DrugBank ID: db01611
DrugCentral: hydroxychloroquine
Synonymous :(±)-hydroxychloroquine | 2-((4-((7-chloro-4-quinolyl)amino)pentyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 2-(n-(4-(7-chlor-4-chinolylamino)-4-methylbutyl)ethylamino)ethanol | 7-chloro-4-(4-(ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-(4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[4-(n-ethyl-n-β-hydroxyethylamino)-1-methylbutylamino]quinoline | 7-chloro-4-[5-(n-ethyl-n-2-hydroxyethylamino)-2-pentyl]aminoquinoline | hidroxicloroquina | hydroxychloroquine | hydroxychloroquinum | oxichlorochine | oxichloroquine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of hydroxychloroquine gene in 1415 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32150618 Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. […] We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late-phase in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. […] Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. […] Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen whilst considering the drug’s safety profile. […] Hydroxychloroquine (EC50=0.72 μM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50=5.47 μM) in vitro. […] Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached three times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. […] Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32171740 In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1.
32196083 We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach.
32205204 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. […] We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. […] French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. […] Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. […] Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
32214286 These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy.
32222713 He remained in critical condition being treated with hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in addition to the standard medical management for septic shock and ARDS.
32234468 Treatments, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, antibodies, convalescent plasma transfusion and vaccines, are discussed in this article.
32241801 Two antimalarial agents, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have been trusted treatments for a range of rheumatic diseases over the past seventy years [1].
32243270 This review summarizes the current evidence of potential therapeutic agents, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab and sarilumab.
32247211 In view of recent studies and discussion on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we aimed to review existing literature and relevant websites regarding these drugs and COVID-19, adverse effects related to drugs, and related guidelines.
32247213 Search terms were, COVID-19, treatment of coronavirus, COVID 19 and following terms; chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ibuprofen, ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, cardiovascular disease, diarrhoea, liver, testis and gastrointestinal disease. […] We discuss evidence regarding role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in treatment and prophylaxis, use of inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, safety of ibuprofen, unusual clinical features like gastrointestinal symptoms and interpretation of tests for cardiac enzymes and biomarkers.
32249257 Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19.
32251731 This study showed that, in the presence of CLQ [or its more active derivative, hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)], the viral S protein is no longer able to bind gangliosides.
32253799 A severe cutaneous drug reaction resembling acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis resulting from ingestion of hydroxychloroquine has been documented. […] Given the anticipated surge in the use of hydroxychloroquine due to its reported benefits in those with coronavirus disease 2019, specific recognition of this entity is pivotal.
32253888 It is hoped that certain drugs, such as CoV-19 receptor blockers, anti-inflammatories (against rheumatic diseases), monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6, the remdesevir drug (analogue adenosine, effective against ebola), hydroxychloroquine (for the treatment of malaria) and vaccines, will open up new strategies and new therapeutic ways to combat this terrible virus.
32255489 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears to be a promising treatment for COVID-19.
32256547 We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylprednisolone, bevacizumab, and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).
32265182 In light of this, there has been growing interest in the use of existing medications, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), as potential treatments of this disease.
32268005 It has been reported that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and this finding was quickly supported by an open label non-randomized clinical trial that provided the first published clinical evidence HCQ may be a treatment option.
32277367 Preliminary evidence suggests potential benefit with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. […] • Although preliminary results may be encouraging, high-quality clinical trials are needed to better understand the role of drugs commonly used in rheumatology like hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in COVID-19.
32277836 Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32279469 There is currently no robust evidence to support prescribing hydroxychloroquine as a treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19.
32281114 Supportive measures, in addition to a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, were maintained until remdesivir could be supplied on day 9 of hospitalization, 13 days after symptom onset.
32281213 Different drugs for prophylaxis against COVID-19 including chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been tried.
32281268 In light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) pandemic and the possible widespread use of chloroquine (a member of the drug class 4-aminoquinoline primarily used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis) and its derivatives (e.g. hydroxychloroquine, a metabolite of chloroquine),1 a safety issue is addressed, concerning the selection of patients suitable to receive it.
32281481 Due to factors such as history of prescription for other infectious diseases, availability, and relatively low cost, the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested in vivo and in vitro for the ability to inhibit the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
32281583 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19.
32282502 No established treatment is currently available; however, several therapies, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors, are being used off-label and evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32285930 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a promising candidate for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
32289548 We conducted an uncontrolled non-comparative observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU).
32290293 The initial clinical studies revealed the promising therapeutic potential of several of such drugs, including favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that interferes with the viral replication, and hydroxychloroquine, the repurposed antimalarial drug that interferes with the virus endosomal entry pathway.
32292817 Our coalition of public health experts, doctors, and scientists worldwide want to draw attention to the need for high-quality evaluation protocols of the potential beneficial effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a post-exposure drug for exposed people, meaning people with close contact with positive tested patients, including home and medical caregivers.
32292908 This paper provides an overview of the current global market and manufacturing landscape for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32292909 For this emergency, the FDA has approved Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 as Emergency Use Authorization.
32293710 It is also allows consideration of agents, such as hydroxychloroquine, which may interfere with this overly brisk macrophage inflammatory response and perhaps influence the course of the disease, in particular those that blunt but do not completely abrogate the M1 to M2 balance in macrophage polarization, as well as viral load, which in SARS appears to be temporally related to the onset of ARDS.
32293834 The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here .
32294807 At present, there are no studies demonstrating the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19 infection.
32296817 The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies.
32297988 Following the demonstration of the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in vitro, many trials started to evaluate its efficacy in clinical settings. […] However, no systematic review and meta-analysis have addressed the issue of the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in coronavirus disease 2019.
32299202 The results of preliminary studies have shown that immune-modulatory or immune-suppressive treatments such as hydroxychloroquine, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 antagonists, commonly used in rheumatology, might be considered as treatment choices for COVID-19, particularly in severe disease.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32301155 Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them. […] Other antiviral regimens included hydroxychloroquine monotherapy (27.8%) and interferon-β (16.7%).
32302411 Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports that some hospitals have begun to include AZ in combination with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (CQ) for treatment of COVID-19.
32303497 One potential treatment is chloroquine and its derivatives, including hydroxychloroquine, which have both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.
32303672 SARS-CoV-2 was detected and antiviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, associated with hydroxychloroquine, was promptly started.
32305359 Expanded indications for hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab have already caused stress on the usual supply chain.
32305500 Antimalarial drug chloroquine (CHL) and its safer derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCHL) have been proposed to be repurposed to treat SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
32305587 After a large COVID-19 exposure event in an LTCH in Korea, PEP using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was administered to 211 individuals, including 189 patients and 22 careworkers, whose baseline polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for COVID-19 were negative.
32307245 Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro.
32311836 Qualitative analysis revealed four key themes: emotions in response to the pandemic, perceptions of risks from immunosuppressive medications, protective measures to reduce risk of COVID-19 infection, and disruptions in accessing rheumatic disease medications, including hydroxychloroquine. […] After 2 weeks, many participants with rheumatic diseases already had important changes to their health care, with many altering medications without professional consultation or because of hydroxychloroquine shortage.
32313660 To date, the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine found to be a treatment option for SARS-CoV-2.
32314010 The patient was treated with antiviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir), and treatment with cDMARDs was discontinued except hydroxychloroquine.
32314249 All 4 patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32314698 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases.
32316270 One of the options under investigation is the old antimalarial drug, chloroquine, and its analog, hydroxychloroquine. […] In principle, the safety profile might be ameliorated by using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine single enantiomers in place of the racemate.
