DrugBank ID: db00151
DrugCentral: cysteine
Synonymous :(2r)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid | (2r)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid | (r)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid | cisteina | cisteinum | cys | cysteine | cysteinum | free cysteine | l-2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid | l-cys | l-cystein | l-zystein

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of cysteine gene in 76 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32266873 3CLpro is a cysteine protease responsible for the proteolysis of replicase polyproteins resulting in the formation of various functional proteins, whereas 2’-O-MTase methylates the ribose 2’-O position of the first and second nucleotide of viral mRNA, which sequesters it from the host immune system.
32296570 The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle.
32322478 Oral and IV glutathione, glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine) and alpha lipoic acid may represent a novel treatment approach for blocking NFKappaB and addressing “cytokine storm syndrome” and respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
32391184 Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLPro) is a highly conserved cysteine protease employing a catalytic dyad for its functions.
32402186 An attractive therapeutic target for CoVs is the main protease (Mpro) or 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), as this enzyme plays a key role in polyprotein processing and is active in a dimeric form.
32429099 First, PLP is one of the two viral cysteine proteases, along with 3-chymotripsin-like protease, that is responsible for the production of the replicase proteins required for viral replication.
32470470 Cathepsin L (CatL) is an endosomal cysteine protease.
32534175 A randomized controlled trial of blocking NF-κB and cytokine formation using glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC] and alpha lipoic acid) and PO/IV glutathione with associated anti-viral effects should be performed, along with an evaluation of Nrf2 activators (curcumin, sulforaphane glucosinolate) which have been scientifically proven to lower inflammation.
32551639 The crystal structure for the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), was recently made available and is considerably similar to the previously reported SARS-CoV. […] Molecular docking of 13 antivirals against the 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme was accomplished, and indinavir was described as a lead drug with a docking score of -8.824 and a XP Gscore of -9.466 kcal/mol.
32561291 SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through endocytosis process, which is possibly facilitated, via a pH dependent endosomal cysteine protease cathepsins.
32598985 We discuss here the reaction of ebselen with cysteine proteases, the role of ebselen in infections with viruses and with other microorganisms.
32607398 Therefore, to avoid the increment of OS, we suggest using Leucomethylene Blue through the following protocol: The IV cocktail contains 50 mg MB (1mg/kg, 50-kg weight), 1000-2000 mg vitamin C, 500-1000 mg N-Acetylcysteine (or glutathione or cysteine or α-lipoic acid) and 10-20 gr urea (optional) in 100 ml dextrose 5%.
32646487 The viral replicating enzyme, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) that plays a key role in its pathogenicity was used to assess its affinity with pharmacological inhibitors and repurposed drugs such as anti-viral flavones, biflavanoids, anti-malarial drugs and vitamin supplements.
32656452 The receptor-binding domain of the viral spike proteins and ACE2 have several cysteine residues.
32659175 Compared with vitamin D alone, co-supplementation of vitamin D and L-cysteine (a GSH precursor) showed a better efficacy in improving levels of GSH and VD-regulatory genes at the cellular/tissue level, increasing 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and reducing inflammation biomarkers in the blood in mice studies. […] We propose that randomized clinical trials are needed to examine the potential of co-supplementation with anti-inflammatory antioxidants, vitamin D and L-cysteine in correcting the 25(OH)VD deficiency and preventing the ‘cytokine storm,’ one of the most severe consequences of infection with COVID-19, thereby preventing the adverse clinical effects of COVID-19 infection in the vulnerable AA population.
32687345 The Ser46 mutation present at the entrance of the S5 subpocket of SARS-CoV-2 increases the contribution of other two hydrophilic residues, while the Phe134 mutation, present in the catalytic cysteine loop, can cause an increase in catalytic efficiency of Mpro by facilitating fast proton transfer from the Cys145 to His41 residue.
32692176 Cathepsin C (CatC) is a cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that activates most of tissue-degrading elastase-related serine proteases.
