DrugBank ID: db01050
DrugCentral: ibuprofen
Synonymous :(±)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid | (±)-ibuprofen | (±)-p-isobutylhydratropic acid | (±)-α-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)benzeneacetic acid | (4-isobutylphenyl)-α-methylacetic acid | (rs)-ibuprofen | 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoic acid | 4-isobutylhydratropic acid | ibuprofen | ibuprofene | ibuprofeno | ibuprofenum | ibuprophen | α-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid | α-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of ibuprofen gene in 64 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease. […] We discuss evidence regarding role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treatment and prophylaxis, use of inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, safety of ibuprofen, unusual clinical features like gastrointestinal symptoms and interpretation of tests for cardiac enzymes and biomarkers.
32269893 Lastly, the current scientific data and status of governing bodies such as the Center of Disease Control (CDC) and the WHO on the usage of controversial therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Ibuprofen), and corticosteroids usage in COVID-19 are discussed.
32277367 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears important for viral entry into pneumocytes; dysbalance in ACE2 as caused by ACE inhibitors or ibuprofen may predispose to severe disease.
32334535 Besides the obvious concerns about limitation of virus spread and providing the best possible care to infected patients, a concomitant concern has now arisen in view of a putative link between the use of certain drugs, such as Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) inhibitors and ibuprofen, and an increased risk for COVID-19 infection. […] We here discuss this concern in relation to headache treatment and conclude that, based on current evidence, there is no reason to abandon treatment of headache patients with RAS inhibitors or ibuprofen.
32336586 ACE inhibitors and ARBs should not be discontinued at this time and ibuprofen may be used for fever.
32356252 ACE inhibitors and ibuprofen have been suggested to exacerbate the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
32360482 The French Minister of Health, who has raised an alarm on a possible risk deriving from the use of ibuprofen for the control of fever and other symptoms during the disease, opened the debate a few days ago. […] In the meantime, we must wait for results of the revision started by the PRAC on May 2019 on the association ibuprofen/ketoprofen​​​​​​ and worsening of infections.
32366740 Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter medication that is used widely for the treatment of pain and fever during COVID-19 pandemic. […] A concern was raised regarding the safety of ibuprofen use because of its role in increasing ACE2 levels within the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system. […] ACE2 is the coreceptor for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, and so, a potential increased risk of contracting COVID-19 disease and/or worsening of COVID-19 infection was feared with ibuprofen use. […] However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease. […] At this time, there is no supporting evidence to discourage the use of ibuprofen.
32404451 Ibuprofen or acetaminophen for fever and pain can be given.
32415494 Scientists hypothesized that drugs such as ibuprofen or renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers could exacerbate the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 by upregulating the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as an entry receptor for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
32418728 In 2020, such recommendation is more topical than ever with the emergence of COVID-19, especially since it results in fever, headaches, muscular pain, and cough, and is further complicated with pneumopathy, and given experimental data suggesting a link between ibuprofen and the level of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.
32419926 Actin protein was also suggested as a host factor that participates in cell entry and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2; therefore, drugs modulating biological activity of this protein (e.g. ibuprofen) were suggested as potential candidates for treatment of this viral infection.
32447629 Concern about the appropriate role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in COVID-19 speculate that NSAIDs, in particular ibuprofen, may upregulate the entry point for the virus, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 receptors and increase susceptibility to the virus or worsen symptoms in existing disease. […] The Expert Working Group on the Commission of Human Medicines in the UK and other organizations have stated that there is insufficient evidence to establish a link between ibuprofen and susceptibility to or exacerbation of COVID-19.
32460369 Studies show that ibuprofen and naproxen not only have positive effects in controlling cold symptoms but also do not cause serious side effects in rhinovirus infections.
32500928 Starting with the origin of the virus, we then discuss the effect of ibuprofen and nicotine on the severity of the disease.
32505846 Over the counter antipyretics such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen are often taken by individuals to reduce the discomfort of fever. […] Recently, the safety of ibuprofen in COVID-19 patients has been questioned due to anecdotal reports of worsening symptoms in previously healthy young adults. […] Studies show that ibuprofen demonstrates superior efficacy in fever reduction compared to acetaminophen. […] As fever may have benefit in shortening the duration of viral illness, it is plausible to hypothesize that the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen may be hindering the benefits of a fever response when taken during the early stages of COVID-19 illness.