32317220 Other agents, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine might have a direct anti-viral effect.
32317402 Patients were managed with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32317557 Adjunctive medication in the surviving patients while on ECMO was as follows: 4 of 5 survivors received intravenous steroids, 3 of 5 survivors received antiviral medications (Remdesivir), 2 of 5 survivors were treated with anti-interleukin-6-receptor monoclonal antibodies (Tocilizumab or Sarilumab), and 1 of 5 survivors received hydroxychloroquine.An analysis of 32 COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary compromise supported with ECMO suggests that ECMO may play a useful role in salvaging select critically ill patients with COVID-19.
32318706 Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available.
32319218 The patient received an antiviral therapy with hydroxychloroquine showing no further deterioration of the clinical state.
32320825 Moreover, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, drugs used to treat malaria and arthritis, respectively, were recommended by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19. […] Presently, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are under investigation by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for COVID-19.
32321878 The recent clinical trial reports pertaining to the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 albeit yet to be validated with larger clinical trials, have sparked much interest globally to evaluate whether this anti-malarial drug can be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.
32321905 In this study, aiming to investigate these adverse events (AEs) using a large self-reporting database, we conducted a disproportionality analysis for the detection of neuropsychiatric AE signals associated with the use of chloroquine (or hydroxychloroquine), reported to FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database between the fourth quarter of 2012 and the fourth quarter of 2019.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin were known to act by creating the acidic environment and inhibiting the importin (IMPα/β1) mediated viral import. […] Azithromycin was found to act similar to the hydroxychloroquine as an acidotropic lipophilic weak base.
32322402 In vitro tests are also being conducted to assess the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of this epidemic, which is considered a pandemic by the WHO.
32323646 Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. […] Hydroxychloroquine is mainly used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases.
32324284 Hydroxychloroquine is suspected to trigger haemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients, and off-label administration of this drug to patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) could cause concern. […] We report here the first case of severe haemolytic crisis in a patient with G6PD deficiency, initiated by severe COVID-19 infection and hydroxychloroquine use.
32324331 We describe the case of a 61-year-old kidney transplant recipient with several comorbidities who was hospitalized and later received a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia; the infection was successfully managed with the use of hydroxychloroquine and a single administration of tocilizumab, after immunosuppression reduction; the patient did not require mechanical ventilation.
32324363 Hydroxychloroquine is an immunomodulatory drug that has been used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory arthritis. […] The authors conclude the proarrhytmic effects of hydroxychloroquine and the most important signs of drug-induced long QT syndrome.
32325124 This article examines three aspects of antivirals, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and remdesvir, as they might relate to the treatment of a viral infection such as COVID-19: (i) the use of vaporization for the delivery of antivirals, with the bulk constituents having mild antiviral efficacy; (ii) the application of a marine natural product extract as opposed to a single molecule as an antiviral agent; and (iii) a counter intuitive approach to formulation that is, in part, based on delivering multiple species that fall into three categories: building blocks for the virus to accelerate replication; an energy source for the infected cell to boost its immune response; and the species that antagonize or provide toxicity to the virus.
32327397 Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks.
32328588 She was treated with pericardiocentesis, colchicine, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine with improvement in symptoms.
32329404 Despite the lack of high-quality evidence, the mere hope of effectiveness of potential treatments, such as hydroxychloroquine, has led to surges in demand for these products, and many pharmacists are already informally reporting shortages through social channels. […] As manufacturers and wholesale distributors struggle to fulfill orders for drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, short-term price increases may seem reasonable in a free market when demand increases.
32329419 Antimalarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine derivatives are being used in emergency cases; however, they are not suitable for patients with conditions like diabetes, hypertension and cardiac issues.
32329879 However, the current treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra®), and nitazoxanide.
32329881 Patients were also treated with anticoagulant therapy with Enoxaparin 4000 IU/day via subcutaneous injection, antiviral therapy with Lopinavir 800 mg/day + Ritonavir 200 mg/day, hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day, ceftriaxone 2 g/day IV, vitamine C 6 g/day for 4 days, and were on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV).
32329920 We address issues surrounding corticosteroid and exon-skipping treatments, cardiac medications, hydroxychloroquine use, emergency/respiratory care, rehabilitation management, and the conduct of clinical trials.
32330312 The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a prophylactic against COVID-19 among health care workers and asymptomatic contacts of laboratory confirmed cases of COVID.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from 2019 to present (April 3rd, 2020) using a mix of keywords such as COVID-19 and chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin). […] We found that the COVID-19 research methodology is very poor in the area of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine research.
32330817 Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm.
32335560 More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood.
32336317 This review discusses the updates on specimens/samples, recent efficient diagnostics, and therapeutic approaches to control the disease and repurposed drugs mainly focusing on chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma (CP).
32336586 There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. […] Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337139 Recent findings of an open-label study that investigated the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France, has garnered some optimism in scientific quarters and the general public alike in terms of finding a treatment regimen to control the rampant rise of COVID-19.
32337859 Following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine with reduced immunosuppressant, he recovered from COVID-19. […] During the hospitalization period, the chest infiltrative lesion showed a wax and wane, but he successfully recovered by administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin.
32338155 Anti-malarial medicine chloroquine (CQ) and particularly its chemical analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been recommended as promising candidate therapeutics that are now under either compassionate off-label use or clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
32338164 The results show the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Cefuroxime, Tenofovir, and Hydroxychloroquine, in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
32338347 In severe pneumonia and critically ill children, trial of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir should be considered.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32341910 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used as treatment and are being considered as prophylaxis. […] Our patient developed COVID-19 while on hydroxychloroquine and although more work is needed, this calls into question the role of these medications as preventive therapy.
32342252 In a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients.
32344177 Hydroxychloroquine showed an antiviral effect in vitro. […] Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344310 It was also revealed that alternative treatments currently being considered for COVID-19 such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine by increasing hemoglobin production and increasing hemoglobin availability for oxygen binding and acetazolamine (for the treatment of altitude sickness) by causing hyperventilation with associated increasing levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood may significantly ameliorate COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.
32344449 Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug being tested as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2( (SARS-CoV-2. […] Although the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 remains uncertain, it may serve as a potential prophylactic agent especially in those at high risk, such as healthcare workers, household contacts of infected patients, and the immunocompromised. […] Our aim was to identify possible hydroxychloroquine dosing regimens through simulation in those at high risk of infections by optimizing exposures above the in vitro generated half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) and to help guide researchers in dose-selection for COVID-19 prophylactic studies.
32345563 He was tested for COVID-19 per admission protocol, started on hydroxychloroquine, his hiccups improved, and he was discharged to home after 3 days.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation and arrhythmogenic death. Results - Two hundred one patients were treated for COVID-19 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32348046 In case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunosuppressive drugs should be temporarily stopped, except for glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine. […] Leur arrêt n’est recommandé qu’en cas d’infection avérée à SARS-CoV-2, à l’exception de la prednisone, de l’hydroxychloroquine et de la sulfasalazine qui peuvent être poursuivis.
32348232 The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat.
32348588 The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapy.
32349115 The proposed doses of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treatment of COVID-19 (1000 mg/day for 10 days, CQ; 800 mg first day then 400 mg/day for 5 days, HCQ) in many guidelines worldwide, are considerably higher than the maximum recommended daily safe doses of both agents (≤2.3 mg/kg/day, CQ; ≤5.0 mg/kg/day, HCQ) for development of retinal toxicity.
32350686 According to the CDC and Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and one of the investigational agents (remdesivir) are recommended in critically ill older patients.
32350928 Early anecdotal reports and limited in vitro data led to the significant uptake of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and to lesser extent chloroquine (CQ), for many patients with this disease.
32351040 All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32351831 Even though there is no cure for COVID-19, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are promising alternatives.