32707573 Of these, thirteen were found to harbour effective concentrations commensurate with probable achievable therapeutic doses in patients, including the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod2-4 and the cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825 and ONO 5334.
32720605 3C-like protease (3CLP) is a homodimeric cysteine protease that is present in coronaviruses.
32736274 Our analysis also indicated that metal binding to cysteine residues 44 and 145 could disable the enzyme.
32745925 Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the viral key 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease enzyme (3CLPro), which controls 2019-nCoV duplications and manages its life cycle, could be pointed as a drug discovery target.
32748969 The in-silico studies suggested that Tea component Thearubigins binds to the cysteine 145 of protease active site and could be a pharmacoactive molecule.
32758873 Importantly, TMPRSS2 also requires calcium for its SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich) domain and itsLDLRA(LDL receptor class A) domain.
32780893 N- Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH).
32783247 The main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLPro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, which operates its replication, could be used as a medication discovery point.
32812956 The results of our simulations demonstrate the role of the theory level used in QM subsystems for a proper description of the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic cysteine residue in Mpro.
32828741 As the last therapeutic option, five patients were administered methylene blue-vitamin C-N-acetyl Cysteine (MCN).
32837898 Current evidence suggests that N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) administration may help improve outcomes in people with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) - conditions that closely resemble the signs and symptoms of COVID-19.
32862101 The ability of these compounds to target cysteine 111 in SOD may have wider therapeutic applications targeting cysteines of enzymes involved in pathogenic and viral diseases including main protease of SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19).
32863223 Virus entry may also depend on the activity of the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B, L (CTSB, CTSL) although their activity is likely dispensable.
32869854 Human serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are the main inhibitors of serine proteases, but some of them also have the capability to effectively inhibit cysteine proteases. […] Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) is a chymotrypsin-type cysteine protease that is needed to produce functional proteins essential for virus replication and transcription. […] Alternatively, RCL cleavage site of serpins with known evidence of inhibition of cysteine proteases can be replaced by Mpro target site to make chimeric proteins. […] Trapping SARS-CoV-2 Mpro cysteine protease using cross-class serpin cysteine protease inhibition activity is a novel idea with significant therapeutic potential.
32873185 Drugs in the discovery phase identified as inhibitors include the known cysteine protease inhibitors, Calpain inhibitor IV and an experimental cathepsin F inhibitor. […] In order to analyse the stability of the binding interactions, the known cysteine protease inhibitors viz, Simeprevir, calpain inhibitor IV and the cathepsin F inhibitor in complex Mpro were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations at 100 ns.
32896566 The coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) controls replication and is therefore considered a major target for antiviral discovery.
32930481 Inhibition of coronavirus (CoV)-encoded papain-like cysteine proteases (PLpro) represents an attractive strategy to treat infections by these important human pathogens.
32960061 These drugs can inhibit the viral protease, called chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, also known as Main protease (3CLpro); hence, we studied the binding efficiencies of 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinoline analogs of chloroquine.
32962355 As a cysteine protease, PLpro is rich in cysteines and histidines, and their protonation/deprotonation modulates catalysis and conformational plasticity. […] Interestingly, despite the lack of an analogous cysteine, BL2 in MERS-CoV PLpro is also very flexible, challenging a current hypothesis.
32979476 These targets including an important host cell receptor, i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 and several viral proteins e.g. spike glycoprotein (S) containing S1 and S2 domains, SARS CoV Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro), helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
32984400 Thus, it is highly significant that cytosolic GPX1 has been shown to interact with an inactive C145A mutant of Mpro, the main cysteine protease of SARS-CoV-2, but not with catalytically active wild-type Mpro. […] We show that the GPX1 active site sequence is substantially similar to a known Mpro cleavage site, and is identified as a potential cysteine protease site by the Procleave algorithm. […] Using web-based protease cleavage site prediction tools, we show that Mpro may be targeting not only GPX1, but several other selenoproteins including SELENOF and thioredoxin reductase 1, as well as glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis.
32993622 Other drugs that are more likely to present clinical effects despite the lack of specific evidence for COVID-19 include anti-androgens (spironolactone, eplerenone, finasteride and dutasteride), statins, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and direct TMPRSS-2 inhibitors (nafamostat and camostat).
33006576 The replication of SARS-CoV-2 produces two large polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, that are inactive until cleavage by the viral chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease enzyme (3CL Mpro) into a series of smaller functional proteins.
33007504 The observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 protease activity was consistent with S-nitrosation of the enzyme active site cysteine.
33022015 This cysteine protease acts by processing the viruses’ precursor polyproteins.
33027419 Among these proteins, 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), also named main protease, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), have been identified as fundamental targets due to its importance in the viral replication stages.
33028810 To identify starting points for such therapeutics, we performed a large-scale screen of electrophile and non-covalent fragments through a combined mass spectrometry and X-ray approach against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, one of two cysteine viral proteases essential for viral replication.
33043036 Sputum specimens from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were treated with four commonly used reagents-saline, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), proteinase K (PK), and dithiothreitol (DTT), prior to NA extraction.
33047658 In this study, approximately 1400 cysteine-focused ligands were screened to identify the best candidates that can act as potent inhibitors against Mpro. […] Our combined studies suggest that the best cysteine focused ligands can help to design an effective lead drug for COVID-19 treatment.
33058970 There are several families of cysteine proteinases with different folds - for example the (chymo)trypsin fold family and papain-like fold family - but in both families the hydrolase activity of cysteine proteinases requires a cysteine residue as the catalytic nucleophile. […] In this work, we have analyzed the topology of the active site regions in 146 three-dimensional structures of proteins belonging to the Papain-like Cysteine Proteinase (PCP) superfamily, which includes papain as a typical representative of this protein superfamily.
33066821 Here we report a distant sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich cytoplasmic tail of the coronavirus spike protein and the hepcidin protein that is found in humans and other vertebrates.
33067239 Viral papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro, NSP3) is essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication and represents a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs.
33106741 Viral Papain-Like cysteine protease (PLpro), similar to papain and the cysteine deubiquitinase enzyme, has been a popular target for coronavirus inhibitors, as an indispensable enzyme in the process of coronavirus replication and infection of the host.
33109028 Natural products intervene at various stages of the virus replication cycle, including inhibition of virus entry into the host cells, inhibition of serine/ cysteine proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or helicase.
33109497 Quinones are reactive to proteins containing cysteine residues and the main protease in Covid-19 contains an active site that includes Cys145.
33120805 The patient was started on hydroxychloroquine due to SLE, treated with N-Acetyl-Cysteine, and methylprednisolone.
33137165 Papain-like peptidases (PLPs) and chymotrypsin-like cysteine 3C-like peptidase are essential for coronaviral replication and represent attractive antiviral drug targets. […] CoVs have evolved multiple strategies for spike protein activation, including the utilization of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins. […] In this review, viral and host peptidases involved in CoV cell entry and replication are discussed in depth, with an emphasis on papain-like cysteine cathepsins. […] Furthermore, important findings on cysteine peptidase inhibitors with regard to virus attenuation are highlighted as well as the potential of such inhibitors for future treatment strategies for CoV-related diseases.
33137330 Several potential allosteric or protein-protein interaction druggable sites on different viral targets were identified, knowledge that could be used to expand current drug discovery endeavors beyond the currently explored cysteine proteases and the polymerase complex.
33141358 The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a cysteine protease which causes the proteolysis of the replicase polyproteins to generate functional proteins, which is a crucial step for viral replication and infection.
33148714 We addressed whether other nonstructural viral proteins, not incorporated into the infectious viral particle, specifically the viral cysteine-like protease, might also be potent immunogens.
33183205 This study emphasized on important covalent and non-covalent small molecule inhibitors which effectively inhibited chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) of two SARS coronaviruses i.e. 
33245701 Other dietary supplements backed by solid scientific evidence to show they act as immune enhancers are astragalus, a yeast fermentate (EpiCor®), olive leaf extract, berberine, N-acetyl cysteine, and garlic.
33250972 Our analysis of retrieved amino acid sequences deposited in data bases shows that S-proteins and ACE2 are rich in cysteine (Cys) residues, many of which are conserved in various SARS-related coronaviruses and participate in intra-molecular disulfide bonds.
33262894 Interestingly, the pattern was present in both human and bat the coronaviruses S proteins, in many proteins involved in coagulation process, cell-cell interaction, protein aggregation and regulation of cell fate, such as von Willebrand factor, coagulation factor X, fibronectin and Notch, characterized by the presence of the cysteine-rich EGF-like domain.
33289321 In this review, we summarize the effects of endogenous and exogenous NO on protein S-nitrosylation, which is the selective and reversible covalent attachment of a nitrogen monoxide group to the thiol side chain of cysteine.
33290397 The host serine protease TMPRSS2 and cysteine proteases Cathepsin B/L can activate S, making two independent entry pathways accessible to SARS-CoV-2.
33298882 Interestingly, the pattern was present in both human and bat the coronaviruses S proteins, in many proteins involved in coagulation process, cell-cell interaction, protein aggregation and regulation of cell fate, such as von Willebrand factor, coagulation factor X, fibronectin and Notch, characterized by the presence of the cysteine-rich EGF-like domain.
33319124 Our analysis also observed a triple cysteine motif harboring mutation (L39M, A41S, A41V, C43F, C43R, C43S, C44Y, N45R) which may hinder the binding of E protein with spike glycoprotein.
33320670 Interestingly, a natural flavonoid binds SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in the close proximity to a conserved cysteine (Cys44), which is hyper-reactive according to the CpHMD titration.
33350580 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), miR-802 gene expression, NF-κB, and calcium levels are up-regulated, while Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor-2 (Nrf2), Hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and gene expressions, as well as, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), NAD(P)H-Quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and miR-122 gene expressions are down-regulated in the livers of intoxicated animals.
33364201 Here, we show cysteine protease Cathepsin L (CatL) involvement with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 from different points of view.
33373718 Two other main fraction components were a miniM conotoxin, and a O2-superfamily conotoxin with cysteine framework VI/VII.
33386025 Virtual screening of 75 FDA-approved potential antiviral drugs against the target proteins, spike (S) glycoprotein, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), cathepsin L (CTSL), nucleocapsid protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and non-structural protein 6 (NSP6), resulted in the selection of seven drugs which preferentially bind to the target proteins.
33400393 The 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) processes viral polyproteins to yield mature non-structural proteins, thus playing an important role in the CoV life cycle, and therefore is considered as a prominent target for antiviral drugs.
33453245 Pathway and network enrichment analyses revealed that the 92 DEPs were mostly associated with metabolic, complement and coagulation cascades, lysosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways, and the 375 COVID-19 only proteins were mainly enriched in amino acid degradation (Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine degradation), amino acid metabolism (beta-Alanine, Tryptophan, Cysteine and Methionine metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, phagosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways.
33462575 The main viral protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a nucleophilic cysteine hydrolase and a current target for anti-viral chemotherapy.
33503560 The binding energy of the nonbonding interaction with Histidine 41 and Cysteine 145, present a clear view that 2(2E)-methyl-2-[(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylidene]-hydrazinecarbothioamide can irreversibly interact with SARS-CoV-2 protease.
33515606 The 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered a major target for the discovery of direct antiviral agents. […] Taken together, these results can guide the design of cysteine protease inhibitors that are either virus-specific or retain a broad antiviral spectrum against coronaviruses and rhinoviruses.
33539638 HLA-C15:227 differs from HLA-C15:02:01:01 by a single nonsynonymous change (368A → G Tyrosine 99 to Cysteine).