DrugBank ID: db00783
DrugCentral: estradiol
Synonymous :(17β)-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol | 17beta oestradiol | 17β-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol | 17β-estradiol | 17β-oestradiol | beta-estradiol | cis-estradiol | estradiol | estradiol-17beta | estradiolum

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of estradiol gene in 18 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32331343 Data on the experimental animal have shown that 17ß-estradiol increases the expression and activity of ACE2 in both adipose tissue and kidney.
32420637 Examples are discussed for applying health and prescription records for assessing the potential repurposing (repositioning) of angiotensin receptor blockers, estradiol, or antiandrogens for reducing COVID-19 morbidity and fatalities.
32455629 Discordant patterns of testosterone versus estradiol impacts on SARS-CoV-2 targets suggest a plausible molecular explanation of the apparently higher male mortality during the coronavirus pandemic. […] Estradiol, in contrast with testosterone, affects the expression of the majority of human genes (203 of 332; 61%) encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets, thus potentially interfering with functions of 26 of 27 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. […] A hypothetical tripartite combination consisting of quercetin/vitamin D/estradiol may affect expression of 244 of 332 (73%) human genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets. […] In line with the results of present analyses, a randomized interventional clinical trial evaluating effects of estradiol on severity of the coronavirus infection in COVID19+ and presumptive COVID19+ patients and two interventional randomized clinical trials evaluating effects of vitamin D on prevention and treatment of COVID-19 were listed on the website.
32469251 We hypothesise that estrogens, in particular estradiol but also synthetic estrogen such as ethinylestradiol, could protect women from the most serious complications of COVID-19.
32490931 Considering that female sexual hormones may modulate the inflammatory response and also exhibit direct effects on the cells of the immune system, herein, we intend to discuss the sex differences and the role of estradiol in modulating the lung and systemic inflammatory response, focusing on its possible application as a treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 patients. […] Estradiol is connected with CD4+ T cell numbers and increases T-reg cell populations, affecting immune responses to infection. […] It is known that estradiol exerts a protective effect on endothelial function, activating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase. […] Direct and indirect mechanisms underlying the effects of estradiol were investigated, and the results point to a possible protective effect of estradiol against COVID-19, indicating that it may be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic element for the treatment of patients affected by the novel coronavirus.
32697835 Both anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (AHR=0.146/0.304, 95%CI = [0.026-0.824]/[0.092-1.001], p=0.029/0.05).
32730568 This mini-review discusses the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of high physiological concentrations of the steroids 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4).
32824674 Sex hormones, such as estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, might be implicated in the age-dependent and sex-specific severity of COVID-19.
32848776 Additional interventions focus on tempering inflammatory signaling and injury (e.g., dexamethasone, doxycycline, Ang1-7, estradiol, alpha blockers, and DHA/EPA, pasireotide), as well as inhibitors targeted toward molecular mediators of the maladaptive COVID-19 immune response (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, JAK, and CDK9).
32872116 Annovera (segesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol vaginal system) is a US Food and Drug Administration FDA-approved long-lasting, reversible contraceptive that is fully administered by the user and does not require a procedure for insertion or removal. […] The vaginal system is in the shape of a ring and contains low doses of a novel progestin, egesterone acetate, and ethinyl estradiol.
33150723 In terms of hormonal profiles, the levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol were 5.20 [4.23] mIU/mL, 3.95 [1.63] mIU/mL, 3.65 [1.19] ng/mL, and 39.48 [12.51] pg/mL, respectively.
33152165 Differences in sex-related hormone levels were compared between groups and linear regression analysis was used to compare the associations of testosterone (T) and estradiol with various clinical and laboratory factors. […] The mean T level was in the normal reference range while the mean estradiol level was above the normal limit. […] However, estradiol was higher in the normal-term group than the long-term positive group (P < .001). […] Additionally, regression analyses showed that there were no associations between the T level and the clinical and laboratory factors, while estradiol was negatively associated with the duration of viral shedding.
33184103 Gender and age also impact mucin glycosylation and expression through the female sex hormone estradiol and age-related downregulation of mucin production.
33196058 Here, attention is focused on these sex differences and posit a role of estrogen in these differences as well as possible therapeutic and protective actions of 17β-estradiol against COVID-19.
33234138 The primary outcome for estradiol therapy was death. […] Because the hormone 17ß-estradiol influences expression of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which plays a role in SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry, propensity score matching was performed for the women’s sub-cohort, comparing users vs. non-users of estradiol. […] This retrospective study of hormone therapy in female COVID-19 patients shows that the fatality risk for women > 50 years receiving estradiol therapy (user group) is reduced by more than 50%; the OR was 0.33, 95% CI [0.18, 0.62] and the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.29, 95% CI [0.11,0.76]. […] For younger, pre-menopausal women (15-49 years), the risk of COVID-19 fatality is the same irrespective of estradiol treatment, probably because of higher endogenous estradiol levels. […] As of this writing, still no effective drug treatment is available for COVID-19; since estradiol shows such a strong improvement regarding fatality in COVID-19, we suggest prospective studies on the potentially more broadly protective roles of this naturally occurring hormone.
33252294 Studies have confirmed this infection has sex and age differences in terms of disease severity and immune response, with a particular relationship with the anti-Müllerian hormone, a marker of aging, and estradiol, a marker of ovarian function. […] Estradiol protects the vascular system, mediating with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas testosterone enhances the levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2, thus delaying viral clearance in men as compared to women.
33463909 In our experimental approach, we have treated VERO E6 cells with 17β-estradiol to evaluate the modulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this cell line. […] Previous and 24-hours post-infection, cells treated with 17β-estradiol revealed a reduction in the viral load. […] This opens new possibilities for further studies on 17β-estradiol in human cell lines infected by SARS-CoV-2 and at least in part, explain why men developed a more severe COVID-19 compared to women.
33469276 Exercise might be the most promising non-pharmaceutic intervention to address the large variety of risk factors related to the pronounced estradiol decline during peri- and early-postmenopause.