DrugBank ID: db01592
DrugCentral: iron
Synonymous :carbonyl iron | eisen | electrolytic iron | fe | fer | ferrum | ferrum metallicum | hierro | iron powder | iron, carbonyl | iron, electrolytic | iron, elemental | iron, reduced | reduced iron

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of iron gene in 87 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32270515 We concluded that rhEPO could attenuate respiratory distress syndrome and confront the SARS-CoV-2 virus through multiple mechanisms including cytokine modulation, anti-apoptotic effects, leukocyte release from bone marrow, and iron redistribution away from the intracellular virus.
32318324 Iron-containing enzymes are required for viruses most likely including coronaviruses (CoVs) to complete their replication process. […] Moreover, poor prognosis occurred in the conditions of iron overload for patients upon infections of viruses. […] Thus, limiting iron represents a promising adjuvant strategy in treating viral infection through oral uptake or venous injection of iron chelators, or through the manipulation of the key iron regulators. […] For example, treatment with iron chelator deferiprone has been shown to prolong the survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. […] Increasing intracellular iron efflux via increasing iron exporter ferroportin expression also exhibits antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). […] The implications of other metals besides iron are also briefly discussed. […] For even though we know little about iron regulation in COVID-19 patients thus far, it could be deduced from other viral infections that iron chelation might be an alternative beneficial adjuvant in treating COVID-19.
32340216 A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system.
32418885 Here, we present evidence from the literature and a compelling hypothesis on the potential immunomodulatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant effects of iron chelators in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications. […] Interestingly, iron chelation has been shown in vitro to suppress endothelial inflammation in viral infection, which is the main pathophysiologic mechanism behind systemic organ involvement induced by SARS-CoV-2, by inhibiting IL-6 synthesis through decreasing NF-kB. […] Iron chelators exhibit iron chelating, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, particularly against RNA viruses. […] These agents could attenuate ARDS and help control SARS-CoV-2 via multiple mechanisms including: 1) inhibition of viral replication; 2) decrease of iron availability; 3) upregulation of B cells; 4) improvement of the neutralizing anti-viral antibody titer; 5) inhibition of endothelial inflammation and 6) prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and lung decline via reduction of pulmonary iron accumulation. […] Both retrospective analyses of data in electronic health records, as well as proof of concept studies in humans and large RCTs are needed to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of iron chelating agents in the therapeutic armamentarium of COVID-19, probably as an adjunctive treatment.
32430286 Given the role of iron in several human viral infections, we also propose a different insight into a number of CQ and HCQ pharmacological effects, suggesting a potential involvement of iron homeostasis in Sars-Cov-2 infection and COVID-19 clinical course.
32438763 Intravenous iron is the first-line treatment in subjects with moderate-severe anemia, active disease, or oral iron intolerance. […] On the other hand, oral iron is recommended in patients with mild anemia and inactive disease. […] However, during the current coronavirus pandemic, hospital activities have significantly changed, and all non-essential procedures, including non-urgent iron infusions, have been rescheduled. […] Oral iron, including both the traditional formulations with ferrous iron and the new ferric iron complexes, could constitute a valid alternative for anemia treatment. […] For this reason, we conducted a literature review, to summarize the scientific evidence on oral iron therapy in IBD patients with anemia.
32497811 Here we address implications of a possible role for hyper-ferritinemia, and altered iron homeostasis in COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets in this regard.
32509258 A hemoglobinopathy, hypoxia and cell iron overload might have a possible additional role. […] In this translational medicinebased narrative review, the following pathologic metabolic pathways, deriving from hemoglobin denaturation and iron metabolism dysregulation, are highlighted: i) decrease of functioning hemoglobin quote; ii) iron overload in cell/tissue (hyperferritinemia); iii) release of free toxic circulating heme; iv) hypoxemia and systemic hypoxia; v) reduction of nitric oxide; vi) coagulation activation; vii) ferroptosis with oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation; viii) mitochondrial degeneration and apoptosis. […] We speculated that in COVID-19, beyond the classical pulmonary immune-inflammation view, the occurrence of an oxygen-deprived blood disease, with iron metabolism dysregulation, should be taken in consideration. […] A more comprehensive diagnostic/therapeutic approach to COVID-19 is proposed, including potential adjuvant interventions aimed at improving hemoglobin dysfunction, iron over-deposit and generalized hypoxic state.
32515699 The article discussed in detail a new hypothesis proposed by Chinese physicians about a new component in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, namely, about the effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the hemoglobin beta-chain and the formation of a complex with porphyrin, which results in displacement of the iron ion.
32574271 It binds iron and is transferred via a variety of receptors into and between cells, serum, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid.
32574708 These include iron dysregulation manifested as hyperferritinemia associated with disease severity. […] Iron dysregulation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and promotes oxidative stress.
32574914 The physico-chemical parameters compared are pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), and the bacterial parameters are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal streptococci.
32575554 Heme can be degraded by the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) generating biliverdin/bilirubin, iron/ferritin, and carbon monoxide.
32579049 Recent advances in understanding the mechanism of action of COVID-19 have shown that it causes a systemic infection that significantly affects the hematopoietic system and hemostasis, factors extremely dependent of light, mainly in the region of visible and infrared radiation. Results: In the COVID-19 patients hemoglobin is decreasing and protoporphyrin is increasing, generating an extremely harmful accumulation of iron ions in the bloodstream, which are able to induce an intense inflammatory process in the body with a consequent increase in C-reactive protein and albumin. […] According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2).
32582745 Transfusion dependent patients require regular monitoring for iron overload, and iron chelation therapy may be stopped by the physician depending on the situation.
32605582 Iron metabolism and immune response to SARS-CoV-2 have not been described yet in intensive care patients, although they are likely involved in Covid-19 pathogenesis. […] We performed an observational study during the peak of pandemic in our intensive care unit, dosing D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin T, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, transferrin soluble receptor, lymphocyte count and NK, CD3, CD4, CD8 and B subgroups of 31 patients during the first 2 weeks of their ICU stay. […] The same trend is observed with serum iron levels (median 25.5 μg/L, IQR 69 μg/L at admission; median 73 μg/L, IQR 56 μg/L on days 3 to 6) without reaching statistical significance. […] The description of iron metabolism and lymphocyte count in Covid-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit provided with this paper might allow a wider understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology.
32621178 This defect results in imbalance in the α/β-globin chain ratio, ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolytic anemia, and iron overload.
32644876 Some nutrients are actively involved in the proper functioning and strengthening of the human immune system against viral infections including dietary protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and selenium.
32646061 Based on studies in a range of in vitro and in vivo models, ergothioneine has exhibited the ability to modulate inflammation, scavenge free radicals, protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevent endothelial dysfunction, protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, protect against neuronal damage, counteract iron dysregulation, hinder lung and liver fibrosis, and mitigate damage to the lungs, kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and testis, amongst many others.
32661499 Various types of pulmonary diseases are associated with iron deficiency. […] However, information on iron status in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is scarce. […] The role of serum iron in predicting severity and mortality of COVID-19 was evaluated. […] Of the 50 patients, 45 (90%) patients had abnormally low serum iron levels (<7.8 μmol/L). […] The severity of COVID-19 was negatively correlated with serum iron levels before and after treatment and was positively correlated with C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, urea nitrogen, and myoglobin levels. […] Decreased serum iron level could predict the transition of COVID-19 from mild to severe and critical illness. […] Seven (53.8%) patients with a lower serum iron level after treatment in the critical group had died. […] There was a significant difference in posttreatment serum iron levels between COVID-19 survivors and nonsurvivors. […] Serum iron deficiency was detected in the patients with COVID-19. […] The severity and mortality of the disease was closely correlated with serum iron levels. […] Low serum iron concentration was an independent risk factor for death in COVID-19 patients.
32664543 Increasing interest has been highlighted on the possible preventative role and adjunct treatment of lactoferrin, glycoprotein of human secretions part of a non-specific defensive system, known to play a crucial role against microbial and viral infections and exerting anti-inflammatory effects on different mucosal surfaces and able to regulate iron metabolism. […] Lactoferrin could counteract the coronavirus infection and inflammation, acting either as natural barrier of both respiratory and intestinal mucosa or reverting the iron disorders related to the viral colonization.
32668312 Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were previously approved by the US food and drug administration (FDA) for anemia treatment and studies have also demonstrated its antiviral activity in vitro.
32674021 Nine major sources were identified by the positive matrix factorization model, including fireworks burning, coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, Cr industry, oil combustion, Se industry, Zn smelter, and iron and steel industry. […] After the control period, Fe, K, Ca, Zn and Ba were the main elements, and dust and iron and steel industry were responsible for 56% and 21% of the total element mass. […] The largest reductions of dust, coal combustion, and the industrial sources (Cr industry, Zn smelter, Se industry, iron and steel industry) were distinctly seen for northwest transport (Ulanqab) and were least significant for northeast transport (Tangshan and Tianjin).
32681497 High levels of free iron are harmful in tissues, especially through the redox damage that can lead to fibrosis. […] Iron chelation represents a pillar in the treatment of iron overload. […] Herein, we analyse the pathogenic role of ferritin and iron during SARS-CoV-2 infection and propose iron depletion therapy as a novel therapeutic approach in the COVID-19 pandemic.
32692241 To analyze the clinical and infectious characteristics of new coronavirus pneumonia with diagnosed and suspected cases in the Second Hospital of WISCO(Wuhan Iron and Steel Company) of Qingshan District, Wuhan City, and further enhance the understanding of new coronavirus pneumonia.
32700561 Serum ferritin generally represents a biomarker of choice when iron deficiency is suspected.
32721799 Finally, we suggest a therapeutic strategy to reduce oxidative stress using antioxidants, NF-κB inhibitors, Nrf2 activators, and iron complexing agents.
32751400 As such patients present with systemic inflammation, we studied the prevalence and predictive value of anemia of inflammation (AI) or functional iron deficiency (FID), originating from immune-mediated alterations of iron homeostasis. […] Anemia and alterations of iron homeostasis are highly prevalent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. […] Iron metabolism biomarkers and hemoglobin can contribute to risk stratification of patients, as initial anemia is associated with increased mortality, whereas alterations of iron homeostasis with a higher ferritin/transferrin ratio reflect more advanced inflammation and predicts subsequent insufficient pulmonary oxygenation with the need for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.
32812717 Ferritin, the cellular protein storage for iron, has emerged as a key molecule in the immune system, orchestrating the cellular defense against inflammation.
32812721 These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome.
32816244 Iron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. […] Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.
32821884 Lactoferrin (LF), one of the AMPs, is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present in several mucosal secretions.
32825954 The main mechanisms of virus internalization and interaction with the host are down-regulation or upregulation of the ACE2 receptor, the surface glycoprotein competition mechanism for the binding of porphyrin to iron in heme formation as well as interference with the immune system. […] Because ACE receptor is also present in the endothelium of other districts as well as in different cell types, and as porphyrins are transporters in the blood and other biological liquids of iron forming heme, which is important in the assembly of the hemoglobin, myoglobin and the cytochromes, multiorgan damage occurs both primitive and secondary to lung damage.
32837929 Commencing with the discovery of coal in the 18th century, to gold and copper and base metals in the 19th century, to the world class iron ore, mineral sands and diamond mines of the 20th century to the current day, the paper will attempt to determine how and why an industry, formerly well-respected by the public, is considered to be a pariah in the eyes of many sections of society.
32839664 Nutritious, biofortified crops such as potato, sweetpotato, but also wheat, maize and beans among others, can play a more significant role to provide key micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) at large scale.
32872374 Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper.
32882061 Iron liberated from necrotic cells may catalyze free radical production and amplify lipid peroxidation causing membrane dysfunction and multiorgan failure. […] Consequently, iron chelators have been successfully utilized in various experimental and clinical models of cytokine storm and multiorgan damage, such as in ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis, and infections. […] Since viral replication may be influenced by iron accumulation, iron chelation has been proven beneficial in a variety of viral infections, such as HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, Mengovirus, Marburg hemorrhagic fever, Enterovirus 71, and West Nile virus. […] In this commentary, we elaborate on the idea of considering iron chelation as a therapeutic modality in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. […] For critically ill patients in the ICU, intravenous deferoxamine would provide sufficient and rapid iron chelation to ameliorate cytokine storm, whereas in less severe cases an oral chelator could prevent the development of excessive inflammatory response.
32894566 Some surface proteins of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can bind to the hemoglobin molecule of an erythrocyte, which leads to the destruction of the structure of the heme and the release of harmful iron ions to the bloodstream. […] The degradation of hemoglobin results in the impairment of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and the accumulation of free iron enhances the production of reactive oxygen species.
  1. They may affect the expression and Fe2+/H+ symporter activity of iron transporters such as divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), hence reducing iron accumulation in tissues and iron-catalysed free radical formation.
32904944 At an innate level, intracrine synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) stimulates expression of antimicrobial proteins such as cathelicidin, as well as lowering intracellular iron concentrations via suppression of hepcidin.
32911778 Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far. […] Results from the review approach show the importance of maintaining a correct nutritional status of these 10 nutrients analyzed for the health of the immune system, highlighting the importance of Vitamin D and iron in the context of COVID-19. […] Besides, the ecological study demonstrates that intake levels of relevant micronutrients-especially Vitamins D, C, B12, and iron-are inversely associated with higher COVID-19 incidence and/or mortality, particularly in populations genetically predisposed to show lower micronutrient status.
32913038 Common comorbidities encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus, such as renal insufficiency, high output states (iron deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, haemoglobinopathies and pregnancy) and intake of specific drugs could compromise the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker.
32917356 The numbers of admissions for control diagnoses (heart failure, intestinal obstruction and iron deficiency anaemia) in the same period in 2020 were not reduced.
32932574 Lactoferrin is a naturally occurring iron-binding glycoprotein, produced and secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and neutrophils in various mammalian species, including humans. […] A growing body of evidence supports the antimicrobial efficacy of lactoferrin, which is not limited to its iron-chelating properties but also depends on its capability to directly interact with pathogen particles while playing immunomodulatory effects.
32959998 The myocardial tissue was examined for markers of ferroptosis, an iron-catalysed form of regulated cell death that occurs through excessive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
32978363 BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of iron homeostasis determinations for prediction of severity of COVID-19. […] We compared clinical laboratory data and iron homeostasis biomarkers among the 3 groups. […] CONCLUSIONS Iron homeostasis had a robust association with the occurrence of severe COVID-19. […] Iron homeostasis determinations were specific and sensitive for the early prediction of disease severity in COVID-19 patients and thus have clinical utility.
33054129 One widely shared theory suggests that SARS-CoV-2 proteins directly interact with human hemoglobin (Hb) and facilitate removal of iron from the heme prosthetic group, leading to the loss of functional hemoglobin and accumulation of iron.
33066821 Hepcidin is thought to be the key regulator of iron metabolism in humans through its inhibition of the iron-exporting protein ferroportin. […] An implication of this preliminary observation is to suggest a potential route of investigation in the coronavirus research field making use of an already-established literature on the interplay of local and systemic iron regulation, cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes, respiratory infections and the hepcidin protein.
33067892 In tissues with low numbers of haemophagocytes or ill-defined haemophagocytes, an increase in iron deposits was frequently seen.
33073200 Dysfunctional hemoglobin (Hb) suffers low-level oxygenation, overloaded iron, and down-regulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), representing potential therapeutic interventions. […] This Viewpoint outlines the Hb-HO-1 system as a host-cell target, and proposes possible therapies, including iron chelation and CO therapies, against COVID-19 with ARDS.
33087116 Still, it is not clear if iron dysmetabolism is mechanistically linked to COVID-19 pathobiology. […] We investigated subjects with mild to critical COVID-19, of which the majority received hospital treatment. 60 days after disease onset, 30% of subjects still presented with iron deficiency and 9% had anemia, mostly categorized as anemia of inflammation. […] Alterations of iron homeostasis can persist for at least two months after the onset of COVID-19 and are closely associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and impaired physical performance. […] Determination of serum iron parameters may thus be a easy to access measure to monitor the resolution of COVID-19.
33163955 Syndromes of iron overload have been shown to increase the risk of severe clinical disease in viral infections. […] He was found to have HH post-mortem and we propose a link between his iron overload and the development of severe COVID-19. […] What does exist, however, is an evidence base for the detrimental impacts iron overload has on viral infections in general and the negative effects of HH on the immune system.
33170448 Zinc is the second most common trace mineral after iron in the cell.
33193427 ., copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) from growing medium, i.e., from soil, which led to their considerable presence in tea infusion.
33193954 Investigations excluded bleeding, hemolysis, coagulopathy and iron deficiencies.
33196159 To provide solid information about viral infection, disease, and body iron metabolism, the literature was surveyed for mutual correlations. […] Gender and age profiles of COVID-19 infection and disease correlate well with the profiles of serum iron and ferritin with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.75. […] Remarkably, the susceptibility to both the viral disease and iron dyshomeostasis can be traced back to the same gene loci of the ABO blood group system. […] The overlapping of susceptible gene loci together with the phenomenological correlations in gender and age are strong indicators for the interrelation of body iron dyshomeostasis with COVID-19 infection and disease.
33197395 Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. […] Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. […] Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. […] In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death.
33199997 Lactoferrin (LF) is a safe iron-binding glycoprotein that is present in the milk of the majority of mammals and exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity, including against coronaviruses.
33202598 Once the virus invades the white adipocyte cell, it creates a COVID19-porphyrin complex which degrades and produces free porphyrin and iron and increases ROS.
33205000 Iron metabolism might play a crucial role in cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 patients. […] Therefore, we assessed iron metabolism markers in COVID-19 patients for their ability to predict disease severity. […] Iron metabolism parameters were severely altered in patients of cohort B and C compared to cohort A. […] In multivariate regression analysis including age, gender, CRP and iron-related parameters only serum iron and ferritin were significantly associated with hospitalization. […] ROC analysis revealed an AUC for serum iron of 0.894 and an iron concentration <6 μmol/l as the best cutoff-point predicting hospitalization with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 67.9%. […] When stratifying inpatients in a low- and high oxygen demand group serum iron levels differed significantly between these two groups and showed a high negative correlation with the inflammatory parameters IL-6, procalcitonin, and CRP. […] Unexpectedly, serum iron levels poorly correlate with hepcidin. […] We conclude that measurement of serum iron can help predicting the severity of COVID-19. […] The differences in serum iron availability observed between the low and high oxygen demand group suggest that disturbed iron metabolism likely plays a causal role in the pathophysiology leading to lung injury.
33228475 The results revealed a surge in mitochondrial respiration, cytokines, neurodegenerative mechanisms and deprived oxygen, iron, copper, and glucose transport.
33230422 Moreover, the excess amount of iron, contributing to oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease, alters the immune system in β-thalassemia, which is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.
33230497 , folate, C, D and E) and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium, iron) have been demonstrated to have key roles in supporting the human immune system and reducing risk of infections.
33236582 Ferritin, the cellular protein storage for iron, has emerged as a key molecule in the immune system, orchestrating the cellular defense against inflammation.
33236586 These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome.
33240495 For household food baskets on average, vitamin-A reduced 37 % followed by iron at 19 %, reduction in zinc is low due to the high zinc content in whole grain cereals.
33251029 A substantial proportion of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have lymphopenia, low serum iron levels, and multiple organ involvement. […] Intracellular cell iron depletion or new generation of ferroptosis inhibitors might be potential drug candidates for COVID-19.
33254928 It is reviewed that nanomaterials e.g. gold nanostructures, lanthanide-doped polysterene nanoparticles (NPs), graphene and iron oxide NPs can be potentially used to develop advanced techniques offered by colorimetric, amperometric, impedimetric, fluorescence, and optomagnetic based biosensing of SARS-CoV-2.
33298888 A substantial proportion of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have lymphopenia, low serum iron levels, and multiple organ involvement. […] Intracellular cell iron depletion or new generation of ferroptosis inhibitors might be potential drug candidates for COVID-19.
33313926 Comorbidities noted were severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in three cases (23%) and nutritional megaloblastic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, sickle thalassemia and renal calculi in one case (8%) each.
33372956 None of them showed fragments of atherosclerotic plaque or iron deposits indicative of previous episodes of plaque rupture.
33373681 We have previously defined ferrosenescence as an iron-associated disruption of both the human genome and its repair mechanisms, leading to premature cellular senescence and neurodegeneration. […] As viruses replicate more efficiently in iron-rich senescent cells, they may have developed the ability to induce this phenotype in host tissues, predisposing to both immune dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders. […] In this mini-review, we summarize what is known about the SARS-CoV-2-induced cellular senescence and iron dysmetabolism. […] We also take a closer look at immunotherapy with natural killer cells, angiotensin II receptor blockers (“sartans”), iron chelators and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (“gliptins”) as adjunct treatments for both COVID-19 and its neurodegenerative complications.
33380357 Iron is an essential trace element to almost all organism, and the delicate balance between host defend system and viral proliferation plays an important role in infective conditions. […] While the association of the iron metabolism with the prognosis of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. […] We aimed to estimate the associations of systemic iron metabolism parameters with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19. […] Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of iron parameter levels with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. […] After adjusting for age, sex, IL-6, and pre-existing comorbidities, all iron parameters were associated with the severity of COVID-19 with adjusted risk ratio of 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.83], 4.38 [95% CI: 1.86-10.33], 0.19 [95% CI: 0.08-0.48], and 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10-0.58] for serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron-binding capacity, respectively. […] These iron indices were also related to the risk of ARDS, coagulopathy, acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and high cytokine concentrations. […] Patients with low serum iron status likely suffered from severe condition and multiple-organ injury in COVID-19. […] The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis.
33381464 Accumulating evidence suggests that there are important contributions to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from redox imbalance and improperly coordinated iron, which cause cellular oxidative damage and stress. […] Cells have developed elaborate redox-dependent processes to handle and store iron, and their disfunction leads to several serious diseases. […] These complicated interrelationships are presented in terms of a cellular redox/iron/ROS triad, including ROS generation both at improperly coordinated iron and enzymatically, ROS interconvertibility, cellular signaling and damage, and reductant and iron chelator concentration-dependent effects.
33390833 Moreover, HOCl contributes to several oxidative reactions, including hemoglobin-heme iron oxidation, heme destruction, and subsequent release of free iron, which mediates toxic tissue injury through additional generation of ROS and NO consumption.
33417082 In most cases, anemia was mild and due to inflammation, sometimes associated with iron and/or vitamin deficiencies.
33418463 Iron deficiency is the commonest cause for anaemia worldwide making it a formidable issue particularly during pregnancy because of increased iron demands. […] This study looked at establishing a lower limit of normal for haemoglobin concentration (Hb) in our population and to proactively address potentially symptomatic iron deficiency during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. […] In addition there was evidence of limited testing performed to look for iron deficiency with only 18 % having a serum ferritin checked. […] Most anaemia was normocytic suggesting that microcytosis is only a late marker of iron deficiency lacking sensitivity.