32351851 Hydroxychloroquine therapy was started, and the patient responded favorably with improvement of symptoms.
32352359 We discuss the critical role hydroxychloroquine plays in the management of lupus patients and suggest considering the psychosocial implications of the current pandemic on lupus care.
32352535 Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
32354634 At admission, all had immunosuppression withdrawn and were started on methylprednisolone 16 mg/day, all but one was commenced on antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine with doses adjusted for kidney function.
32355607 They are concerned about their risk of developing COVID-19 as many are immune suppressed from their disease and/or treatment, whether they should stop their advanced therapies, if they will have a worse outcome if/when infected due to their underlying medication condition(s) and if they will have drug availability, especially with press (without much data) coverage suggesting hydroxychloroquine may be used in COVID-19 infection causing diversion of medication supply.
32356252 The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency authorization for the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
32356863 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] This was a cohort study performed at an academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, of patients hospitalized with at least 1 positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test result and clinical findings consistent with pneumonia who received at least 1 day of hydroxychloroquine from March 1, 2020, through April 7, 2020. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Seven patients (19%) who received hydroxychloroquine monotherapy developed prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more, and 3 patients (3%) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] Ten patients had hydroxychloroquine discontinued early because of potential adverse drug events, including intractable nausea, hypoglycemia, and 1 case of torsades de pointes. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32357553 Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
32358890 A variety of repurposed drugs and investigational drugs such as remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, lopinavir, interferon-beta, and other potential drugs have been studied for COVID19 treatment.
32359203 Of these, chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have garnered the most attention.
32359210 We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab.
32359771 As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off-label” repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death.
32360480 Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.
32360583 We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. […] Likewise, hydroxychloroquine improved radiographical result. […] Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine could increase AEs rate especially diarrhea.
32362345 This commentary discerns the characteristics of demoralization versus depression, and suggests solutions for both, together with a cautionary word on the use chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19.
32363157 Chloroquine and phosphate hydroxychloroquine are the drugs currently in the limelight, and recently, the National Task Force for COVID-19 constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended the use of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection in selected high-risk individuals.
32363212 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have garnered unprecedented attention as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19 following several small clinical trials, uncontrolled case series, and public figure endorsements. […] We call for additional randomized controlled trial evidence prior to the widespread incorporation of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine into national and international treatment guidelines.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32363963 This is a report of a case with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with severe eye involvement and concurrent COVID-19 treated successfully using simultaneous high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and anti-viral treatment as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin.
32365215 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are currently being evaluated as treatment against COVID-19. […] Use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine should be reserved to current indications or clinical trials, as recommended by several governmental medical products agencies.
32367579 Specifically, we propose that the lysosomotropic effects of hydroxychloroquine and several other drugs undergoing testing may be responsible for their demonstrated in vitro antiviral activities against COVID-19.
32368483 He was started on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with no improvement of symptoms.
32371558 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has multiple potential antiviral mechanisms of action that differ according to the pathogen studied (eg, Chikungunya, Dengue virus, human immunodeficiency virus, poliovirus, Zika virus). […] Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use in patients with COVID-19 is being investigated examining prophylaxis, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment regimens.
32372695 Multiple off-label and investigational drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have gained broad interest due to positive pre-clinical data and are currently used for treatment of COVID-19. […] Adverse effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on cardiac function and conduction are broad and can be fatal. […] The American Heart Association has listed chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as agents which can cause direct myocardial toxicity. […] This review summarizes evidenced-based data regarding potential cardiac adverse effects due to off-label and investigational drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, antiviral therapy, monoclonal antibodies, as well as common antibiotics used for the treatment of COVID-19.
32373183 Although much of this attention has a mechanistic basis, the hard efficacy data for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in the management of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have been limited thus far. […] This review aims to present the available in vitro and clinical data for the role of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and attempts to put them into perspective, especially in relation to the different risks/benefits particular to each patient who may require treatment.
32373993 Hydroxychloroquine has been demonstrated to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine share similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action. […] The aim of this study was to indirectly investigate the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 by determining the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria pandemic and non-pandemic nations. […] We reviewed in vitro studies, in vivo studies, original studies, clinical trials, and consensus reports, that were conducted to evaluate the antiviral activities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. […] The search was based on keywords: antiviral drugs, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, COVID-19, COVID-19 treatment modalities, and coronavirus. […] These studies were all suggestive that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can successfully treat COVID-19 infections. […] Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have antiviral characteristics in vitro.
32376394 While moderate-severe forms need in-hospital surveillance plus antivirals and/or hydroxychloroquine; in severe and life-threating subsets a high intensity anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapy could be a therapeutic option.
32376395 In this cross-sectional study, Tuscan outpatients with systemic autoimmune diseases followed at a tertiary referral centre were telephonically interviewed between April 1st-14th 2020 to collect demographic and clinical data, information on ongoing immunomodulating/immunosuppressive treatments, and on the presence of symptoms suspected of SARS-CoV-2 or of a confirmed infection. 458 patients were interviewed [74% female, median age 56 years (IQR 43-68)]; 56% of them were receiving corticosteroids, 44% traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), of whom 23% hydroxychloroquine, 5% colchicine, while 41% were on biologic DMARDs (of whom 9% on tocilizumab).
32378314 Despite reduction in immunosuppression and treatment with tocilizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and broad-spectrum antibiotics, she ultimately died from multiorgan failure. […] Given a milder presentation compared to the first patient, antimetabolite was discontinued and only hydroxychloroquine was started.
32379854 But history also demonstrates the importance of treating early results-such as those associated with hydroxychloroquine-with caution as we only begin to understand the biology, epidemiology, and potential target points of COVID-19.
32379955 Hydroxychloroquine has been widely administered to patients with Covid-19 without robust evidence supporting its use. […] We examined the association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death at a large medical center in New York City. […] We compared outcomes in patients who received hydroxychloroquine with those in patients who did not, using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting according to the propensity score. […] Of the remaining 1376 patients, during a median follow-up of 22.5 days, 811 (58.9%) received hydroxychloroquine (600 mg twice on day 1, then 400 mg daily for a median of 5 days); 45.8% of the patients were treated within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, and 85.9% within 48 hours. […] Hydroxychloroquine-treated patients were more severely ill at baseline than those who did not receive hydroxychloroquine (median ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen, 223 vs. […] In the main analysis, there was no significant association between hydroxychloroquine use and intubation or death (hazard ratio, 1.04, 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.32). […] In this observational study involving patients with Covid-19 who had been admitted to the hospital, hydroxychloroquine administration was not associated with either a greatly lowered or an increased risk of the composite end point of intubation or death. […] Randomized, controlled trials of hydroxychloroquine in patients with Covid-19 are needed.
32380315 Some disease-modifying agents commonly used to treat patients with rheumatic diseases/autoimmune disorders, such as hydroxychloroquine and colchicine, are under investigation as potential therapies for the “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). […] A comparison was conducted between subjects tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those found negative in terms of rate of administration of hydroxychloroquine/colchicine therapy. […] No significant difference was found in terms of rates of usage of hydroxychloroquine or colchicine between those who were found positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those who were found negative (0.23% versus 0.25% for hydroxychloroquine, and 0.53% versus 0.48% for colchicine, respectively).
32382516 She completed 5 days of hydroxychloroquine and 7 days of prednisone. […] It is unclear whether our institution’s empiric use of hydroxychloroquine and prednisone facilitated her recovery.
32383125 We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19. […] We will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. […] Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. […] These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic.
32383430 Currently, there is no available treatment proven to be effective against COVID-19, but multiple medications, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are used off label.
32384516 She was being treated aggressively in the intensive care unit with high dose intravenous ascorbic acid, hydroxychloroquine, and anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody.