32506743 It has been hypothesized that ACE2 expression can be increased by Ibuprofen leading to a higher risk for severe COVID-19 (1). […] Despite the reasonable mechanistic background and results from studies suggesting that Ibuprofen may be associated with complications of community-acquired pneumonia in children (2,3), there is no current evidence that this NSAID aggravates a SARS-CoV-2 infection in any age group.
32530870 In the current COVID-19 pandemic, there has been concern regarding the use of ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents by COVID-19 infected patients.
32535147 It was recently suggested that ibuprofen might increase the risk for severe and fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and should therefore be avoided in this patient population. […] We aimed to evaluate whether ibuprofen use in individuals with COVID-19 was associated with more severe disease, compared with individuals using paracetamol or no antipyretics. […] In a retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 from Shamir Medical Centre, Israel, we monitored any use of ibuprofen from a week before diagnosis of COVID-19 throughout the disease. […] One hundred and seventy-nine (44%) patients had fever, with 32% using paracetamol and 22% using ibuprofen, for symptom-relief. […] In the ibuprofen group, 3 (3.4%) patients died, whereas in the non-ibuprofen group, 9 (2.8%) patients died (p 0.95). […] Nine (10.3%) patients from the ibuprofen group needed respiratory support, compared with 35 (11%) from the non-ibuprofen group (p 1). […] When compared with exclusive paracetamol users, no differences were observed in mortality rates or the need for respiratory support among patients using ibuprofen. […] In this cohort of COVID-19 patients, ibuprofen use was not associated with worse clinical outcomes, compared with paracetamol or no antipyretic.
32585855 The clinical course was summarized, including the impact of drugs (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARB], ibuprofen, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP4i]) and the therapeutic effect of lopinavir/ritonavir. […] After adjusting for confounding variables, prior history of drug use, including ARB, ibuprofen, and DPP4i was not a risk factor associated with disease progression.
32658005 In both conditions, clinicians may be doubtful regarding the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, colchicine, and biological agents, such as anti-IL1 agents (e.g. anakinra), that are the mainstay of therapy for pericarditis.For NSAIDs, there is no clear scientific evidence linking ibuprofen and other NSAIDs to worsening of COVID-19; however, it seems prudent to continue them, if necessary to control pericarditis, and on the other hand, to prefer paracetamol for fever and systemic symptoms related to COVID-19.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32677909 The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever.
32715498 These results should not be extrapolated as evidence of harm for NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, in respiratory ailments but highlight the need for more methodologically robust studies to evaluate this potential relationship.
32758897 The traditional formulation of ibuprofen is poorly soluble in water, so the administered dose must be 10 times higher than the dose required for a therapeutic effect. […] The development of a hydrosoluble form of ibuprofen can be a strategy to reach a high concentration in the lungs by using modern inhalation devices. […] The hypertonic ibuprofen solution to be nebulized (NIH) presents great relevant characteristics: bactericidal, virucidal, mucolytic and has a known anti-inflammatory property. […] Our preliminary results indicate that the presence of this high ionic strength solution reduces 10 times the amount of ibuprofen necessary to kill bacteria, but also the time to kill 1x106 bacteria, from 4 h (in its absence) to only three minutes (in its presence). […] Also, "in vitro’’ ibuprofen demonstrated virucidal activity against the so-called enveloped virus, a family that includes coronavirus strain (2019-nCoV).
