DrugBank ID: db01264
DrugCentral: darunavir
Synonymous :(3r,3as,6ar)-hexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-yl n-((1s,2r)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(n1-isobutylsulfanilamido)propyl)carbamate | (3r,3as,6ar)-tetrahydro-2h-furo[2,3-b]furan-3-yl (2s,3r)-4-(4-amino-n-isobutylphenylsulfonamido)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-ylcarbamate | (3r,3as,6ar)-tetrahydro-2h-furo[2,3-b]furan-3-yl (2s,3r)-4-(4-amino-n-neopentylphenylsulfonamido)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-ylcarbamate | [(s)-3-[(4-amino-benzenesulfonyl)-isobutyl-amino]-2-hydroxy-1-((r)-phenylmethyl)-propyl]-carbamic acid (3r,3as,6ar)-(hexahydro-furo[2,3-b]furan-3-yl) ester | {(1s,2r)-3-[(4-amino-benzenesulfonyl)-isobutyl-amino]-1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-propyl}-carbamic acid (3r,3as,6ar)-(hexahydro-furo[2,3-b]furan-3-yl) ester | darunavir | darunavirum | n-((1s,2r)-3-(((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)(2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-hydroxy-1-benzylpropyl)((1s,2r,5r)-4,6-dioxabicyclo(3.3.0)oct-2-yloxy)carboxamide

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of darunavir gene in 60 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32238094 As a result three FDA approved drugs (Remdesivir, Saquinavir and Darunavir) and two natural compounds (. flavone and coumarine derivatives) were identified as promising hits.
32277836 Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine.
32279418 Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after two days for diarrhea.
32280433 Interestingly, lopinavir, ritonavir, and darunavir are all designed to target viral proteinases.
32292805 In the absence of authorised pharmacological treatments, many antiretrovirals, including darunavir/cobicistat fixed combination, were used off-label in the hospital wards as life-treating medicines for COVID-19 patients. […] The data in this article indicate that darunavir/cobicistat suspensions compounded by pharmacists using as active ingredient a commercially available tablet can be stable at least for one week.
32297571 Inaddition, remdesivir, which has been previously administered to Ebola virus patients, has alsoproven effective in the U.S. against coronavirus, while antimalarial chloroquine and hydroxy-chloroquine, favipiravir and co-administered darunavir and umifenovir (in patient therapies)were also recently recorded as having anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects.
32306822 Cobicistat, ritonavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are in the top screened molecules from FDA approved drugs.
32329231 All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir).
32394344 All patients were on antiretroviral treatment, of them 22 on tenofovir-containing regimen and 4 on the protease inhibitor darunavir. […] SARS-CoV-2 infections may occur during boosted darunavir-based and/or on tenofovir-containing ART.
32396767 Finally, we have compared ΔGbind of these two inhibitors with the anti-HIV retroviral drugs, such as lopinavir and darunavir. […] It is observed that α-ketoamide is more potent compared to lopinavir and darunavir. […] On the other hand, in the case of darunavir, a decrease in the favorable intermolecular electrostatic and van der Waals interactions contributes to lower affinity compared to α-ketoamide.
32397940 Top three bioactive molecules (Oolonghomobisflavan-A, Theasinensin-D, and Theaflavin-3-O-gallate) were selected by comparing their docking scores with repurposed drugs (Atazanavir, Darunavir, and Lopinavir) against SARS-CoV-2.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32473657 Age and CD4 cell counts in 51 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were similar to those in 1288 HIV-infected individuals without; however, 32 (63%) with COVID-19 had at least one comorbidity (mostly hypertension and diabetes) compared with 495 (38%) without COVID-19 (p=0·00059). 37 (73%) patients had received tenofovir before COVID-19 diagnosis compared with 487 (38%) of those without COVID-19 (p=0·0036); 11 (22%) in the COVID-19 group had previous protease inhibitor use (mostly darunavir) compared with 175 (14%; p=0·578).