32386448 The antimalarials, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and the antivirals Lopinavir/Ritonavir have been recently recorded as having anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects.1 In particular, regarding Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) has recommended the use of HCQ for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32387409 In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19.
32387694 Recent publications have re-examined the use of Chloroquine (CQ) and/or Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential therapeutic option for these patients.
32389025 The Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency authorization for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as experimental treatments for COVID-19 leading to a shortage of both medications. […] Because of its higher potency and better safety profile, hydroxychloroquine may be the more reasonable treatment option if treatment is initiated.
32389518 The most used treatments were hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and steroids.
32389720 A recent report identified significant reductions or disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients given a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The physicochemical properties of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are consistent with particularly high affinity for the intracellular lysosomal space, which has been implicated as a target site for antiviral activity. […] The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin produces very high local concentrations in lysosomes.
32390367 Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%).
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32391519 Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir.
32391667 To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32392288 Targeted therapies were used in 28 patients (61%), with hydroxychloroquine being the most commonly used agent either alone (11 patients) or in combination (10 patients).
32392332 Different dosage regimens of hydroxychloroquine are used to manage COVID-19 patients, without information on the pharmacokinetics in this population.Blood samples (n=101) were collected from 57 COVID-19 patients for 7 days and concentrations were compared with simulated kinetic profiles.Hydroxychloroquine exposure is low and cannot be predicted by other populations.
32393448 The National Task Force for Covid-19 of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in a bulletin dated March 21, 2020 recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis in asymptomatic health care workers caring for suspected or confirmed patients and household contacts of confirmed patients. […] The evidence for the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is currently derived from open label trials and cell culture studies with no conclusive evidence available from randomised clinical trials. […] Hydroxychloroquine also carries contraindications in the case of conditions such as maculopathy, retinopathy and QTc prolongation and should be used with caution in vulnerable populations such as children, pregnancy, lactation and the elderly. […] Despite this, there has been a rush to procure and self-medicate with hydroxychloroquine, which has been addressed by the National Task Force. […] While further evidence is awaited, including from trials registered with the FDA and the ICMR, it is recommended that the administration of hydroxychloroquine for chemo-prophylaxis be considered on a case by case basis with monitoring by a registered medical practitioner including electrocardiography (ECG). […] Keywords: Coronavirus, Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, chemoprophylaxis, bioethics, evidence- based medicine.
32393597 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is in short supply as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, presenting a challenge to rheumatologists to ensure their patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continue to take this essential drug.
32393664 To characterize hydroxychloroquine exposure in patients with rheumatic disease receiving long-term hydroxychloroquine compared to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against the 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. […] We evaluated total hydroxychloroquine concentrations in serum and plasma from published literature values, frozen serum samples from a pediatric lupus trial, and simulated concentrations using a published pharmacokinetic model during pregnancy. […] For each source, we compared observed or predicted hydroxychloroquine concentrations to target concentrations with reported antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. […] The average total serum/plasma hydroxychloroquine concentrations were below the lowest SARS-CoV-2 target of 0.48 mg/L in all studies. […] We found that the average patient receiving treatment with hydroxychloroquine for rheumatic diseases, including children and non-pregnant/pregnant adults, are unlikely to achieve total serum or plasma concentrations shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro. […] Nevertheless, patients receiving hydroxychloroquine long-term may have tissue concentrations far exceeding that of serum/plasma. […] Because the therapeutic window for hydroxychloroquine in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, well-designed clinical trials that include patients with rheumatic disease are urgently needed to characterize the efficacy, safety, and target exposures for hydroxychloroquine.
32394467 In patients with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine decreases the inflammatory response and cytokine storm, but overdose causes toxicity and mortality. […] Favipiravir increases clinical recovery and reduces respiratory problems and has a stronger antiviral effect than LPV/r. currently, appropriate treatment for patients with COVID-19 is an ACE2 inhibitor and a clinical problem reducing agent such as favipiravir in addition to hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids.
32394481 Questions on the controversial use of hydroxychloroquine and to a lesser extent concerning azithromycin have been the most consulted Q&As.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32397399 Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin).
32397911 In particular, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, arbidol, tocilizumab and bevacizumab have shown promising results.
32398343 The in vitro studies revealed conflicting results, with one finding anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity for azithromycin alone, while the other found activity against SARS-CoV-2 only when azithromycin was combined with hydroxychloroquine. […] A small trial of 36 patients, with high risk of bias, found superior viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 treated with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine combined, compared with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] There is extremely limited evidence of a possible synergy between azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32400349 Reports that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may be effective against COVID-19 have received worldwide attention, increasing the risk of the introduction of falsified versions of these medicines.
32400380 Thus, global stocks of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been put under pressure with a study of 26 patients treated with HCQ during their infection with SARS-CoV-2.
32400965 Faced with this novel coronavirus, scientists have been trying to use drugs that have not been validated by rigorous clinical trials, such as lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
32401405 The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has long been used as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for the treatment of several inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
32402056 Treatment of COVID-19 included hydroxychloroquine (18 patients [78%]), high-dose corticosteroids (8 patients [47%]), and interleukin 6 receptor antagonists (6 patients [26%]).
32402766 The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
32403946 Outcome from the infection were compared with infected noncancer patients. Results: Twenty patients (80%) were treated with antiviral therapy and hydroxychloroquine and five (20%) received hydroxychloroquine alone. […] In the control group the mortality was 16.13% and the overcome from infection was 83.87%. Conclusion: Mortality for COVID-19 was greater in cancer patients when compared with noncancer patients, worse prognosis for older age, women and patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32405156 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32405160 Patients admitted before March 13th (n=23) were prescribed the standard therapy (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir) and were considered controls.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, \(0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and latexa7ddc9f8c3a7b0fb2662e61a519d4c7f 2,492,214 (95%CI US\) 916,839–3,450,619).
33384519 Nine trials on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), six studies on antiviral, four studies on monoclonal antibodies, two on corticosteroids, two on convalescent plasma (CP), and one on interferon-α2b were included in the systematic review.
33386447 Administration of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential treatment option during SARS-CoV-2, initially gained popularity, but later, its safe usage became questionable due to its cardiovascular safety, largely stemming from instances of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19.
33388006 At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment.
33390423 At present, several existing licensed drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and remdesivir have been used because of their potential efficacy in inhibiting COVID-19.
33393644 Data regarding knowledge and attitude about COVID-19, the prevalence of acceptance of hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis and anxiety amidst COVID-19 pandemic among health care students/professionals in India is scarce.
33397236 Hydroxychloroquine, Remedisvir, Favipiravir that utilizes various mechanisms of actions.
33397429 Control groups: The outpatient group will receive hydroxychloroquine sulfate (Amin Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of 400 mg twice a day for the first day and 200 mg twice a day for seven subsequent days.
33398223 Hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir is found to be safe in limited studies in a patient with cirrhosis and COVID-19.
33400086 Further, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was found more potent than chloroquine (CQ) in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
33402839 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin produced no clinical evidence of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT). […] There is currently no single worldwide approved therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19 despite the initial hype with medicines, including hydroxychloroquine.
33403142 We also commenced a five-day course of hydroxychloroquine 200 mg q12h initially.
33403528 Tocilizumab and hydroxychloroquine have not proven to be effective treatments in the management of COVID-19.
33404133 The risk of fatal arrhythmias is the major concern for using chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the reported number of life-threatening arrhythmic events or deaths is relatively small.
33405302 About 80% of these patients were treated with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and/or hydroxychloroquine for their COVID-19 infection and 70% were hospitalized. […] TE caused by hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or other medications cannot be ruled out, and the global pandemic itself is a source of psychosocial stress.
