DrugBank ID: db13393
DrugCentral: emetine
Synonymous : None

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of emetine gene in 34 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32245264 This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. […] Emetine had amongst the lowest reported half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) from over 290 agents screened for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. […] While EC50 concentrations of emetine are achievable in the blood, studies show that concentrations of emetine can be almost 300 times higher in the lungs. […] Furthermore, based on the relative EC50s of emetine towards the coronaviruses compared with Entamoeba histolytica, emetine could be much more effective as an anti-coronavirus agent than it is against amoebiasis. […] This paper also discusses the known side effects of emetine and related compounds, how those side effects can be managed, and the optimal method of administration for the potential treatment of COVID-19. […] Given the serious and immediate threat that the COVID-19 coronavirus poses, our long history with emetine and the likely ability of emetine to reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs, ipecac, emetine, and other analogues should be considered as potential treatment options, especially if in vitro studies confirm viral sensitivity.
32251767 We report the antiviral effect of remdesivir, lopinavir, homorringtonine, and emetine against SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells with the estimated 50% effective concentration at 23.15 μM, 26.63 μM, 2.55 μM and 0.46 μM, respectively. […] Synergy between remdesivir and emetine was observed, and remdesivir at 6.25 μM in combination with emetine at 0.195 μM may achieve 64.9% inhibition in viral yield.
32362245 All the studied molecules could bind to the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB: 6Y84), out of which rutin (a natural compound) has the highest inhibitor efficiency among the 33 molecules studied, followed by ritonavir (control drug), emetine (anti-protozoal), hesperidin (a natural compound), lopinavir (control drug) and indinavir (anti-viral drug).
32400323 Although in vitro studies are scarce, data regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, ivermectin, lopinavir, homoharringtonine and emetine seem promising.
32545799 We also screened 136 safe-in-man broad-spectrum antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells and identified nelfinavir, salinomycin, amodiaquine, obatoclax, emetine and homoharringtonine.
32563698 They are all old drugs as follows, anisomycin, antimycin A, atovaquone, chloroquine, conivaptan, emetine, gemcitabine, homoharringtonine, niclosamide, nitazoxanide, oligomycin, salinomycin, tilorone, valinomycin, and vismodegib.
32714193 Natural products (carolacton, homoharringtonine, emetine, and cepharanthine) and natural product-inspired small molecules (ivermectin, GS-5734, EIDD-2801, and ebselen) are potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that have attracted significant attention due to their broad-spectrum antiviral activities.
32814759 These agents include cepharentine, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, clemastine, cloperastine, emetine, hydroxychloroquine, haloperidol, ML240, PB28, ponatinib, siramesine, and zotatifin (eFT226) all of which are likely to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by non-specific (off-target) effects, meaning that they probably do not act on their ‘official’ pharmacological targets, but rather interfere with viral replication through non-specific effects on acidophilic organelles including autophagosomes, endosomes, and lysosomes.
32848776 Initial candidate interventions include prophylaxis to augment epithelial defense (e.g., AT1 receptor blockade, type III and type I interferons, melatonin, calcitriol, camostat, and lopinavir) and to reduce viral load (e.g., remdesivir, ivermectin, emetine, Abelson kinase inhibitors, dopamine D2 antagonists, and selective estrogen receptor modulators).
32985017 Additionally, some alkaloid structures such as homoharringtonine, lycorine, and emetine have strong anti-coronavirus effects.
33025261 Strikingly, our top hits emetine and lopinavir were independently validated by recent experimental findings that these compounds inhibit the growth of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.
33067112 Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses.
33080984 In addition, we showed synergistic activity of vemurafenib with emetine, homoharringtonine, anisomycin, or cycloheximide against EV1 infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells.
33191206 These drugs include fingolimod, colchicine, N4-hydroxycytidine, remdesivir, methylprednisone, oseltamivir, icatibant, perphanizine, viracept, emetine, homoharringtonine, aloxistatin, ribavirin, valrubicin, famotidine, almitrine, amprenavir, hesperidin, biorobin, cromolyn sodium, and antibodies- tocilzumab and sarilumab. […] Among these 53 drugs, based on various clinical trials and literature, remdesivir, nelfinavir, methylpredinosolone, colchicine, famotidine and emetine may be used for COVID-19.
33261173 Emetine is a potent antiviral that acts on many viruses in the low-nM range, with several studies in animals and humans demonstrating antiviral activity. […] Historically, emetine was used to treat patients with Spanish influenza, in the last stages of the pandemic in the early 1900s. […] Emetine rapidly reversed the cyanosis and other symptoms of this disease in 12-24 h. […] However, emetine also has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and it appears it is these anti-inflammatory properties that were responsible for the effects seen in patients with Spanish influenza. […] Emetine, in the past, has also been used in 10s to 100s of millions of people at a dose of ~60 mg daily to treat amoebiasis. […] This paper also examines the toxicity of emetine seen in clinical practice and that seen in the laboratory, and discusses the methods of administration aimed at reducing side effects if higher doses were found to be necessary. […] While emetine is a “pure drug” as it is extracted from ipecac, some of the differences between emetine and ipecac are also discussed.
33281478 Emetine (P5), 7,4-di-O-galloyltricetifavan (P28) and Oleanolic acid (P17) were the top three phytocompounds hits and exhibited binding energies ranging from -7.81 kcal/mol to -8.17 kcal/mol.
33289002 By correlating the perturbation profiles of ~3,000 small molecules with a high-quality signature of IFN-β-responsive genes in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells, our analysis revealed four candidate COVID-19 compounds, namely homoharringtonine, narciclasine, anisomycin, and emetine.
33302852 Recently, the antiviral efficacy of natural alkaloids known as Homoharringtonine (HTT) and Emetine has been evaluated and provided promising results against coronaviruses including SARS-CoVs.
33482181 We have investigated drugs as classified in the following three groups; 1) The drugs which computationally showed effectiveness (in silico) but needed further lab confirmations; 2) Emetine, Teicoplanin, and Nelfinavir have shown effectiveness in vitro; 3) The drugs currently under clinical trial.