] In this comprehensive systematic review, antiviral effects of ivermectin are summarized including in vitro and in vivo studies over the past 50 years. […] Several studies reported antiviral effects of ivermectin on RNA viruses such as Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Hendra, Newcastle, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, Semliki Forest, Sindbis, Avian influenza A, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Furthermore, there are some studies showing antiviral effects of ivermectin against DNA viruses such as Equine herpes type 1, BK polyomavirus, pseudorabies, porcine circovirus 2, and bovine herpesvirus 1. […] Ivermectin plays a role in several biological mechanisms, therefore it could serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of a wide range of viruses including COVID-19 as well as other types of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. […] In vivo studies of animal models revealed a broad range of antiviral effects of ivermectin, however, clinical trials are necessary to appraise the potential efficacy of ivermectin in clinical setting.
32534175 Second, regarding prevention, no validated protocols except for physical distancing, hand washing, and isolation exist, and recently ivermectin has been published to have anti-viral properties against COVID-19. […] A randomized trial of ivermectin, and/or nutraceuticals that have been published to support immune function including glutathione, vitamin C, zinc, and immunomodulatory supplements (3,6 Beta glucan) could be beneficial in preventing transmission or lessening symptomatology but requires statistical validation. […] Digital monitoring of symptoms to clinically diagnose early exposure and response to treatment; prevention with ivermectin as well as nutritional therapies that support a healthy immune response; treatment with anti-inflammatory therapies that block NF-κB and activate Nrf2 pathways, as well as novel therapies that address COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS with DIC including anticoagulation and/or novel respiratory therapies with or without acetazolamide and sildenafil.
32559771 Amidst the crisis, reports of in vitro inhibitory activity of ivermectin, an approved anthelmintic, against the causative SARSCoV2 virus, have generated lot of optimism. […] As the pandemic continues to ravage human civilisation with unabated intensity, the world eagerly waits for a ray of hope emanating from the outcome of the ongoing trials with ivermectin as well as other drugs.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32658716 At the end of March 2020, ivermectin was confirmed as a drug for COVID-19 treatment. […] A significant amount of ivermectin could deposit into sediments of the semi-closed Mediterranean Sea, where three European COVID-19 epicenters are located: Italy, Spain, and France. […] Meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to three ivermectin doses (1.8 ng.g-1, 9 ng.g-1, and 18 ng.g-1) for 10 days. […] Ivermectin caused a great reduction in abundance. […] Ivermectin disadvantaged the 1B-Cr-Id functional type (non-selective deposit feeders and nematodes with circular or indistinct amphids) and benefited the 2A-REL-Sp type (epistrate feeders and nematodes with rounded or elongated loop amphids). […] Thus, Trophic Diversity and Amphideal Diversity index values increased with sedimentary ivermectin enrichment. […] Large amphideal foveas were more efficient for 2A-REL-Sp nematodes to avoid ivermectin. […] The responses of the functional type 2A-REL-Sp and corresponding taxa predict post-COVID-19 environmental concerns and the bioaccumulation of ivermectin in seafoods.
32660993 Previously, ivermectin (1 to 10 mg/kg of body weight) was shown to inhibit the liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei in orally dosed mice. […] Here, ivermectin showed inhibition of the in vitro development of Plasmodium cynomolgi schizonts (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 10.42 μM) and hypnozoites (IC50, 29.24 μM) in primary macaque hepatocytes when administered as a high dose prophylactically but not when administered in radical cure mode. […] The safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of oral ivermectin (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg) with and without chloroquine (10 mg/kg) administered for 7 consecutive days were evaluated for prophylaxis or radical cure of P. cynomolgi liver stages in rhesus macaques. […] No inhibition or delay to blood-stage P. cynomolgi parasitemia was observed at any ivermectin dose (0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg). […] Ivermectin (0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) in combination were well-tolerated with no adverse events and no significant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions observed. […] Repeated daily ivermectin administration for 7 days did not inhibit ivermectin bioavailability. […] It was recently demonstrated that both ivermectin and chloroquine inhibit replication of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro Further ivermectin and chloroquine trials in humans are warranted to evaluate their role in Plasmodium vivax control and as adjunctive therapies against COVID-19 infections.
32714193 Natural products (carolacton, homoharringtonine, emetine, and cepharanthine) and natural product-inspired small molecules (ivermectin, GS-5734, EIDD-2801, and ebselen) are potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that have attracted significant attention due to their broad-spectrum antiviral activities.
32717568 However, they may not be effective in cases with persistently high viremia, while results on ivermectin (another antiparasitic agent) are not yet available.
32752944 However, some potential antimalarial drugs like hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, antifilarial drug ivermectin and antiviral drugs have been tested by many research groups worldwide for their possible effect against the COVID-19. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin have been identified to act by creating the acidic condition in cells and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import. […] Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32825892 The panel looked at Ivermectin, one of the old molecule and evaluated it’s use in COVID 19 (Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019) management. […] After critical panel discussion, all the attending doctors came to a conclusion that Ivermectin can be a potential molecule for prophylaxis and treatment of people infected with Coronavirus, owing to its anti-viral properties coupled with effective cost, availability and good tolerability and safety.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32837982 While nicotine and ivermectin may be blocking transport abilities of the virus or its components, famotidine, remdesivir and chloroquine in combination with zinc ions can deactivate important enzymes needed for the replication of the virus.
32848776 Initial candidate interventions include prophylaxis to augment epithelial defense (e.g., AT1 receptor blockade, type III and type I interferons, melatonin, calcitriol, camostat, and lopinavir) and to reduce viral load (e.g., remdesivir, ivermectin, emetine, Abelson kinase inhibitors, dopamine D2 antagonists, and selective estrogen receptor modulators).
32863755 Here we discuss the presently used repurposed drugs for COVID-19 and the potential for ivermectin (IVM) to be used as a therapeutic option in COVID-19.
32871846 One drug that has attracted interest is the antiparasitic compound ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone derived from the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. […] We carried out a docking study to determine if ivermectin might be able to attach to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound with ACE2. […] Ivermectin docked in the region of leucine 91 of the spike and histidine 378 of the ACE2 receptor. […] The binding energy of ivermectin to the spike-ACE2 complex was -18 kcal/mol and binding constant was 5.8 e-08. […] The ivermectin docking we identified may interfere with the attachment of the spike to the human cell membrane. […] Clinical trials now underway should determine whether ivermectin is an effective treatment for SARS-Cov2 infection.
32876249 Clinical trials were planned and are in progress to investigate whether drugs used for influenza, HIV and other viruses, and also anthelmintics (ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide), and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) showing antiviral activity in in vitro assays, are effective and safe for Covid-19.
32891630 Ivermectin has shown antiviral activity by inhibiting the formation of the importin-α (IMPα) and IMPβ1 subunits as well as dissociating the IMPα/β1 heterodimer and has in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. […] Plasma and lung ivermectin concentrations vs. time profiles in cattle were used to determine the apparent plasma to lung tissue partition coefficient of ivermectin. […] This coefficient, together with a simulated geometric mean plasma profile of ivermectin from a published population pharmacokinetic model, was utilized to develop a minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model. […] The mPBPK model accurately described the simulated ivermectin plasma concentration profile in humans. […] The mPBPK model was also used to simulate human lung exposure to ivermectin after 12, 30, and 120 mg oral doses. […] The simulated ivermectin lung exposures reached a maximum concentration of 772 ng/mL, far less than the estimated 1750 ng/mL IC50 reported for ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] Further studies of ivermectin either reformulated for inhaled delivery or in combination with other antivirals with differing mechanisms of action is needed to assess its therapeutic potential.
32904710 The use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, ivermectin, and colchicine might also be effective.
32910321 The patient was treated with a 4-day course of Ivermectin with full recovery.
32915876 The screen also identified ivermectin, which was first identified as an anti-parasite drug and recently the drug was included in clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2.
32942671 The small molecule macrocyclic lactone ivermectin, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has received renewed attention in the last eight years due to its apparent exciting potential as an antiviral. […] This mini-review discusses the case for ivermectin as a host-directed broad-spectrum antiviral agent for a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
32950529 This study revealed that Rifabutin, Rifapentine, Fidaxomicin, 7-methyl-guanosine-5’-triphosphate-5’-guanosine and Ivermectin have a potential inhibitory interaction with RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and could be effective drugs for COVID-19.