33405402 Patients had signs of respiratory distress and were treated with hydroxychloroquine, darunavir, ritonavir, heparin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin.
33406138 Hydroxychloroquine has in vitro antiviral properties against SARS CoV-2. […] We therefore sought to determine the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis for COVID-19. […] The use of hydroxychloroquine, compared to placebo, did not reduce the risks of developing COVID-19 (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.04, moderate certainty), hospitalization (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.50, moderate certainty), or mortality (RR 3.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 79.74, low certainty), however, hydroxychloroquine use increased the risk of adverse events (RR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.55, moderate certainty). […] Although pharmacologic prophylaxis is an attractive preventive strategy against COVID-19, the current body of evidence failed to show clinical benefit for prophylactic hydroxychloroquine and showed a higher risk of adverse events when compared to placebo or no prophylaxis.
33407321 Only 2.0% of participants reported using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine.
33407980 He was treated with pericardiocentesis, ibuprofen, and hydroxychloroquine.
33409215 Hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure prophylaxis was taken by 7 (14%). 3 (6%) were confirmed to be COVID-19 positive during the quarantine period.
33410987 The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for coadministration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir because of the risk of QT prolongation and TdP and cytochromes interactions.
33413989 To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) compared with no treatment in healthcare workers with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33416933 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the aminoquinoline drugs. […] Studies revealed that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine shows antagonism activity against COVID-19 under laboratory conditions. […] We surveyed the potential inhibitory effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on inflammasome. […] Studies indicate that one of the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is inhibition of the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome.
33418595 Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 21 patients (11 %), favipiravir to 26 patients (13 %) and remdesivir to 13 patients (6 %).
33419577 Five patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine.
33421743 We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2. […] The results suggested that by using the combination of Lopinavir, Ritonavir along with Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin C may turned out to be the effective line of treatment for SARS-CoV-2 as it shows the involvement of PARP-1, MAPK-8, EGFR, PRKCB, PTGS-2, and BCL-2.
33422238 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine, up to 7 L/min oxygen, and self-proning.
33425278 She was admitted to the hospital with a rare, but serious presentation of temporary complete heart block with a skin rash after three weeks of treatment with an antiviral agent and hydroxychloroquine.
33425427 This finding implied that several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19.
33426074 In the search to control the global COVID-19 pandemic, some eastern and developing countries have approved a variety of treatments with controversial efficacy, among which is the use of the antimalarial hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).
33426541 Another strategy is to use hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to inhibit the viral entry into the cells.
33427110 The use of anticoagulants and antibiotics, such as teicoplanin and azithromycin/hydroxychloroquine were reported to also play a leading role in the management of the disease.
33428032 In this review, we summarize mainly the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, the antiviral drugs Favipiravir and Remdesivir, and JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib, discussing their biological activities, clinical trials and synthesis progress.
33428504 Hydroxychloroquine is only available in tablets which are not easy to administer for pediatric and geriatric patients, and patients unable to swallow such as patients found in intensive care units. […] The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a ready to use liquid hydroxychloroquine formulation and to carry out the corresponding chemical and microbiological stability studies.
33430752 In this hypothesis, a novel combination strategy is introduced with the existing drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and flavonoid in a volatile liquid-based Nanoformulation incorporated into an inhaler as a possible remedy for the management of coronavirus infection.
33430933 The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of adult patients with PCR-confirmed Covid-19 infection in a primary open-care setting, as compared to placebo.
33432258 Structure-activity relationships for hydroxychloroquine compound and its derivatives resulted in a potent antiviral activity. […] Where hydroxychloroquine derivatives showed an apparent efficacy against coronavirus related pneumonia. […] For this reason, the current study is focused on the structural properties of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate.
33432270 Forty-five (88.24%) patients received hydroxychloroquine-based therapy.
33435273 Our in vitro studies, using a variety of model systems, explored the interactions of the antimalarial agents chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; the antihelmintic ivermectin; and the proposed antiviral compounds ritonavir, lopinavir, favipiravir, and remdesivir with the ABCB1/Pgp, ABCG2/BCRP, and ABCC1/MRP1 exporters, as well as the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)2B1 and OATP1A2 uptake transporters.
33437137 Hence, we studied the combination and tricombination therapy between bioactive compounds which have the best binding affinity and some antiviral drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, simeprevir, baloxavir, lopinavir, and favipiravir to show the effect of combination and tricombination therapy to disrupt the stability of the three major viral targets that are mentioned previously.
33437230 Drug-likeness of the selected compounds and a control drug (hydroxychloroquine) were assessed, and the compounds that satisfied the drug-likeness rule were docked against Mpro. […] Additionally, the most active compounds from the investigated plants exhibited relative inhibitory potentials against Mpro compared with hydroxychloroquine, which alludes to their possible involvement in inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease replication process. […] In our study, most of the active phytocomponents of the investigated plants exhibited relative inhibitory potentials against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and preferred pharmacological features when compared with hydroxychloroquine.
33439937 The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir. […] The interventions evaluated during the Brazilian research response reflect those of international initiatives, but with a different distribution and a large number of studies assessing hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine.
33440950 Hydroxychloroquine sulfate and abidol were used to antivirus and supportive treatment were used simultaneously during hospitalization.
33441373 Safety data warrant monitoring of drug-drug interactions and subsequent cardiac adverse events, especially with hydroxychloroquine.
33442304 Just based on experience coming from the use of antiviral agents to treat other viruses (eg, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir) and supposed antiviral or immunomodulatory activities of drugs with no approved antiviral indications (eg hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab), clinicians have faced the ongoing pandemic.
33442905 Patients with fever, dyspnea, or a significant rise of the polymerase chain reaction levels were hospitalized, three received antivirals, three azithromicyne, and five hydroxychloroquine.
33443836 Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 : lack of efficacy and risk of arrhythmias.
33445940 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was given experimentally as monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (AZI) to 24 (45.3%) patients.
33446136 Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with improved survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the majority of observational studies and similarly was not identified as an effective prophylaxis following exposure in a prospective randomized trial. […] We aimed to explore the role of hydroxychloroquine therapy in mildly symptomatic patients diagnosed in the outpatient setting. […] We examined the association between outpatient hydroxychloroquine exposure and the subsequent progression of disease among mildly symptomatic non-hospitalized patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. […] We compared outcomes in patients who received hydroxychloroquine with those who did not applying a multivariable logistic model with propensity matching. […] Among 1274 outpatients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection 7.6% were prescribed hydroxychloroquine. […] In a 1067 patient propensity matched cohort, 21.6% with outpatient exposure to hydroxychloroquine were hospitalized, and 31.4% without exposure were hospitalized. […] In the primary multivariable logistic regression analysis with propensity matching there was an association between exposure to hydroxychloroquine and a decreased rate of hospitalization from COVID-19 (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29, 0.95). […] QTc prolongation events occurred in 2% of patients prescribed hydroxychloroquine with no reported arrhythmia events among those with data available. […] In this retrospective observational study of SARS-CoV-2 infected non-hospitalized patients hydroxychloroquine exposure was associated with a decreased rate of subsequent hospitalization. […] Additional exploration of hydroxychloroquine in this mildly symptomatic outpatient population is warranted.
33447021 Survival was higher among patients with COPD who were treated with hydroxychloroquine (87.1% vs 74.9%, p<0.001) and with macrolides (57.9% vs 50%, p<0.037).
33447376 It has rapidly recruited and demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine is ineffective in reducing mortality for hospitalised patients, whilst dexamethasone significantly reduces mortality among those patients using supplemental oxygen or on a ventilator.
33447984 The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is among the much-discussed drugs for the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients.