32780854 Symptoms disappeared a few days after commencement of treatment (prednisone in 3 patients and ibuprofen in 1).
32797326 The safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), specifically ibuprofen, has been openly questioned without any supporting evidence or clarity over dose, duration, or temporality of administration. […] This has been further conflicted by the initiation of studies to assess the efficacy of ibuprofen in improving outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients. […] To clarify the scientific reality, a literature search was conducted alongside considerations of the pharmacological properties of ibuprofen in order to construct this narrative review. […] The literature suggests that double-blind, placebo-controlled study results must be reported and carefully analysed for safety and efficacy in patients with COVID-19 before any recommendations can be made regarding the use of ibuprofen in such patients. […] Limited studies have suggested: (i) no direct interactions between ibuprofen and SARS-CoV-2 and (ii) there is no evidence to suggest ibuprofen affects the regulation of angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for COVID-19, in human studies. […] Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest ibuprofen may facilitate cleavage of ACE2 from the membrane, preventing membrane-dependent viral entry into the cell, the clinical significance of which is uncertain. […] Additionally, in vitro evidence suggests that inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB) by ibuprofen may have a role in reducing excess inflammation or cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. […] Finally, there is no evidence that ibuprofen will aggravate or increase the chance of infection of COVID-19.
32896463 We collected information on the opinions of scientific societies and medicines agencies (American, European, and Spanish) to clarify doubts regarding the use of drugs such as lisinopril, candesartan, ibuprofen, corticosteroids, carbamazepine, and monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
32909890 Her symptoms and pericardial effusion resolved, and she was discharged to home 3 days later on ibuprofen and colchicine with instruction to quarantine at home for 14 days from the date of her positive testing for COVID-19.
32920716 During the COVID-19 pandemic, a correspondence, published at the Lancet Respiratory Medicine, that linked angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and ibuprofen to a higher risk of SARS CoV-2 infection and complications, has influenced, when adopted by official health authorities, the practical management of COVID-19 with regard to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that were avoided in all COVID-19 management protocols all over the world. […] The author chose to argue against each claim represented in the mentioned correspondence to confirm that ACEIs, ARBs and NSAIDs including ibuprofen should not be considered hazardous to be administered for COVID-19 patients and to warn against any future adoption of such unproved claims.
32925751 The patient underwent pericardial window placement followed by ibuprofen administration and discharged from the hospital.
32970921 Recommendations regarding ibuprofen use in relation to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been conflicting. […] We examined the risk of severe COVID-19 between ibuprofen-prescribed and non-ibuprofen patients with COVID-19 in a nationwide register-based study of patients with COVID-19 in Denmark between the end of February 2020 and May 16, 2020. […] Patients with ibuprofen prescription claims between January 1, 2020, and before COVID-19 diagnosis or April 30, 2020 (last available prescription) were compared with patients without ibuprofen prescription claims. […] Absolute risks and average risk ratios comparing outcome for ibuprofen vs. non-ibuprofen patients standardized to the age, sex, and comorbidity distribution of all patients were derived from multivariable Cox regression. […] Among 4,002 patients, 264 (6.6%) had ibuprofen prescription claims before COVID-19. […] Standardized absolute risks of the composite outcome for ibuprofen-prescribed vs. non-ibuprofen patients were 16.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1-20.6) vs. […] The standardized average risk ratio for ibuprofen-prescribed vs. non-ibuprofen patients was 0.96 (95% CI 0.72-1.23). […] Standardized absolute risks of the composite outcome for patients with ibuprofen prescription claims > 14 days before COVID-19 vs. ≤ 14 days of COVID-19 were 17.1% (95% CI 12.3-22.0) vs. […] In conclusion, in this nationwide study, there was no significant association between ibuprofen prescription claims and severe COVID-19.
33015819 The drug interactions involving drugs prescribed in dentistry are all moderate drug interactions and are (according to drug group): (1) antibiotics: azithromycin, clavulanate, doxycycline, erythromycin, levofloxacin; (2) antifungals: clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole; (3) non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NAIDS): celecoxib diclofenac, etodolac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, piroxicam.
33061551 Pregabalin (75 mg orally twice a day) and ibuprofen was used for analgesia.
33071794 On the same grounds, only ibuprofen resulted promising, but we could not find compelling evidence to endorse the use of paracetamol and/or codeine.
33078509 The proportion of overdoses of paracetamol and ibuprofen increased by 13.4% during lockdown (22/158 vs 35/128, P = 0.005). […] There was a relative increase in overdoses and self-harm, particularly involving paracetamol and ibuprofen.
33098875 Among NSAIDs, Ibuprofen was most preferred for various analgesic purposes (n=35 participants, 20%) followed by diclofenac (n=9 participants, 5%) and meloxicam (n=5 participants, 3%).