32479865 Prezcobix/Rezolsta is a fixed-dose combination of 800 mg of the HIV protease inhibitor darunavir (DRV) and 150 mg cobicistat, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, which is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection. […] The in vitro antiviral activity of darunavir against a clinical isolate from a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 was assessed.
32530282 FEP results indicate that two natural compounds, cannabisin A and isoacteoside, and an HIV-1 PR inhibitor, darunavir, exhibit large binding free energy to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, which is larger than that of 13b, the most reliable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor recently reported. […] Replacing Glu166 by an alanine residue leads to ~ 2.0 kcal/mol decreases in the affinity of darunavir to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32604797 Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2.
32650356 The patient was admitted to our department and treated with hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, darunavir, azithromycin and enoxaparin.
32671131 We aimed to evaluate the antiviral activity and safety of darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) in treating COVID-19 patients.
32676695 To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. […] Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days.
32684114 Compared to DB02388 and Cobicistat, Darunavir showed a much lower binding affinity of -34.83 kcal/mol.
32712670 Two PIs, lopinavir and darunavir, currently offered as cART options in HIV-positive pregnancies were evaluated, and we found that lopinavir-based cART, but not darunavir-based cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both human ex vivo and mouse in vivo experimental models. […] Lopinavir and darunavir were evaluated in clinically relevant combinations using an ex vivo human first-trimester placenta-decidua explant model, an in vitro human primary decidual cell culture system, and an in vivo mouse pregnancy model. […] C57Bl/6 female mice (four/treatment group) were administered either lopinavir-cART, darunavir-cART or water by oral gavage once daily starting on the day of plug detection until sacrifice. […] Lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both experimental models. […] Our results suggest that periconceptional initiation of lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, causes defective maturation of the uterine endometrium, leading to impairments in spiral artery remodeling and placentation, thus contributing to the poor birth outcomes. […] We demonstrate that dysregulation of decidualization is the mechanism through which lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, use in early pregnancy leads to poor birth outcomes. […] Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current guidelines recommending lopinavir use in pregnancy and indicate that lopinavir should be avoided especially in the first trimester, whereas darunavir is safe to use and should be the preferred PI in pregnancy.Further, in current times of the COVID-19 pandemic, lopinavir is among the top drug candidates which are being repurposed for inclusion in clinical trials world-over, to assess their therapeutic potential against the dangerous respiratory disease.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32762411 Polyphenols having proper drug-likeness properties and two repurposed drugs (lopinavir and darunavir; having binding affinity -7.3 to -7.4 kcal/mol) were docked against SARS CoV-2 Mpro to study their binding properties. […] Molecular dynamic simulations (100 ns) revealed that all Mpro-polyphenol complexes are more stable, conformationally less fluctuated; slightly less compact and marginally expanded than Mpro-darunavir/lopinavir complex. […] Even the number of intermolecular H-bond and MM-GBSA analysis suggested that these six polyphenols are more potent Mpro inhibitors than the two repurposed drugs (lopinavir and darunavir) and may serve as promising anti-COVID-19 drugs.
32767353 We retrospectively evaluated all patients admitted to COVID internal medicine units with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and treated with darunavir-ritonavir (single daily dose, for seven days).
32777318 The skin reactions of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin with or without interferon, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and darunavir), and treatments for complications (imatinib, tocilizumab, anakinra, immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, colchicine and low molecular weight heparins) are analyzed.
32798373 Among the drugs that are being tested in clinical trials for COVID-19, Danoprevir and Darunavir have the highest binding affinity for the target main protease of SARS-CoV-2.
32817707 SOC consisted of hydroxychloroquine 400mg bid plus, in those admitted before March 24th, also darunavir/ritonavir.