33451350 Key drugs missing clinical trial results include hydroxychloroquine (37.0% completed trials unreported), favipiravir (77.8%) and lopinavir (40.5%).
33451758 The first patient was a 30-year-old man who, despite being treated with hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, oseltamivir, and azithromycin therapy, died because of the presence of other comorbidities. […] The second case was a 58-year-old man who fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia with treatment with methylprednisolone, MMF, azithromycin, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, and reduction in immunosuppression dosage.
33452110 The objective of this study was to evaluate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) attributed to either REM or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, a Portuguese hospital centre based in Lisbon.
33452660 In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, Belgian health authorities endorsed the interim guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia: hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) recommended for treatment of hospitalized patients with moderate to severe disease.
33453194 Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug that has been prescribed for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection. […] To assist in clinician decision-making, several clinical laboratories have developed and validated measurement procedures in-house based on HPLC or HPLC-MS/MS to measure the mass concentration of hydroxychloroquine in different biological fluids. […] Thus, we aimed to show how this uncertainty can be calculated, using the preparation of hydroxychloroquine calibrators in blood-hemolysate-based matrix as an example. […] Then, different sources of uncertainty related to the preparation of hydroxychloroquine calibration materials were identified and quantified. […] In this study, the most significant source of uncertainty was that associated with the hydroxychloroquine’s reference material mass obtained via balance, while the smallest contribution was from the uncertainty associated with the hydroxychloroquine reference material purity.
33463727 Increasing number of clinical trials from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are not only profitable but also deleterious.
33465165 Hydroxychloroquine, used to treat malaria and some autoimmune disorders, potently inhibits viral infection of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 in cell-culture studies. […] However, human clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine failed to establish its usefulness as treatment for COVID-19. […] We also show that hydroxychloroquine efficiently blocks viral entry mediated by cathepsin L, but not by TMPRSS2, and that a combination of hydroxychloroquine and a clinically-tested TMPRSS2 inhibitor prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection more potently than either drug alone. […] These studies identify functional differences between SARS-CoV-1 and -2 entry processes, and provide a mechanistic explanation for the limited in vivo utility of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19.
33470663 Antiviral agents such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine have been investigated as well as specific and non-specific immunomodulators in order to determine their potential efficacy against SARS-Cov2.
33472255 It also showed significantly increased VTE or mortality with age 60 years or greater, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, patients on Medicare, history of heart failure, history of cerebrovascular disease, body mass index greater than 35, steroid use, anti-rheumatologic medication use, hydroxychloroquine use, maximum D-dimer 4 times or greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN), ICU level of care, increasing creatinine, and decreasing platelet counts.
33472599 The two patients developed a severe form of the disease and ultimately died despite the initiation of an antiviral monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine coupled with the interruption of mycophenolate mofetil.
33475021 During the early pandemic of the COVID-19, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were suggested by the researchers for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2. […] In our study, the antimalarial compounds have been screened and docked against SARS-CoV-2-RdRp (PDB ID: 7BTF), and it was observed that the antimalarials chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and amodiaquine exhibit good affinity.
33475900 Told from the viewpoint of rheumatologists, this review tells the story of hydroxychloroquine and its swift ascent to become a household name as a therapeutic strategy against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] This review describes the history, mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic applications, and safety profile of hydroxychloroquine as an immunomodulatory and antiviral agent. […] It also summarizes the major studies that launched and assessed the use of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 infection. […] More recent literature calls into question the long-held dogma that endolysosomal alkalinization is the primary mode of action of hydroxychloroquine. […] Ongoing uncertainty about the multiple potential mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effect of hydroxychloroquine in rheumatic and viral disease led to a natural avenue for exploration in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Taken as a whole, the literature does not support utilizing hydroxychloroquine to treat or prevent infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus. […] This is, at least in part, due to the wide variability in hydroxychloroquine pharmacokinetics between patients and difficulty achieving adequate target tissue concentrations of hydroxychloroquine without encountering unacceptable toxicities. […] Hydroxychloroquine continues to be a routinely prescribed, well-tolerated, effective, and low-cost treatment for rheumatic disease. […] Despite overall negative findings, the intense study of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 infection has enhanced our overall understanding of how hydroxychloroquine operates in autoimmune disease and beyond.
33476632 Azithromycin is widely used broad spectrum antibiotic recently used in treatment protocol of COVID-19 for its antiviral and immunomodulatory effects combined with Hydroxychloroquine or alone.
33476807 Non-RCT studies reported on cross-sectional studies using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in humans (n=2) or reported on animal studies (n=7) most of which used antibodies.
33477522 Most of therapeutic options considered for SARS-CoV-2 treatment (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma) failed to confirm significant efficiency. […] In conclusion, initially, following only a 1 month period, Romanian physicians’ intention to consider treatments such as hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 decreased significantly.
33478708 This study aimed to characterize corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in a cohort of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who were treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ/AZM).
33480414 We performed a review by screening in vitro and in vivo studies that assessed the antiviral activity of several antiparasitic agents: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide, atovaquone, and albendazole. […] For hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine we found ample in vitro evidence of antiviral activity. […] Cohort studies that assessed the use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 reported conflicting results, but randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated no effect on mortality rates and no substantial clinical benefits of HCQ (hydroxychloroquine) used either for prevention or treatment of COVID-19. […] For chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine, artesiminins, ivermectin, nitazoxanide and niclosamide we found in vitro studies showing some effects against a wide array of viruses.
33483287 The use of antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine) for COVID-19 treatment and prevention has proven to be a cautionary tale for widespread, off-label use of a medication during a crisis.
33483539 From the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic, the potential antiviral properties of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) against SARS-CoV-2 suggested that these drugs could be the appropriate therapeutic candidates.
33483755 The ambulatory action team also implemented several strategies to manage medication therapy associated with COVID-19-related shortages and implemented electronic decision support to guide prescribing of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33483756 Substantial efforts have been recently committed to develop COVID-19 medications, and Hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with Azithromycin has been promoted as a repurposed treatment. […] We found Hydroxychloroquine to have a low pro-arrhythmia risk, while Chloroquine and Azithromycin were associated with high risk. […] Hydroxychloroquine pro-arrhythmia risk changed to high with low level of K+, while high level of Mg2+ protected against pro-arrhythmic effect of high Hydroxychloroquine concentrations. […] Moreover, therapeutic concentration of Hydroxychloroquine caused no enhancement of elevated temperature-induced pro-arrhythmia. […] Polytherapy of Hydroxychloroquine plus Azithromycin and sequential application of these drugs were also found to influence pro-arrhythmia risk categorization. […] Hydroxychloroquine pro-arrhythmia risk changed to high when combined with Azithromycin at therapeutic concentration. […] However, Hydroxychloroquine at therapeutic concentration impacted the cardiac safety profile of Azithromycin and its pro-arrhythmia risk only at concentrations above therapeutic level. […] We also report that Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine, but not Azithromycin, decreased contractility while exhibiting multi-ion channel block features, and Hydroxychloroquine’s contractility effect was abolished by Azithromycin.
33484407 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug that received worldwide news and media attention in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] Our results showed no significant beneficial effect of using hydroxychloroquine on the outcome of patients with COVID-19. […] Moreover, the risk of hypoglycemia due to hydroxychloroquine would possess a significant risk for out-of-hospital use.
33484708 Despite in vitro antiviral activity, clinical trials of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were disappointing, and they may even impair outcomes.
33488314 DAC shows drug-like behavior when it is compared with binding energy interaction of Hydroxychloroquine against Covid-19, as a standard drug.
33490614 None of the six HCWs who received adequate hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis developed evidence of COVID-19.