32957889 Melitric acid A and salvanolic acid A had higher affinity than lopinavir and ivermectin using both AutodockVina and XP docking algorithms.
32959892 FDA-approved anti-parasite drug ivermectin is also an antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer agent, which offers more potentiality to improve global public health, and it can effectively inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. […] This study sought to identify ivermectin-related virus infection pathway alterations in human ovarian cancer cells. […] Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics was used to analyze human ovarian cancer cells TOV-21G treated with and without ivermectin (20 μmol/L) for 24 h, which identified 4447 ivermectin-related proteins in ovarian cancer cells. […] Interestingly, compared with the reported 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes from GencLip3, we identified 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related protein alterations when treated with and without ivermectin. […] Protein-protein network (PPI) was constructed based on the interactions between 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes and between 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related proteins regulated by ivermectin. […] These findings demonstrate the broad-spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin benefiting for COVID-19 treatment in the context of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine in virus-related diseases.
32967116 The drugs studied include chloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, boceprevir, and α-difluoromethylornithine (DMFO).
32967849 These data support the concept that favipiravir could be paired with at least one more off-target antiviral agent (doxycycline, azithromycin, ivermectin) followed by corticosteroids and antithrombotics to prevent COVID-19 hospitalization and death in those over age 50 an or those with one or more comorbidities.
32969333 Among the previously approved drugs, Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate, Digitoxin, Ivermectin, Rapamycin, Rifaximin, and Amphotericin B represented the most desirable features, and can be possible candidates for Covid-19 therapies.
32972027 Repositioning existing drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Ivermectin and Baricitinib shows good potential for COVID-19 treatment.
32974268 The drugs most actively tested in various centers include hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir chloroquine and ivermectin.
32983701 Most of them were treated either by ivermectin plus azithromycin or ivermectin plus doxycycline.
33006776 Chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ivermectin (IVM) are among the most politically promoted and sold drugs.
33014317 Using some docking methods, RdRP was targeted by Milbemycins (MMs), Ivermectin (IMT), Baloxavir Marboxil (BM), and Tadalafil (TF), a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. […] The drugs used in the present computational investigation are effective against the SARS-CoV-2 RdRP with high affinity values especially, milbemycins, ivermectin, and Baloxavir marboxil, which could further be studied in laboratory and clinical trials for saving millions of lives around the world.
33014380 This review aims to collect and summarize a list of drugs used to treat COVID-19, including dexamethasone, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, tociluzimab, nitazoxanide and ivermectin.
33038449 Ivermectin is an FDA-approved broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent with demonstrated antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] Despite this promise, the antiviral activity of ivermectin has not been consistently proven in vivo. […] While ivermectin’s activity against SARS-CoV-2 is currently under investigation in patients, insufficient emphasis has been placed on formulation challenges. […] Here, we discuss challenges surrounding the use of ivermectin in the context of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and how novel formulations employing micro- and nanotechnologies may address these concerns.
33041830 These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber.
33045209 Several drugs that are often used in dermatology are among the potentially useful treatments: ivermectin, antiandrogenic agents, melatonin, and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
33051517 All subjects had detectable ivermectin concentrations in the lungs at seven days post intervention, up to 524.3 ng/g for high-dose male and 27.3 ng/g for low-dose females. nebulized ivermectin can reach pharmacodynamic concentrations in the lung tissue of rats, additional experiments are required to assess the safety of this formulation in larger animals.
33055059 Based on our computational method, we found Remdesivir, Statins, Dexamethasone, and Ivermectin could be considered as potential effective drugs to improve clinical status and lower mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
33062500 Ivermectin, an antihelminthic drug, has shown antiviral properties previously. […] We herein propose the theory of inhaled ivermectin which can attain the desired lung concentration that will render it effective against SARS-CoV-2.