32841688 All subjects underwent an HRCT study on the day of admission and eight weeks later, and were treated with lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg two times a day or darunavir + ritonavir two times a day, and Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg two times a day.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32856282 Darunavir is an anti-HIV protease inhibitor repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. […] The aim of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics of darunavir in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients. […] The influence of clinical covariates on each basic model was tested and the association of significant covariates with darunavir parameters was assessed at multivariate regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. […] Monte Carlo simulation assessed the influence of covariates on the darunavir concentration versus time profile. […] A one-compartment model well-described darunavir concentrations in both groups. […] In SARS-CoV-2 patients (n = 30), interleukin (IL)-6 and body surface area were covariates associated with darunavir oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vd), respectively; no covariates were identified in HIV patients (n = 25). […] Darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients (4.1 vs. […] CART analysis found that an IL-6 level of 18 pg/mL may split the SARS-CoV-2 population in patients with low versus high darunavir CL/F (mean ± standard deviation 3.47 ± 1.90 vs. […] Median (interquartile range) darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels ≥ 18 pg/mL than in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels < 18 pg/mL or HIV patients (2.78 [2.16-4.47] vs. […] Increasing IL-6 levels affected darunavir concentration versus time simulated profiles. […] We hypothesized that increases in IL-6 levels associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 disease may downregulate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated metabolism of darunavir.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids.
32882767 The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receive darunavir-cobicistat (800-150 mg) therapy were compared. […] Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 received other antiviral therapy (controls). […] Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and the crude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.89, p=0.035]. […] After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group, and 28 patients in the controls. […] In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortality than the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.52, p=0.009). […] In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associated with a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32889701 Number of drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir, ritonavir, darunavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and interferons have shown inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV2 in-vitro as well as in clinical conditions.
32899009 SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient under darunavir/cobicistat regimen received a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy.
32926254 Molecular docking calculations showed that most of the synthesized compounds possessed good binding affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) in comparable to Darunavir.
32965013 There are several potential medications available for COVID-19, such as Interferon α (IFN-α), Teicoplanin, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Chloroquine phosphate, Arbidol, Velpatasvir, Favipiravir, Ledipasvir, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Darunavir, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QPD), and Imatinib.
32991900 Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19.
33015628 Classification of eight drug molecules (atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir (amprenavir-metabolised product), saquinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir) based on their molecular structures was completed and reported. […] The binding scores of the drugs on protease followed the order saquinavir > nelfinavir > lopinavir = indinavir > darunavir > amprenavir > ritonavir > atazanavir.
33029696 The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials.
33046764 Seven HIV inhibitors, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir, were used as the potential lead drugs to investigate access to the drug binding sites in Mpro.
33055313 During lactation lopinavir and ritonavir probably exhibit some supportive data from literature that darunavir and cobicistat do not.
33094701 Six well-known corticosteroids (cortisone, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, betamethasone and dexamethasone) and two repurposed drugs (darunavir and lopinavir) against COVID-19 were subjected for molecular docking studies. […] Molecular dynamics studies further revealed that these two Mpro-corticosteroid complexes are more stable, experience less conformational fluctuations and more compact than Mpro-darunavir/lopinavir complexes.
33100380 alkaloids possessing proper drug-likeness properties and two anti-HIV drugs (lopinavir and darunavir; having binding affinity -7.3 to -7.4 kcal/mol) were docked against SARS CoV-2 Mpro to study their binding properties. […] Molecular dynamic simulations (100 ns) revealed that Mpro-anisotine complex is more stable, conformationally less fluctuated; slightly less compact and marginally expanded than Mpro-darunavir/lopinavir complex. […] Even the number of intermolecular H-bonds and MM-GBSA analysis suggested that anisotine is a more potent Mpro inhibitor than the two previously recommended antiviral drugs (lopinavir and darunavir) and may evolve as a promising anti-COVID-19 drug if proven in animal experiments and on patients.
33102687 The results indicate promising effects of such compounds to be used in further experimental and clinical trials; Chloroquine, Chloroquine-OH, and Umifenovir as viral entry inhibitors, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Darunavir as viral replication inhibitors, and Sirolimus are the examples, which were tested clinically on patients after comprehensive assessments of the available data on molecular simulation.
33141251 They also received more frequently darunavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab and ventilation support.