33135113 Ibuprofen disappeared from the pharmacy shelves during the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. […] However, a while later, information circulated that ibuprofen should be avoided as it could worsen COVID-19 symptoms. […] Acute use of ibuprofen was not associated with a greater risk of mortality relative to non-use (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.632 [95% CI 0.073-5.441; P = 0.6758]). […] Acute ibuprofen use was not associated with a higher risk of admission compared to non-NSAID users (adjusted odds ratio OR 1.271; 95% CI 0.548-2.953). […] Acute or chronic use of ibuprofen and other NSAIDs was not associated with worse COVID-19 disease outcomes.
33146318 Ibuprofen and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed drugs for pain associated with SIP.
33197762 In this manuscript, we present a novel theory to explain the pathogenesis of COVID-19; lymphocyte distraction theory upon which the author has used, in a preprinted protocol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); diclofenac potassium, ibuprofen and ketoprofen, successfully to treat COVID-19 patients. […] A clinical proof of ibuprofen safety in COVID-19 has been published by other researchers and we suggest that early administration of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, in COVID-19 is not only safe but it might also prevent COVID-19 complications and this manuscript explains some of the suggested associated protective mechanisms.
33237815 Ibuprofen and thiazolidinediones had limited evidence.
33310923 One of the most representative examples of this process is the history of ibuprofen, which was initially banned, thereafter tolerated, and is now a supported treatment option for coronavirus infection.
33407980 He was treated with pericardiocentesis, ibuprofen, and hydroxychloroquine.
33442587 She was treated with colchicine 500 μg twice daily, ibuprofen 400 mg three times day, and prednisolone 30 mg per day, and her symptoms and weakness improved.
33444207 In patients aged 3 years and older with acute respiratory infections, ibuprofen is associated with a higher rate of reconsultations with general practitioners than paracetamol (one randomised controlled trial (RCT); low certainty). […] The difference in death from all causes and hospitalisation for renal failure and anaphylaxis between children with fever receiving ibuprofen versus paracetamol is likely to be less than 1 per 10 000 (1 RCT; moderate/high certainty).
33459192 From molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we also evaluated the influence of ionic strength on the affinity and stability of the Ibuprofen-Mpro complexes. […] The docking analysis shows that R(-)Ibuprofen and S(+)Ibuprofen isomers can interact with multiple key residues of the main protease, through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, with favourable binding energies (-6.2 and -5.7 kcal/mol, respectively). […] In this context, the results suggest that the condition 2 (0.25 NaCl) bind more tightly the Ibuprofen to Mpro than the others conditions. […] From the frustration analysis, we could characterize two important regions (Cys44-Pro52 and Linker loop) of this protein involved in the interaction with Ibuprofen. […] In conclusion, our findings allow us to propose that racemic mixtures of the Ibuprofen enantiomers might be a potential treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
33479515 The opposite trend was seen in relation to ibuprofen with use decreasing (2020 = 19.4%; 2019 = 39.8%) while paracetamol use only slightly increasing (2020 = 15.1%; 2019 = 14.6%).
33495739 To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19-induced kidney dysfunction, and current treatments are yet limited to anti-inflammatory (e.g. ibuprofen) and anti-viral medications (e.g. 
33514404 Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsening the clinical course of infections. […] Our aim was to critically evaluate the safety of ibuprofen during the course of pediatric infectious disease in order to promote its appropriate use in children. […] Ibuprofen is associated with severe necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) during chickenpox course. […] Pre-hospital use of ibuprofen seems to increase the risk of complicated pneumonia in children. […] Conflicting data have been published in septic children, while ibuprofen in the setting of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) exacerbations is safe and efficacious. […] No data is yet available for ibuprofen use during COVID-19 course. […] Ibuprofen should not be recommended for chickenpox management. […] While it remains unclear whether ibuprofen may have harmful effects during systemic bacterial infection, its administration is recommended in CF course.
33519270 It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty.
33593260 The ACE2 inhibitors and ibuprofen therapies for COVID-19 treatment may aggravate the clinical condition of the breast cancer patients through chemo-resistance and metastasis.