33425283 Gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles are effective against coronavirus.
33454595 Iron overload is increasingly implicated as a contributor to the pathogenesis of COVID-19. […] Indeed, several of the manifestations of COVID-19, such as inflammation, hypercoagulation, hyperferritinemia, and immune dysfunction are also reminiscent of iron overload. […] Although iron is essential for all living cells, free unbound iron, resulting from iron dysregulation and overload, is very reactive and potentially toxic due to its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). […] Moreover, iron-catalyzed lipid damage exerts a direct causative effect on the newly discovered nonapoptotic cell death known as ferroptosis. […] Iron chelators are generally safe and are proven to protect patients in clinical conditions characterized by iron overload. […] There is also an abundance of evidence that iron chelators possess antiviral activities. […] Furthermore, the naturally occurring iron chelator lactoferrin (Lf) exerts immunomodulatory as well as anti-inflammatory effects and can bind to several receptors used by coronaviruses thereby blocking their entry into host cells. […] Iron chelators may consequently be of high therapeutic value during the present COVID-19 pandemic.
33455926 We hypothesised that preoperative intravenous iron and tranexamic acid (TXA) may reduce the transfusion rate in these patients. […] The HiFIT study is a multicentre, 2×2 factorial, randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial evaluating the effect of iron isomaltoside (IIM) (20 mg/kg) vs placebo and of TXA (intravenously at inclusion and topically during surgery) versus placebo on transfusion rate during hospitalisation, in patients undergoing emergency surgery for HF and having a preoperative haemoglobin between 95 and 130 g/L. 780 patients are expected. […] The HiFIT trial will be the largest study evaluating iron and TXA in patients with HF. identifier: NCT02972294; EudraCT Number 2016-003087-40.
33525240 Clinical observations in concert with literary data demonstrate that detrimental complications of COVID19-induced pathology (acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, Kawasaki-like disease etc.), could result from a disturbance of local iron homeostasis (FeH) in damaged tissues followed by abnormal coagulation in small vessels. […] Therefore, both local and systemic hepcidin levels could serve as a dynamic marker of disease progression (the more hepcidin the worse is disease) and treatment efficacy (after iron homeostasis is recovered hepcidin disappears).
33533250 Enhanced removal was attributed to the high hydrophobicity of ϕ6 imparted by its characteristic phospholipid envelope. ϕ6 adhesion to freshly precipitated iron (hydr)oxide also led to envelope damage causing inactivation in both coagulation techniques.
33554466 Studies have shown that iron metabolism is affected by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), which has spread worldwide and has become a global health problem. […] Serum iron levels were lower in the patient group compared with the reference range. […] In our study, while serum iron and hepcidin levels decreased in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, we found that EPO and Hpt levels were significantly lower in critical and deceased patient groups.
33555131 Low folate, iron, vitamin D, and hemoglobin levels of the patients and high vitamin B12 concentration were more related to poor prognostic factors. […] Deficiency of Iron, Folate, and vitamin D should be well-considered in COVID-19. […] What’s new According to the results obtained from our study, low iron and folate levels should be controlled first in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, low vitamin D levels should also be well-considered, and supplementation should be provided in the case of deficiencies.
33570583 Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality.
33577131 Whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s were analyzed, including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. […] Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, severe cases showed significant higher levels of whole blood calcium, chromium, and copper, but lower levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium, and lead. […] Whole blood iron, age, and sex were determined to be independent factors associated with the disease severity, while chromium, cadmium, and the comorbidity of cardiovascular disease were determined to be independent factors associated with the mortality.
33595506 Iron particles (29.5%) were the common inflicting agents in the COVID-19 period while it was plant leaves (25.5%) in the pre-COVID-19 period.