33152616 The results shows HIV-protease inhibitors such as cobicistat (-8.3kcal/mol), Darunavir (-7.4kcal/mol), Lopinavir (-9.1kcal/mol) and Ritonavir (-8.0 kcal/mol), anti-inflammatory drugs such as Baricitinib (-5.8kcal/mol), Ruxolitinib (-6.5kcal/mol), Thalidomide (-6.5kcal/mol), antibiotic drugs such as Erythromycin(-9.0kcal/mol) and Spiramycin (-8.5kcal/mol) molecules have good affinity towards spike protein compared to antimalarial drugs Chloroquine (-6.2kcal/mol), Hydroxychloroquine (-5.2kcal/mol) and Artemisinin (-6.8kcal/mol) have poor affinity to spike protein.
33154404 Moreover, Baricitinib and Umifenovir were found to have superior target-specific binding while Darunavir is found to be a potential multi-targeting drug.
33217030 According to our findings, there is no definite evidence to support use of protease inhibitors for this purpose, despite the promising results of molecular studies and limited clinical evidence for ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, darunavir, and nelfinavir when used early in the course of the disease.
33221868 Combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine and darunavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir has been suggested as an approach to improve the outcome of patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 infection. […] To examine the safety of combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine and darunavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. […] This was an observational cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia treated with hydroxychloroquine and darunavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. […] Clinical evaluations, electrocardiograms and the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine, darunavir and lopinavir were examined according to clinical practice and guidelines. […] Twenty-one patients received hydroxychloroquine with lopinavir/ritonavir (median age 68 years; 10 males) and 25 received hydroxychloroquine with darunavir/ritonavir (median age 71 years; 15 males). […] Of the patients with COVID-19 who received hydroxychloroquine with lopinavir or darunavir, 17% had ECG abnormalities, mainly related to age or in those with a history of cardiovascular disease.
33261845 Studies included repurposed drugs mainly against non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV2: the main 3C-like protease (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir, Atazanavir, Nelfinavir, and Clocortolone), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Remdesivir and Ribavirin), and the papain-like protease (Mycophenolic acid, Telaprevir, Boceprevir, Grazoprevir, Darunavir, Chloroquine, and Formoterol). […] The review revealed the best-documented multi-target drugs repurposed by computational methods for COVID-19 therapy as follows: antiviral drugs commonly used to treat AIDS/HIV (Atazanavir, Efavirenz, and Dolutegravir Ritonavir, Raltegravir, and Darunavir, Lopinavir, Saquinavir, Nelfinavir, and Indinavir), HCV (Grazoprevir, Lomibuvir, Asunaprevir, Ribavirin, and Simeprevir), HBV (Entecavir), HSV (Penciclovir), CMV (Ganciclovir), and Ebola (Remdesivir), anticoagulant drug (Dabigatran), and an antifungal drug (Itraconazole).
33302855 In particular, we compared the binding of two used antimalarial drugs (i.e. chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) which showed some potential clinical effects in COVID-19 patients, using as positive control tree antiviral recognized compounds, ritonavir, lopinavir and darunavir.
33339330 Among the analyzed treatments, steroids, tocilizumab and darunavir/ritonavir correlated with LEE.
33342420 Several drugs such as Hydroxychloroquine, Umifenovir, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, interferon, Darunavir, Favipiravir, Nitazoxanide etc. are currently undergoing clinical studies to test the safety and efficacy of the drug against this pandemic.
33405402 Patients had signs of respiratory distress and were treated with hydroxychloroquine, darunavir, ritonavir, heparin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin.
33458647 Many promising antiviral agents including lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, darunavir, and oseltamivir have been repurposed and are currently trialled in the care for COVID-19 patients.
33550050 In addition, it refers to drugs such as Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, which have undergone clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.
33567992 Hepatitis C and use of darunavir and lopinavir were associated with increased AST or ALT.
33594342 Among these drugs, in terms of least binding energy, Indinavir, Sorivudine, Cidofovir, and Darunavir showed minimum docking scores with all the key proteins.