33065103 Ivermectin was shown to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication in vitro, which has led to off-label use, but clinical efficacy has not been described previously. […] Does ivermectin benefit hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients? […] Two hundred eighty patients, 173 treated with ivermectin and 107 without ivermectin, were reviewed. […] Univariate analysis showed lower mortality in the ivermectin group (15.0% vs 25.2%; OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96; P = .03). […] Mortality also was lower among ivermectin-treated patients with severe pulmonary involvement (38.8% vs 80.7%; OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.47; P = .001). […] Mortality was significantly lower in the ivermectin group (13.3% vs 24.5%; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P < .05), an 11.2% (95% CI, 0.38%-22.1%) absolute risk reduction, with a number needed to treat of 8.9 (95% CI, 4.5-263). […] Ivermectin treatment was associated with lower mortality during treatment of COVID-19, especially in patients with severe pulmonary involvement.
33073202 While no cure is available to date, herein we put forward with rationale and supporting evidence that if administrated simultaneously, a combination of FDA-approved drugs comprising ivermectin, famotidine, and doxycycline may provide robust chemoprophylaxis effective against COVID-19.
33111618 While an FDA approved drug Ivermectin was reported to dramatically reduce the cell line of SARS-CoV-2 by ∼5000 folds within 48 h, the precise mechanism of action and the COVID-19 molecular target involved in interaction with this in-vitro effective drug are unknown yet. […] Among 12 different COVID-19 targets along with Importin-α studied here, the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with RNA and Helicase NCB site show the strongest affinity to Ivermectin amounting -10.4 kcal/mol and -9.6 kcal/mol, respectively, followed by Importin-α with -9.0 kcal/mol. […] The selectivity of Ivermectin to RdRp is triggered by a cooperative interaction of RNA-RdRp by ternary complex formation. […] Identification of the target and its interaction profile with Ivermectin can lead to more powerful drug designs for COVID-19 and experimental exploration.
33137493 Ivermectin, azithromycin and oseltamivir did not substantially reduce risk further.
33175880 Ivermectin has recently shown efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro. […] We retrospectively reviewed severe COVID-19 patients receiving standard doses of ivermectin and we compared clinical and microbiological outcomes with a similar group of patients not receiving ivermectin. […] We recommend the evaluation of high-doses of ivermectin in randomized trials against SARS-CoV-2.
33189582 Here we tell the story of ivermectin, describing its anthelmintic and insecticidal actions and recent studies that have sought to reposition ivermectin for the treatment of other diseases that are not caused by helminth and insect parasites. […] At higher concentrations, ivermectin also acts as an allosteric modulator of ion channels found in host central nervous systems. […] In addition, in tissue culture, at concentrations higher than anthelmintic concentrations, ivermectin shows antiviral, antimalarial, antimetabolic, and anticancer effects. […] Caution is required before extrapolating from these preliminary repositioning experiments to clinical use, particularly for Covid-19 treatment, because of the high concentrations of ivermectin used in tissue-culture experiments.
33227231 Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used widely for the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. […] Hence, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the currently available data on the therapeutic potential of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 as add on therapy. […] Among them, 397 patients received ivermectin along with usual therapy. […] Similarly, the random effect model revealed that adding ivermectin led to significant clinical improvement compared to usual therapy (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.11 to 3.53, P=0.02).
33234158 To assess the efficacy of ivermectin in addition to standard treatment compared to standard treatment alone in reducing hospitalizations in the COVID-19 patient population. […] (5) That they sign the informed consent for participation in the study. (1) pregnant or breastfeeding women; (2) known allergy to ivermectin or some of the components of ivermectin tablets or placebo; (3) current use of home oxygen; (4) require hospitalization due to COVID-19 at the time of diagnosis or history of hospitalization for COVID-19; (5) presence of mal-absorptive syndrome; (6) presence of any other concomitant acute infectious disease; (7) known history of severe liver disease, for example liver cirrhosis; (8) need or use of antiviral drugs at the time of admission for another viral pathology other than COVID-19; (9) need or use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine; (10) use of ivermectin up to 7 days prior to randomization; (11) patients on dialysis or who have required it in the last 2 months or who plan to do it in the next 2 months; and (12) current participation or in the last 30 days in a research study that has included the administration of a drug (Table 1). […] Table 1 Ivermectin/placebo dose according to patient weight Patient weight Ivermectin/placebo dose Total dose (mg) Equal to or greater than 48 kg and less than 80 kg 2 tablets of 6 mg each at the time of inclusion and 2 tablets 24 h after the first intake 24 Equal or greater than 80 kg and less than 110 kg 3 tablets of 6 mg each at the time of inclusion and 3 tablets 24 h after the first intake 36 Equal or greater than 110 kg 4 tablets of 6 mg each at the time of inclusion and 4 tablets 24 h after the first intake 48 The study will be carried out by the Ministry of Public Health of the Province of Corrientes (Argentina) in coordination with the Institute of Cardiology of Corrientes in the Province of Corrientes, Argentina. […] Intervention group: patients who are randomized to ivermectin will receive the dose according to their weight (patients up to 80 kg will receive 2 tablets of 6 mg ivermectin; patients with more than 80 kg and up to 110 kg will receive 3 tablets of 6 mg of ivermectin; patients weighing more than 110 kg will receive 4 tablets of 6 mg ivermectin) the day they enter the study and the same dose 24 h after the first dose. patients who are randomized to placebo will receive the dose according to their weight (patients up to 80 kg will receive 2 tablets of 6 mg placebo; patients with more than 80 kg and up to 110 kg will receive 3 tablets of 6 mg of placebo; patients weighing more than 110 kg will receive 4 tablets of 6 mg placebo) on the day they enter the study and the same dose 24 h after the first dose (Table 2). […] Known allergy to ivermectin or some of the components of ivermectin tablets or placebo 3. […] Use of ivermectin up to 7 days prior to randomization 11. […] Ivermectin safety: it will be analyzed according to the incidence of adverse events that patients present in the intervention and control groups.
33246694 Ivermectin, an anti-helminthic drug is also being proposed for treatment and prevention of COVID-19. […] Ivermectin has demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against both DNA and RNA viruses. […] However, in-vitro to in-vivo extrapolation studies indicate an inability to achieve the desired IC50 levels of ivermectin after oral administration of doses up to 10 times higher than the approved anti-helminthic dose. […] It is hypothesised that inhaled formulation of ivermectin may be effective against SARS-CoV-2. […] Therefore, ivermectin administered via inhalational route needs to be explored for potential beneficial role in COVID-19 in preclinical and clinical studies.
33259913 Here, we show that countries with routine mass drug administration of prophylactic chemotherapy including ivermectin have a significantly lower incidence of COVID-19. […] Prophylactic use of ivermectin against parasitic infections is most common in Africa and we hence show that the reported correlation is highly significant both when compared among African nations as well as in a worldwide context. […] We surmise that this may be connected to ivermectin’s ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication, which likely leads to lower infection rates. […] However, other pathways must exist to explain the persistence of such an inhibitory effect after serum levels of ivermectin have declined. […] It is suggested that ivermectin be evaluated for potential off-label prophylactic use in certain cases to help bridge the time until a safe and effective vaccine becomes available.
33278625 Ivermectin, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-parasitic agent, was found to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in vitro. […] A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the rapidity of viral clearance and safety of ivermectin among adult SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] The trial included 72 hospitalized patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were assigned to one of three groups: oral ivermectin alone (12 mg once daily for 5 days), oral ivermectin in combination with doxycycline (12 mg ivermectin single dose and 200 mg doxycycline on day 1, followed by 100 mg every 12 h for the next 4 days), and a placebo control group. […] Virological clearance was earlier in the 5-day ivermectin treatment arm when compared to the placebo group (9.7 days vs 12.7 days; p = 0.02), but this was not the case for the ivermectin + doxycycline arm (11.5 days; p = 0.27). […] A 5-day course of ivermectin was found to be safe and effective in treating adult patients with mild COVID-19.
33330844 The food and drug administration-approved drug ivermectin has long been shown to be both antihelmintic agent and a potent inhibitor of viruses such as Yellow Fever Virus. […] In this study, we highlight the potential of ivermectin packaged in an orally administrable nanoparticle that could serve as a vehicle to deliver a more potent therapeutic antiviral dose and demonstrate its efficacy to decrease expression of viral spike protein and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), both of which are keys to lowering disease transmission rates. […] We also report that the targeted nanoparticle delivered ivermectin is able to inhibit the nuclear transport activities mediated through proteins such as importin α/β1 heterodimer as a possible mechanism of action. […] This study sheds light on ivermectin-loaded, orally administrable, biodegradable nanoparticles to be a potential treatment option for the novel coronavirus through a multilevel inhibition.
33340453 We then focused on studies that included at least one of six drugs (remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta, corticosteroids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin) under evaluation for COVID-19.
33341233 FDA approved for parasitic indications, the small molecule ivermectin has been the focus of growing attention in the last 8 years due to its potential as an antiviral. […] We first identified ivermectin in a high throughput compound library screen as an agent potently able to inhibit recognition of the nuclear localizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase protein by the host importin (IMP) α/β1 heterodimer, and recently demonstrated its ability to bind directly to IMPα to cause conformational changes that prevent its function in nuclear import of key viral as well as host proteins. […] Here we discuss the case for ivermectin as a host-directed broad-spectrum antiviral agent, including for SARS-CoV-2.
33362383 Drugs suitable to manage COVID-19 in patients with liver disease might include remdesivir intravenously, nitazoxanide + sofosbuvir, ivermectin, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, and low molecular weight heparin in certain situations.
33378357 In analyses including observational studies, interferon-alpha (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.39, p = 0.004), itolizumab (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92, p = 0.042), sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.88, p = 0.030), anakinra (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.82, p = 0.019), tocilizumab (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.60, p < 0.001), and convalescent plasma (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.96, p = 0.038) were associated with reduced mortality rate in non-ICU setting, while high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.49, p = 0.003), ivermectin (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.57, p = 0.005), and tocilizumab (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.90, p = 0.012) were associated with reduced mortality rate in critically ill patients.
33388006 At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment.
33389725 The article discusses the evidence available for the use of Ivermectin, an anti-parasitic drug with antiviral properties, in COVID-19. […] Certain studies have highlighted the significance of ivermectin in COVID-19; however, it requires evidences from more Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) and dose- response studies to support its use. […] In silico-based analysis of ivermectin’s molecular interaction specificity using AI and classical mechanics simulation-based methods indicates positive interaction of ivermectin with viral protein targets, which is leading for SARS-CoV 2 N-protein NTD (nucleocapsid protein N-terminal domain).
33397429 We will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in patients with mild and moderately severe COVID-19. […] History of drug allergy to Ivermectin. […] Intervention groups: Outpatient and inpatient groups will receive the standard treatment regimen for mild and moderate COVID-19, based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education’s protocol, along with oral Ivermectin (MSD Company, France) at a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg.
33427370 Ivermectin is a putative antiviral compound; the proposed mechanism is the inhibition of nuclear translocation of viral proteins, facilitated by mammalian host importins, a necessary process for propagation of infections. […] We systematically reviewed the evidence for the applicability of ivermectin against viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 regarding efficacy, mechanisms and selective toxicity. […] The SARS-CoV-2 genome was mined to determine potential nuclear location signals for ivermectin and meta-analyses for in vivo studies included all comparators over time, dose range and viral replication in multiple organs. […] Ivermectin inhibited the replication of many viruses including those in Flaviviridae, Circoviridae and Coronaviridae families in vitro. […] Real and mock nuclear location signals were identified in SARS-CoV-2, a potential target for ivermectin and predicting a sequestration bait for importin β, stopping infected cells from reaching a virus-resistant state. […] While pharmacokinetic evaluations indicate that ivermectin could be toxic if applied based on in vitro studies, inhibition of viral replication in vivo was shown for Porcine circovirus in piglets and Suid herpesvirus in mice. […] Overall standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals for ivermectin versus controls were -4.43 (-5.81, -3.04), p < 0.00001. […] Based on current results, the potential for repurposing ivermectin as an antiviral agent is promising. […] Developing ivermectin as an additional antiviral agent should be pursued with an emphasis on pre-clinical trials in validated models of infection.
33435273 Our in vitro studies, using a variety of model systems, explored the interactions of the antimalarial agents chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; the antihelmintic ivermectin; and the proposed antiviral compounds ritonavir, lopinavir, favipiravir, and remdesivir with the ABCB1/Pgp, ABCG2/BCRP, and ABCC1/MRP1 exporters, as well as the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)2B1 and OATP1A2 uptake transporters.
33439253 Of these, agents targeting IMPα/β1 directly include the FDA-approved macrocyclic lactone ivermectin, which has documented broad-spectrum activity against a whole range of viruses, including HIV-1, DENV1-4, ZIKV, West Nile virus (WNV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, chikungunya, and most recently, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). […] Ivermectin has thus far been tested in Phase III human clinical trials for DENV, while there are currently close to 80 trials in progress worldwide for SARS-CoV-2; preliminary results for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) as well as observational/retrospective studies are consistent with ivermectin affording clinical benefit.
33439937 The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33473151 Our results indicate that boceprevir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir, tipranavir, ivermectin, and micafungin exhibited inhibitory effect towards 3CLpro enzymatic activity. […] The 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies showed that ivermectin may require homodimeric form of 3CLpro enzyme for its inhibitory activity.
33480414 We performed a review by screening in vitro and in vivo studies that assessed the antiviral activity of several antiparasitic agents: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide, atovaquone, and albendazole. […] Ivermectin was evaluated in one RCT and few observational studies, demonstrating conflicting results. […] As the level of evidence of these data is low, the efficacy of ivermectin against COVID-19 remains to be proven. […] For chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide and niclosamide we found in vitro studies showing some effects against a wide array of viruses.
33491234 Six proposed COVID-19 therapeutics were identified as possessing ototoxic side effects including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon, ribavirin, and ivermectin.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33493479 Recently published data indicates that high ivermectin (IVM) concentrations suppress in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication.
33495752 Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at concentrations not readily achievable with currently approved doses. […] We conducted a Pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 when administered early after disease onset. […] The differences between ivermectin and placebo were calculated using Fisher’s exact test and presented as a relative risk ratio. […] Among patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for severe disease receiving a single 400 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin within 72 h of fever or cough onset there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positives.
33500022 The ligands showed stable conformations when analyzing the affinity energy in both proteases: ivermectin forming a stable complex with the two proteases with values -8.727 kcal/mol for Main Protease and -9.784 kcal/mol for protease 3CL, Heparin with values of -7.647 kcal/mol for the Main protease and -7.737 kcal/mol for the 3CL protease. […] The ligands ivermectin, heparin and ritonavir showed stable conformations.
33515042 Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin for onchocerciasis has been disrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
33531790 This finding was of particular importance that other compounds including hydroxychloroquine sulphate, lopinavir and ivermectin could bind with the spike protein only by weak Vander wall bonds and no hydrogen bond formation was noticed.
33532161 It is based on affordable, commonly available components: anti-inflammatory corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, “M”), high-dose vitamin C infusion (ascorbic acid, “A”), vitamin B1 (thiamine, “T”), anticoagulant heparin (“H”), antiparasitic agent ivermectin, and supplemental components (“+”) including melatonin, vitamin D, elemental zinc, and magnesium. […] In October 2020, ivermectin was upgraded from an optional component to an essential component of the protocol. […] According to the authors, ivermectin is considered the first agent effective for both prophylaxis (prevention) of COVID-19 and for treatment of all phases of COVID-19 including outpatient treatment of the early symptomatic phase. […] Therefore, at the end of October 2020, a separate ivermectin-based I-MASK+ protocol for prophylaxis and early outpatient treatment of COVID-19 was published.
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide.
33578014 The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multidrug-therapy consisting of Ivermectin, Azithromycin, Montelukast and Acetylsalicylic Acid (“TNR4” therapy) to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico.
33590901 This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving the combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin and ivermectin plus Zinc vs. those receiving supportive treatment. […] This trial concluded that combined use of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin, and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively clear the SARS-COV2 from nasopharynx in shorter time than the symptomatic therapy.
33592050 Ivermectin is one among several potential drugs explored for its therapeutic and preventive role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The study was aimed to explore the association between ivermectin prophylaxis and the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. […] Exposure was defined as the intake of ivermectin and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or vitamin-C and/or other prophylaxis for COVID-19. […] Ivermectin prophylaxis was taken by 76 controls and 41 cases. […] Two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis (AOR 0.27, 95% CI, 0.15-0.51) was associated with a 73% reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers for the following month. […] Type of household, COVID duty, single-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, vitamin-C prophylaxis and hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] Two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis at a dose of 300 μg/kg with a gap of 72 hours was associated with a 73% reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers for the following month.