33491234 Six proposed COVID-19 therapeutics were identified as possessing ototoxic side effects including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon, ribavirin, and ivermectin.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33494816 After one week of treatment with prednisolone (30 mg daily) and hydroxychloroquine, paresthesia, proteinuria, and edema continued.
33495739 Remdesivir, and Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine) that may increase the chance of treatment.
33495967 Primary scrutinized therapies include antiviral regimens, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunomodulating drugs, such as corticosteroids and interleukin (IL) inhibitors, and other therapies including convalescent plasma.
33499310 This review aims to describe the history, efficacy, and safety of five potential therapeutics for COVID-19, remdesivir, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma.
33500211 Among treatment regimen of APS, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is one of the molecules proposed in the primary prevention of thrombosis and obstetrical morbidity in those patients.
33503163 The main drugs were hydroxychloroquine (59.5%), azithromycin (9.8%) and chloroquine (5.2%). […] Chloroquine (OR = 5.4; 95%CI: 1.9-15.6) and hydroxychloroquine (OR = 2.1; 95CI%: 1.2-3.6) were the only drugs associated with severe ADR.
33505872 The nucleotide inhibitors such as sofosbuvir, ribavirin, galidesivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, cefuroxime, tenofovir, and hydroxychloroquine (HCHL), setrobuvir, YAK, and IDX-184 were found to be effective in binding to SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
33506312 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin/enoxaparin were used initially, while amiodarone/enoxaparin were used at a later phase. […] Prophylaxis was done with hydroxychloroquine initially and then with amiodarone.
33509065 The patient was treated with different combinations of antivirals (hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir), cytokine inhibitors (anakinra and tocilizumab), glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and methylprednisolone), and an anticoagulant (enoxaparin).
33512353 May 2020: the saga of hydroxychloroquine.
33513195 In the framework of such attempts, in a number of in vitro, as well as in vivo, models it was shown that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has an effect against SARS-CoV-2.
33515285 The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been suggested as promising agents against the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that induces COVID-19 and as a possible therapy for shortening the duration of the viral disease.
33515791 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), one of the oldest drugs used in rheumatology, came recently into attention as one of the potential therapies tested for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 disease treatment.
33516966 In the emergency, a dual therapy has shown its effectiveness but has also provoked a set of debates around the dangerousness of a particular molecule, hydroxychloroquine.
33518801 The ambiguity about using Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine to treat this illness was a springboard towards new methods for improving the adequacy of these drugs. […] The effective treatment of COVID-19 using Zinc complexes as add-on to Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine has received major attention in this context. […] We are proposing some zinc compounds coordination to Chloroquine/ Hydroxychloroquine in order to enhance their activity.
33519270 It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty.
33520580 These include clinically available drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33521293 To analyze the incidence of Covid-19 in patients who are chronic users of hydroxychloroquine. […] There is no relationship between chronic use of hydroxychloroquine and the incidence of Covid-19.
33522213 Most prescribed drugs were hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin.
33524462 This prospective observational study compared QTc duration assessed by artificial intelligence (AI-QTc) (Cardiologs®, Paris, France) on smartwatch single‑lead electrocardiograms (SW-ECGs) with those measured on 12‑lead ECGs, in patients with early stage COVID-19 treated with a hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin regimen. […] Consecutive patients with COVID-19 who needed hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin therapy, received a smartwatch (Withings Move ECG®, Withings, France).
33525254 The combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin could represent a suitable treatment for SarS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies.
33525415 Chloroquine (CQ) and its metabolite hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are mainly used to prevent and treat malaria and rheumatic diseases.
33526007 There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc.
33527003 Furthermore, 5-β-glucosyl-7-demethoxy-encecalin (5GDE) and 2-oxocadinan-3,6(11)-dien-12,7-olide (BODO) were found to be potential blockers with excellent binding affinity with Mpro and ACE2 than their native inhibitors remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine respectively.
33531790 This finding was of particular importance that other compounds including hydroxychloroquine sulphate, lopinavir and ivermectin could bind with the spike protein only by weak Vander wall bonds and no hydrogen bond formation was noticed.
33531828 After adjusting for patient and provider factors, a decline in hydroxychloroquine and an increase in azithromycin and dexamethasone were observed among COVID-19 patients during the 4-month study period.
33531865 This was done in addition to drugs currently applied in curing (Hydroxychloroquine & Lopinavir), for comparison and recommendation. […] All interaction outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine drug reflect unsuitability of this drug in treating COVID-19.
33532594 Additionally, it showed hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin to be relatively ineffective.
33533916 All major aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation were inhibited by hydroxychloroquine.
33535144 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a chloroquine (CQ) derivative administered for malaria and autoimmune diseases, has been shown to be effective against both Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2.
33537767 Drug therapies used included hydroxychloroquine (69%), remdesivir (10%), and interleukin-6 antagonists (9%).
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide.
33542646 In particular, the use of hydroxychloroquine PrEP affords a safe and readily available means to avoid COVID-19 complications in pregnancy.
33544720 Focusing specifically on SARS subnetwork, we identified 282 repurposable drugs, including some the most rumored off-label drugs for COVID-19 treatments (e.g., chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, heparin), as well as a new combination therapy of 5 drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir), actually used in clinical practice.
33545090 In this cohort study, patients were recruited as part of a randomised controlled trial done between March 17 and April 28, 2020, that aimed to assess if hydroxychloroquine reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
33545499 During the 1st period hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and therapeutic enoxaparin when thrombosis was confirmed were administered; systemic corticosteroids were given in case of severe pneumonia.
33545540 Here we summarize scientific evidence supporting the potential relevance of these interactions and suggest that unfavorable clinical data on hydroxychloroquine administration in COVID-19 may have been influenced by the dose provided and its impact on gut dysbiosis. […] The proposition is based on preliminary data on gut microbiota composition from individuals with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus under exclusive continuous hydroxychloroquine treatment, displaying a direct correlation between drug doses and markers typically associated with gut dysbiosis.
33546986 Given the increased use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), chloroquine (CQ), and azithromycin (AZM) during the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a need to evaluate the associated safety concerns.
33548872 The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. […] The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum.
33550043 Recently several drugs have been used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Nafamostat mesylate and so on.
33550050 In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
33552410 She was treated with antibiotics, convalescent plasma, steroids, hydroxychloroquine and self-proning.
33552457 We evaluated current treatment options including favipiravir (FPV), lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, interleukin-1 blocker, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange. […] The results showed that plasma exchange was the most preferred alternative, followed by FPV and IVIG, while hydroxychloroquine was the least favorable one.
33552628 A rapid, accurate, and sensitive analytical method, ultrasonication-assisted spraying based fine droplet formation-liquid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (UA-SFDF-LPME-GC-MS), was proposed for the determination of trace amounts of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in human serum, urine, and saliva samples. […] To determine the best extraction strategy, several liquid and solid phase extraction methods were investigated for their efficiencies in isolation and preconcentration of hydroxychloroquine sulfate from biological matrices. […] These results were satisfactory and indicated that the hydroxychloroquine sulfate level in the above biological samples could be analyzed using the proposed method.
33552835 The antiviral drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir as inhibitors for HIV protease, nucleotide analogue remdesivir, and broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are available to treat the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
33554049 Piperacillin/tazobactam and oral hydroxychloroquine were started in addition to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) support due to neutropenia.
33554209 There is limited data in children on the use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, monoclonal antibody, and convalescent plasma.
33555378 Data from solidarity trials have shown that the treatment with Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir had no effect in reducing the mortality rate and also had adverse side effects.
33555780 For severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis but strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine.
33556032 In April 2020, two independent clinical trials (CT) to assess SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis in healthcare workers were started in our Hospital: MeCOVID (melatonin vs placebo) and EPICOS (tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine vs hydroxychloroquine vs the combination of both vs placebo).
33556157 Inpatient hydroxychloroquine use declined by 80%, whereas corticosteroids and tocilizumab were initiated 2 days earlier in May versus March 2020.
33556327 Using hierarchical ascendant classification on principal component analysis of multidimensional variables, and multivariate analyses with generalised additive models, we assessed the associations between several factors (spatiotemporal spread of the epidemic between Feb 7 and March 17, 2020, the national lockdown, demographic population structure, baseline intensive care capacities, baseline population health and health-care services, new chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine dispensations, economic indicators, degree of urbanisation, and climate profile) and in-hospital COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates.
33556464 Standard of care (SOC) treatment was: hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants.
33558079 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dosage required to reach circulating levels that inhibit SARS-Cov-2 are extrapolated from pharmacokinetic data in non-COVID-19 patients.
33558296 Large randomized clinical trials that aimed to test four repurposed drugs, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta-1a, and remdesivir, have shown that these compounds lacked impact on the COVID-19 course.
33558355 To describe the pattern of hydroxychloroquine use and examine the association between hydroxychloroquine use and clinical outcomes arising from changes in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s recommendation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. […] The hydroxychloroquine-treated group received at least one dose within 48 hours of hospital admission. […] The percentages of patients who were treated with hydroxychloroquine were 192/2202 (8.7%) pre-FDA approval, 2902/6741 (43.0%) FDA approval, and 176/1066 (16.5%) FDA warning period (p<0.001). […] Using propensity score matching, there was a higher rate of the composite outcome among patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (49/192, 25.5%) compared with no hydroxychloroquine (66/384, 17.2%) in the pre-FDA approval period (p=0.03) but not in the FDA approval period (25.5% vs 22.6%, p=0.08) or the FDA warning (21.0% vs 15.1%, p=0.11) periods. […] Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with increased odds of the composite outcome during the pre-FDA approval period (OR=1.65 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.51)) but not during the FDA approval (OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.39)) and FDA warning (OR=1.50 (95% CI 0.94 to 2.39)) periods. […] Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with adverse clinical outcomes only during the pre-FDA approval period but not during the FDA approval and warning periods, even after adjusting for concurrent changes in the percentage of patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine and the number (and disease severity) of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 infections.
33560648 We compared the incidence of COVID-19 outcomes (i.e., death and death or intensive services use) among hospitalized famotidine users vs proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) users, hydroxychloroquine users, or famotidine nonusers separately. […] Famotidine, PPI, and hydroxychloroquine exposure groups were defined as patients dispensed any medication containing 1 of the 3 drugs on the day of admission. […] We identified 2,193 users of PPI, 5,950 users of the hydroxychloroquine, 1,816 users of famotidine, and 26,820 nonfamotidine users. […] After propensity score stratification, the hazard ratios (HRs) for death were as follows: famotidine vs no famotidine HR 1.03 (0.89-1.18), vs PPIs: HR 1.14 (0.94-1.39), and vs hydroxychloroquine: 1.03 (0.85-1.24). […] We found no evidence of a reduced risk of COVID-19 outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients who used famotidine compared with those who did not or compared with PPI or hydroxychloroquine users.
33563325 Standard of care is mostly supportive, but may comprise hydroxychloroquine, up to the treating physician’s discretion and depending on local policy and national health regulations.
33564823 A growing number of observational studies evaluating the effects of certain drugs have been conducted, including several assessing whether hydroxychloroquine improves outcomes in infected individuals and whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have detrimental effects.
33569200 Although the US government approved hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) for hospitalized coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients, some studies denied efficacy of HCQ and CQ.
33569736 Several pharmacological agents, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, have been promoted for COVID-19 treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis. […] Among individuals without coronavirus infection from 2015 Q1 to 2020 Q1, increased risks for cardiac disorders were found for antiviral agents such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (ROR: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-1.70), lopinavir/ritonavir (ROR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.39-1.66), and antibiotics such as azithromycin (ROR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.44) and ceftriaxone (ROR: 1.92; 95% CI 1.80-2.05). […] Further analyses of individuals with coronavirus infections revealed that 40% of individuals receiving chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine reported serious cardiac adverse events. […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin contributed to all the QT prolongation and cardiac arrest cases. […] Clinicians should closely monitor patients with COVID-19, especially those at high risk, using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33573530 Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the association of hydroxychloroquine use with the virological cure, clinical recovery, mortality, and development of adverse effects in patients with COVID-19. […] PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Lilacs were searched until 7 January 2021, for randomized clinical trials with COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. […] Compared to the patient’s control group, the risk ratio (RR) for the virological cure and clinical recovery with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use was 1.04 (95%CI 0.91-1.17) and 1.03 (95%CI 0.92-1.13), respectively. […] Hydroxychloroquine (with or without azithromycin) was also not associated with mortality (RR = 1.09, 95%CI 0.98-1.20). […] Treatment with hydroxychloroquine was associated with any adverse effects (RR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.18-1.81). […] Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use did not have a significant effect on virological cure, the time of clinical recovery, and improvement in survival in COVID-19 patients. […] However, patients who used hydroxychloroquine showed an increase in adverse effects.
33573699 The control group received lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine and the case group received HDIVC (6 g daily) added to the same regimen. levels at discharge time, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality between the two groups.
33574271 We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also identified other variants, that are associated with adverse effects, most notable in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (G6PD; hemolysis), ribavirin (ITPA; hemolysis), and interferon β -1b (IRF6; liver toxicity). […] We also describe the complexity of the risk for QT prolongation in this setting because of additive effects of combining more than one QT-prolonging drug (i.e., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin), increased concentrations of the drugs due to genetic variants, along with the risk of also combining therapy with potent inhibitors.
33580747 During the early stages of the pandemic, research conducted on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) sparked several heated debates with respect to the scientific methods used and the quality of knowledge generated.
33583332 Hypoglycemia is a serious adverse effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) which is very rare in non-diabetic patients.
33589175 The drugs used in the intervention group are Chloroquine (CQ)/Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with or without Azithromycin.
33589438 Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were available for the following drugs: hydroxychloroquine (n=12), glucocorticoids (n=6), tocilizumab (n=4), convalescent plasma (n=4), interferon beta (n=2), intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) (n=2) and n=1 each for anakinra, baricitinib, colchicine, leflunomide, ruxolitinib, interferon kappa and vilobelimab. […] Hydroxychloroquine was not beneficial at any disease stage, one RCT with anakinra was negative, one RCT with baricitinib+remdesivir was positive, and individual trials on some other compounds provided interesting, although preliminary, results.
33590660 During the early stages of the pandemic, research conducted on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was chaotic and sparked several heated debates with respect to the scientific methods used and the quality of knowledge generated.
33592050 Exposure was defined as the intake of ivermectin and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or vitamin-C and/or other prophylaxis for COVID-19. […] Type of household, COVID duty, single-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, vitamin-C prophylaxis and hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33592201 DehydroglyasperinC(-8.7,-8.1,-6.7,-7.1)kcal/mol, Licochalcone D(-8.4,-8.2,-7.1,-7.9) kcal/mol, Liquiritin(-8.6,-9.0,-7.2,-7.8) kcal/mol have showed energy interactions with 3Clpro better than many FDA approved repurposed drugs; Remdesvir, Favipiravir, and Hydroxychloroquine.
33594347 We present a 43-year-old man with mixed connective tissue disease treated with hydroxychloroquine who rapidly developed CS 4 days from symptom onset with fever and cough, showing positive polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA.