DrugBank ID: db00148
DrugCentral: creatine
Synonymous :((amino(imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetic acid | (alpha-methylguanido)acetic acid | (n-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid | (α-methylguanido)acetic acid | alpha-methylguanidino acetic acid | creatin | creatine | kreatin | methylglycocyamine | n-(aminoiminomethyl)-n-methylglycine | n-amidinosarcosine | n-carbamimidoyl-n-methylglycine | n-methyl-n-guanylglycine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of creatine gene in 146 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32205284 Higher rate of fever, cough, expectoration, and headache, lower lymphocytes, albumin, serum sodium levels and higher total bilirubin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein levels and lower oxygenation index were observed in pneumonia patients (all P < 0.05).
32216803 Higher temperature, blood leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity, α - hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were related to severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and composite endpoint, and so were lower lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and total protein level.
32217556 Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients.
32220650 Typical abnormal laboratory findings were elevated creatine kinase MB (11 [31%]), decreased lymphocytes (11 [31%]), leucopenia (seven [19%]), and elevated procalcitonin (six [17%]). […] Besides radiographic presentations, variables that were associated significantly with severity of COVID-19 were decreased lymphocytes, elevated body temperature, and high levels of procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatine kinase MB.
32227274 COVID-19 mRNA clearance ratio was identified significantly correlated with the decline of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.
32232979 In this study, we detected and analyzed the main laboratory indicators related to heart injury, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), myohemoglobin (MYO), cardiac troponin I (ultra-TnI), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), in 273 patients with COVID-19 and investigated the correlation between heart injury and severity of the disease.
32249943 A higher number of children had elevated creatine kinase isoenzyme (57.1% vs. 
32271459 Compared with the non-severe group, the severe group showed statistical significance in older age, hypertension, bilateral lung plaque shadow, decrease in lymphocyte count, increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. […] Age, combined hypertension, oxygenation index, double lung patch, decreased lymphocyte count, and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase can be used as predictors of the disease severity.
32302954 We compared critically ill and noncritically ill patients: p-values for age, C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, prothrombin time, fibrin degradation products, D-Dimer, and CD4+ count were p < 0.001; and p-values for hospital days, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, creatine kinase isoenzyme, myoglobin, N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, and CD8+ count were p < 0.05.
32305557 We performed a systematic literature search across Pubmed, Embase and pre-print from December 1, 2019 to March 27, 2020, to identify all observational studies that reported cardiac specific biomarkers (troponin, creatine kinase-MB fraction, myoglobin, or NT-proBNP) during COVID-19 infection. […] More severe COVID-19 infection is associated with higher mean troponin (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.75, p < 0.001), with a similar trend for creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, and NT-proBNP.
32311512 Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and in some cases, immunoglobulins, complement, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines.
32345226 Non-respiratory injury was identified by elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (n = 18; 19.8%), creatinine (n = 5; 5.5%), and creatine kinase (n = 14; 15.4%) in laboratory tests.
32352535 The most common complications include arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and ventricular fibrillation), cardiac injury [elevated highly sensitive troponin I (hs-cTnI) and creatine kinase (CK) levels], fulminant myocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
32357072 ICU patients had a higher respiratory rate, higher levels of random blood glucose, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, creatine, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, D-dimers, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 than non-ICU patients.
32418216 Moreover, elevated creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) was much more commonly observed in children (27.0%) than that in adults, suggesting that heart injury would be more likely to happen in pediatric patients.
32444393 Comparing patients on hemodialysis with controls, creatine kinase-muscle and brain type, myoglobin, hypersensitive troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and procalcitonin were increased, and the percentage of abnormalities in bilateral lung was higher in computed tomographic scan (82% versus 69%, P=0.15) and unilateral lung was lower (10% versus 27%, P=0.03).
32446795 Patients with diabetes had significantly higher leucocyte and neutrophil counts, and higher levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB at admission compared with those without diabetes.
32456948 COVID-19 patients with CVD showed (1) more severe pathological changes in the lungs, (2) elevated injury-related enzymes including α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HDBH), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (3) significantly increased uncontrolled inflammation related markers, such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum amyloid A (SAA), (4) serious hypercoagulable status reflected by increased D-dimer and serum fibrinogen (FIB), and (5) higher mortality, compared to COVID-19 patients without CVD.
32470186 Age, heart rate, chlorine, ALT, AST, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8).
32473151 In mild disease, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was frequently elevated, with a PPE of 33%.
32473756 On day 5, his high body temperature increased to 41.2 °C, creatine kinase level elevated, and he developed tachycardia, tachypnea, altered consciousness, and diaphoresis.
32490853 Here, an integrated point-of-care COVID-19 Severity Score and clinical decision support system is presented using biomarker measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), N-terminus pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), myoglobin (MYO), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI).
32492165 The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury.
32503382 The following biomarkers have been identified: hematological (lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)), inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT)), immunological (interleukin (IL)-6 and biochemical (D-dimer, troponin, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), especially those related to coagulation cascades in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
32504360 Increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and D-dimer were observed in 19.44, 67.74, 47.22, 19.44, 22.22 and 20.69% of infants, respectively. […] Meanwhile, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatinine, IL-6 and IL-10 increased significantly.
32507570 Blood tests revealed elevated levels of markers of myocyte necrosis (troponin I and creatine kinase-MB).
32511971 Through the analysis of laboratory examination information of patients with COVID-19 from 35 articles (5912 patients), we demonstrated that severe cases possessed higher levels of leukocyte (1.20-fold), neutrophil (1.33-fold), CRP (3.04-fold), PCT (2.00-fold), ESR (1.44-fold), AST (1.40-fold), ALT (1.34-fold), LDH (1.54-fold), CK (1.44-fold), CK-MB (1.39-fold), total bilirubin (1.14-fold), urea (1.28-fold), creatine (1.09-fold), PT (1.03-fold) and D-dimer (2.74-fold), as well as lower levels of lymphocytes (1.44-fold), eosinophil (2.00-fold), monocyte (1.08-fold), Hemoglobin (1.53-fold), PLT (1.15-fold), albumin (1.15-fold), and APTT (1.02-fold).
32512122 Elevation of cardiac biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity troponin and/or creatine kinase MB, is common in patients with COVID-19 infection.
32518172 Elevated Creatine Kinase (>10,000) is reported in 10% of COVID-19-infected patients; two such patients presented with painful muscle weakness responding to IVIg indicating that COVID-19-triggered NAM is an overlooked entity.
32519944 The two groups did not differ in viral burden but displayed significant differences in laboratory findings: ARDS patients had persistently elevated values for leukocytes, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and D-dimers over the period of observation.
32525548 Patients with higher levels of hypokalemia also had higher creatine kinase levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 200 [257] U/L [median, 113 U/L; interquartile range {IQR}, 61-242 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 97 [85] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 82 [57] U/L), higher creatine kinase-MB fraction (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 32 [39] U/L [median, 14 U/L; IQR, 11-36 U/L]; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [15] U/L; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [8] U/L), higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean [SD], severe hypokalemia, 256 [88] U/L; hypokalemia, 212 [59] U/L; and normokalemia, 199 [61] U/L), and higher C-reactive protein levels (severe hypokalemia, mean [SD], 29 [23] mg/L; hypokalemia, mean [SD], 18 [20] mg/L [median, 12, mg/L; IQR, 4-25 mg/L]; and normokalemia, mean [SD], 15 [18] mg/L [median, 6 U/L; IQR, 3-17 U/L]).
32531257 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) were also increased.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32537954 Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 19.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-193.42; P = 0.012), body temperature ≥ 37.8°C (OR, 10.91; 95% CI, 1.35-88.36; P = 0.025), peripheral oxygen saturation < 92% (OR, 33.31; 95% CI, 2.45-452.22; P = 0.008), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) > 6.3 (OR, 56.84; 95% CI, 2.64-1,223.78, P = 0.010) at admission were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19.
32541972 1.1×109/L, P<0.001), creatine kinase MB(CK-MB, 3.2 μg/L vs.
32542129 Laboratory findings showed creatine kinase (CK) >42,670 U/L along with elevated inflammatory markers and unremarkable creatinine, cardiac troponin level.
32554832 The creatine kinase (CK) level of 13% of patients exceeded the normal range, and 52% of patients had elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.
32558955 For the laboratory result, leukopenia (21%) and lymphocytosis (22%) were the mainly indicators for pediatric inpatients, followed by high aspartate aminotransferase(AST) (19%), lymphopenia (16%), high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (15%), high C-reactive protein (CPR) (17%), lymphopenia (16%), leukocytosis (13%), high D-dimer (12%) and high creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)(5%).
32559180 Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines).
32563494 Owing to 44-60% myalgia presentation, risk of the high inflammatory state, and coagulation cascade abnormalities reported in ECoVs, testing for C-reactive protein, serum creatine kinase, and D-dimer level is mandatory.
32567326 Higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (weighted mean difference (WMD) =108.86 U/L, 95% confidence interval (CI)=75.93-141.79, p<0.001) and creatine kinase-MB (WMD=2.60 U/L, 95% CI=1.32-3.88, p<0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the severity of COVID-19 infection. […] Furthermore, higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (WMD=213.44 U/L, 95% CI=129.97-296.92, p<0.001), cardiac troponin I (WMD=26.35 pg/mL, 95% CI=14.54-38.15, p<0.001), creatine kinase (WMD=48.10 U/L, 95% CI=0.27-95.94, p = 0.049) and myoglobin (WMD=159.77 ng/mL, 95% CI=99.54-220.01, p<0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the mortality of COVID-19 infection. […] Cardiac injury, as assessed by serum analysis (lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (-MB) and myoglobin), was associated with severe outcome and death from COVID-19 infection.
32571410 Age; temperature; anorexia; and white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, platelet count, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, albumin, and fibrinogen values were significantly different between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 (P < 0.05).
32573995 Results Compared to patients who could be finally discharged, those who died during hospital stay displayed significantly higher values of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI), prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, C reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and leukocytes (especially neutrophils), whilst values of albumin, hemoglobin and lymphocytes were significantly decreased.
32574309 Creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) and troponin levels were above the normal range in 7.10% (8/112), 66.7% (10/15), and 100% of patients, respectively.
32575078 Besides, abnormal laboratory tests were more prevalent in severe patients than in mild cases, such as elevated levels of white blood cell counts, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, as well as decreased levels of lymphocytes and albumin.
32587625 Muscle pain is common in both mild and severe cases, and in the most compromised patients, it is accompanied by increased creatine kinase levels and by a likely true myopathic damage.
32588367 Creatine kinase (CK) level was detected to be significantly higher in patients with muscle pain (p < 0.05).
32595812 Three out of four had elevated levels of creatine kinase and creatine kinase myocardial band.
32600411 Patients with BMI < 24 were significantly younger (P = 0.025) with lower creatine kinase (P = 0.013), lower diastolic pressure blood (P = 0.035), lower serum creatinine (P = 0.012), lower lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.001) and higher platelet count (P = 0.002). […] While hemoglobin (r = 0.267, P = 0.008), creatine kinase (r = 0.331, P = 0.001), serum creatinine (r = 0.424, P < 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.343, P = 0.001) were significantly positive correlated with BMI.
32607332 The levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, blood glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), myoglobin (MB), and creatine kinase (CK) were increased in 64.6%, 44.7%, 43.2%, 37.0%, 29.5%, 22.9%,20.8%, 21.6%, 13.6%, and 12.8% of patients, respectively.
32617738 In this study, we evaluated the most frequent neurological symptoms in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and also investigated the possible relationship between plasmatic inflammatory indices and olfactory disorders (ODs) and between muscle pain and creatine kinase (CK).
32642164 Patients were likely had normal procalcitonin, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels at diagnosis.
32642390 The creatine phosphokinase was elevated to 23,800 U/L before trending down to normal levels.
32643664 Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury.
32646234 It was found that 55 cases (83.3%) had fever and 48 cases (72.7%) coughed in the isolated area, 31 cases (47%) had a history of exposure, 26 cases (39.4%) had a decrease in lymphocytes (LYM), more than half had an increase in lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme, 14 cases (21.2%) had positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, 58 cases (87.9%) had abnormal chest computed tomography (CT), and 11 cases (16.7%) had sinus arrhythmia.
32653160 Laboratory tests for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide and D-dimer indicated higher levels in the death group.
32656888 Multivariable regression showed that neutrophil count greater than 4.47 × 109 /L (OR, 58.35; 95%CI: 2.16-1571.69; P = .016), hypersensitivity C-reactive protein greater than 86.7 mg/L (OR, 14.90; 95%CI: 1.29-171.10; P = .030), creatine kinase greater than 101 U/L (OR, 161.62; 95%CI: 6.45-4045.20; P = .002), and blood urea nitrogen greater than 6.7 mmol/L (OR, 11.18; 95%CI: 1.36-91.62; P = .024) were risk factors for in-hospital death. […] The risk factors of neutrophil count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and blood urea nitrogen could help clinicians to early identify COVID-19 severe patients with poor outcomes on admission.
32664161 Primary outcomes would be used to evaluate the mortality rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine, troponin, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), blood pressure, clinical symptoms (including fever, fatigue, myalgia, cough, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), and serum cytokine levels.
32673499 In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001).
32682360 Age, D-Dimer, troponin, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, ferritin, procalcitonin, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were statistically significantly higher in deceased patients than survivor patients.
32683882 The relationship between lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and De Ritis ratio were analysed in the first blood samples of the patients.
32702930 Neither infant was infected with COVID-19, but both had increased prothrombin time and fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphocreatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme contents.
32709637 Troponin and creatine kinase levels were higher in patients who died than in those who recovered (p<0.0001).
32713118 Among the 502 patients enrolled, 301 patients had abnormal liver function with increased neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, creatinine, troponin I (TnI), D-dimer, lactose dehydrogenase and creatine kinase.
32718894 Older age (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83), leukocytosis (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83), and increased creatine kinase (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83) on admission were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity. […] Older age, leukocytosis, and increased creatine kinase might help clinicians to identify severe patients with COVID-19.
32719759 The most frequent abnormal laboratory findings, in pediatric patients, were leukopenia/lymphopenia (28.9%, 95% CI = 19.5-39.2) and increased creatine kinase (20.1%, 95% CI = 1.3-49.9).
32723362 Retrospective studies assessing the relationship between the prognosis of COVID-19 patients and levels of troponin I (TnI) and other cardiac injury biomarkers (creatine kinase [CK], CK myocardial band [CK-MB], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were included.
32727177 Results: The median of creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB) in the death group was 19.0 (17.0,23.0) U/L, which was higher than that in the survival group 16.5 (13.5,19.6) U/L.
32746929 No significant changes in white blood cells (WBC), Creatine Kinase (CK), troponin I, myoglobin, IL-6 and K between the two groups were observed.
32761898 The common laboratory findings were normal white blood cell 69% (95% CI: 64%-75%; I2 = 58.5%), lymphopenia 16% (95% CI: 11%-21%; I2 = 76.9%) and elevated creatine-kinase MB 37% (95% CI: 25%-48%; I2 = 59.0%).
32765952 Increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), myoglobin, creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were highly associated with severe COVID-19.
32766542 Coinfections were observed in 5.6% of children and abnormal laboratory markers included serum D-dimer, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, and interleukin-6.
32768975 In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P < 0.01).
32769892 The items for laboratory tests included blood routine examination, liver function, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, markers of myocardial injury, B-type natriuretic peptide, D-dimer, and so forth.
32785021 Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement (‘Muscle5’; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil.
32791748 We present an unique circumstance whereas a patient with a 5 year history of inflammatory muscle disease, diagnosed by clinical history and muscle biopsy with elevated creatine kinase levels, suffered a hypoxemic cardiopulmonary arrest due to asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 after receiving advanced immunosuppressive therapy. […] The patient presented with an acute exacerbation of inflammatory muscle disease with dysphagia, muscle weakness, and elevated creatine kinase.
32801291 Diagnostic criteria for rhabdomyolysis are elevated serum creatine kinase, liver enzyme levels, and myalgia. […] Her creatine kinase and liver enzyme levels were significantly elevated. […] The patient’s creatine kinase and liver enzyme levels peaked on Day 2 and then decreased. […] CONCLUSIONS Our case highlights the need to monitor the creatine kinase level of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
32829312 Background Historically, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement was introduced into Laboratory Medicine as component (together with creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase) of the classical enzyme triad employed for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, which was subsequently replaced by CK-MB, and more recently by cardiac troponins.
32837744 After a multi-step screening process, prognostic factors were selected and incorporated into the nomogram construction, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), and interaction between CK and APACHE II.
32838499 Conclusions: ACEI/ARB drugs have no significant effects on baseline clinical parameters (serum creatine and myoglobin excluded) , outcome, and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.
32846825 Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group.
32850041 COVID-19 caused lymphocytopenia, as well as increased d-dimer, c-reactive protein and creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels.
32850926 Compared with the good outcome group, 20 (17.5%) patients in the poor outcome group more frequently exhibited lymphopenia, and lower levels of albumin, partial arterial oxygen pressure, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hypersensitive troponin I, C-reactive protein, ferritin, blood urea nitrogen, and D-dimer, as well as markedly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10.
32856744 Both viral infections caused substantial blood abnormality, whereas the COVID-19 cohort showed a lower frequency of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, or lymphocytopenia, but a higher chance of creatine kinase elevation.
32876196 We found that underlying cardiovascular conditions; elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase-MB; and cardiac complications were associated with increased risk of death for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32879103 Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.
32883169 CRP, procalcitonin, creatine kinase (CK) and troponin I levels on 7th day of admission were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors.
32893523 Symptoms of positive upper respiratory infection and lower creatine phosphokinase were determined to be related to positive ocular symptoms. […] Positive upper respiratory infection symptoms and lower creatine phosphokinase were determined to be related to ocular symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
32905464 Here, we report the first case of COVID-19 presenting as severe rhabdomyolysis with creatine kinase > 500,000 U/L with normal renal function in a young adult.
32916148 Cardiovascular disease-related laboratory biomarkers related to mortality were elevated serum level of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, brain natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin I.
32921216 Abbreviations: ICU: An intensive care unit; 2019-nCoV: 2019 novel coronavirus; ACEI: ACE inhibitor; ACS: Acute coronary syndrome; ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; AT1R: Ang II type 1 receptor; ATP: Adenosine triphosphate; ACC: American College of Cardiology; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ang II: Angiotensin II; ARB: Angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV block: Atrioventricular block; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; CT: Computerized tomography; CHF: Congestive heart failure; CHD: Coronary heart disease; CK-MB: Creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB; CRP: C-reactive protein; cTnI: Cardiac troponin I; EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue; ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; HFrEF: HF with a reduced ejection fraction; synhACE2: Human isoform of ACE2; IL: Interleukin; IABP: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: Mitochondrial assembly receptor; MCP1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MIP1a: macrophage inflammatory protein 1a: MOF: Multiple organ failure; MI: Myocardial infarction; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; MYO: Myohe-moglobin; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCPS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary assistance; rhACE2: Recombinant human ACE2; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Th: T helper; RAS: Renin-angiotensin system; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; WHO: World Health Organization.
32934000 Studies having biomarkers, including lymphocyte, platelets, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, procalcitonin (PCT) and creatine kinase (CK), and describing outcomes were selected with the consensus of three independent reviewers.
32935156 Few patients had muscle weakness and elevated creatine kinase along with elevated levels of acute-phase reactants.
32960100 Chloroquine treatment of COVID-19 was associated with elevation in creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB activities with more events in the higher-dose group.
32970757 On admission, lymphopenia, decreased albumin, and elevated fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were observed in Group S.
32997370 Muscle involvement has also been reported as evidenced by creatine kinase (CK) elevations and reports of myalgia.
33024561 Tachycardia occurred mainly during the first 2 days of hospitalisation, with increases in creatine kinase-myocardial band levels in 10 (9.9%) patients and arrhythmias in 16 (15.8%) patients.
33036894 An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed signs of myocardial infarction, which was confirmed by elevated troponin I and creatine kinase levels.
33042695 We found no statistically significant associations between ferritin, D-dimer, troponin I, body mass index (BMI), or creatine kinase (CK) with disease severity.
33045772 Cardiac injury was defined as an abnormality in one of the following result markers: 1) myocardial damage marker (creatine kinase-MB or troponin-I), 2) heart failure marker (N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide), and 3) electrical abnormality marker (electrocardiography).
33051695 In addition, tocilizumab did not have significant influence on patients’ neutrophil count (Neut), lymphocyte count (Lymp), platelet count (Plt), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine (WMD, 95% CI: - 0.29, - 2.91~2.33; 0.42, - 0.23~1.07; 5.2, - 2.85~13.25; 22.49, - 2.73~47.7; - 44.78, - 93.37~3.81).
33070482 Laboratory tests at admission displayed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) and a decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in patients who eventually developed respiratory failure (163.97 mg/L, 340.87 IU/L, 0.886 K/μl vs. 
33086028 A systematic literature search was performed across PubMed and Embase databases from December 1, 2019 to July 10, 2020, to identify studies that reported cardiac biomarkers of troponin (TnI) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) in patients with COVID-19.
33126910 Patients with a critical illness (WHO clinical improvement ordinal score > 5), documented significant liver disease/dysfunction (aspartate transaminase [AST] / alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 240), myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (creatine phosphokinase [CPK] > 5x normal), allergy or intolerance to statins or aspirin, prior statin or aspirin use within 30 days, history of active gastrointestinal bleeding in past three months, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100000/ dl), pregnancy, active breastfeeding, or inability to take oral or nasogastric medications will be excluded. […] The secondary outcomes will be change in serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6), Troponin I, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) from time zero to 5th day of study enrolment or 7th day after symptom onset, whichever is later.
33135188 Admission data included age, heart rates, mean arterial pressure, and myocardial injury markers including creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and interleukin-6.
33201896 We included 207 studies and found high or moderate certainty that the following 49 variables provide valuable prognostic information on mortality and/or severe disease in patients with COVID-19 infectious disease: Demographic factors (age, male sex, smoking), patient history factors (comorbidities, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cardiac arrhythmia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dementia, cancer and dyslipidemia), physical examination factors (respiratory failure, low blood pressure, hypoxemia, tachycardia, dyspnea, anorexia, tachypnea, haemoptysis, abdominal pain, fatigue, fever and myalgia or arthralgia), laboratory factors (high blood procalcitonin, myocardial injury markers, high blood White Blood Cell count (WBC), high blood lactate, low blood platelet count, plasma creatinine increase, high blood D-dimer, high blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high blood C-reactive protein (CRP), decrease in lymphocyte count, high blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), decrease in blood albumin, high blood interleukin-6 (IL-6), high blood neutrophil count, high blood B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high blood urea nitrogen (BUN), high blood creatine kinase (CK), high blood bilirubin and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), radiological factors (consolidative infiltrate and pleural effusion) and high SOFA score (sequential organ failure assessment score).
33202195 , including oxygenation index, sequential organ failure assessment score, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, platelet, C-reaction protein, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, albumin, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen showed significant difference between groups.
33204428 Lymphocyte counts tended to increase, and lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase tended to decrease.
33211319 Other biomarkers The summary sensitivity of an increase in creatine kinase (5 studies) was 11% (95% CI 6% to 19%) at median specificity (94%) (low-certainty evidence).
33211737 Patient characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities), symptoms, date of symptom onset, RT-PCR results, imaging results of CT and leg ultrasound, laboratory findings (C-reactive protein, differential blood count, troponine, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase muscle-brain (CKmb) and lactate,) and patient outcome (positive: discharge or treatment on normal ward; negative: treatment on intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or death) were analyzed.
33214392 They may include myalgias and elevations in serum creatine kinase.
33256876 Compared with the patients with short-term negative conversion, those with long-term conversion had an older age, higher incidence of comorbidities, chief complaints of cough and chest distress/breath shortness and severer illness on admission, higher level of leucocytes, neutrophils, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and albumin and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation.
33259918 By multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with ARDS included older age, obesity, DM, severe hypoxaemia, lymphocytopenia, increased creatine kinase and increased C-reactive protein.
33264366 For all enrolled patients, longer duration from diagnosis to admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.108, 95% CI 1.022-1.202; P = 0.013), pulse oxygen saturation at admission <93% (OR 5.775, 95% CI 1.257-26.535; P = 0.024), higher neutrophil count (OR 1.495, 95% CI 1.177-1.899; P = 0.001) and higher creatine kinase-MB level at admission (OR 2.449, 95% CI 1.089-5.511; P = 0.030) were associated with a higher risk, whereas higher lymphocyte count at admission (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.026-0.852; P = 0.032) was associated with a lower risk of critical illness development. […] For the subgroup of severe cases at hospital admission, the above factors except creatine kinase-MB level were also found to have similar correlation with critical illness development.
33264816 Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air, neutrophilia, D-dimer >0.5 μg/mL, creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase ≥250 U/L and elevation of creatine kinase were higher in the older adult groups.
33278491 COVID-19 patients with TD had significantly higher neutrophil counts and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and high-sensitive troponin I and a longer activated partial thromboplastin time but lower lymphocyte, platelet, and eosinophil counts.
33282346 As compared with patients who retested negative, those who retested positive had a lower percentage of pre-admission fever, a higher percentage of post-admission fever, a lower percentage of bilateral lung infection, higher white blood cell (WBC) count and creatine phosphokinase, and lower hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (all P<0.05).
33285678 Regarding age, it correlated with more common fever, higher levels of red blood cell, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, neutrophils, red cell volume distribution width standard deviation-coefficient of variation, calcitonin, alpha-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase, Creatine Kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and D-dimer, raised death rate and prolonged hospital stay.Our findings provide valuable evidence regarding clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients to help with the understanding of the disease and prognosis improvement.
33308159 Prothrombin time, prothrombin international normalized ratio, nucleated red blood cell count/percentage, high fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, plasma uric acid, plasma urea nitrogen, cystatin C, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, myoglobin, creatine kinase (isoenzymes), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, triglyceride were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and eosinophil count, basophil percentage, platelet count, thrombocytocrit, antithrombin III, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, total carbon dioxide, acidity-basicity, actual bicarbonate radical, base excess in the extracellular fluid compartment, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1/ B were significantly decreased in non-survivors compared with survivors (P < 0.05), only in the last tests.
33329895 While myocardial creatine kinase-myocardial band was prone to increase in these cases.
33336038 Three factors were observed to be independently associated with progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission: (a) age 65 years or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.456; 95% CI: 2.706-26.426); (b) creatine kinase (CK) ≥ 180 U/L (HR = 3.667; 95% CI: 1.253-10.733); and (c) CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (HR = 4.695; 95% CI: 1.483-14.856).
33336768 On admission, significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to the levels of Creatine Kinase (CK), lymphocytes, D-dimer and creatinine, and prothrombin time (PT).
33342313 White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU), platelet large cell ratio, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (d-NLR), aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatine kinase (CK) myocardial band (CK-MB), procalcitonin (PCT) values were high whereas lymphocyte (LYM), eosinophil, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate values were low in the ICU group when compared with non-ICU.
33353548 Patients in the highest LUS score group were more likely to have a lower lymphocyte percentage (LYM%); higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, hypersensitive troponin I and creatine kinase muscle-brain; more invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of ARDS; and higher mortality than patients in the lowest LUS score group.
33373925 In addition, there were significant differences in lymphocytes, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase between the severe cases and nonsevere cases (p < 0.05).
33378060 Results showed the following: dyspnea; increased white blood cell count; decreased platelets; lowered albumin levels; increased urea nitrogen; increased levels of myocardial enzymes Creatine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase, MB Form (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased lactate, and lowered blood calcium tests.
33412996 The levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also significantly increased in the non-surviving group.
33437392 Meanwhile, severe COVID-19 patients showed increased baseline APTT, TT, D-dimer, CRP, ESR, CK-MB, creatine kinase, AST, ALT, creatinine, but decreased baseline platelet level, lymphocyte, albumin, GFR compared to non-severe patients.
33442587 Whilst on the ward, she developed bilateral leg weakness and a raised creatine kinase (CK), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her thighs confirmed myositis.
33443364 Cox’s proportional hazard regression model analysis confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase (CK) levels > 1000 IU/L (HR = 6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86) and peak serum myoglobin (MYO) concentrations > 1000 ng/mL (HR = 9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28), were independent risk factors for in-hospital death.
33447431 In terms of laboratory indicators, the decreased lymphocyte and platelet count, and the increased levels of white blood cell (WBC), D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein were more prevalent in severe patients.
33463485 White blood cell (WBC) counts, lymphocyte (LYM) counts, neutrophil (NEU) counts, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), hypersensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and lactic acid (Lac) levels were measured and the rate of change was calculated at the baseline (d0) before plasma transfusion, and day 1 (d1), day 3 (d3) after transfusion.
33476632 Twenty-four hours after the last dose, rats were anesthetized and the following measures were carried out; Electrocardiogram, Blood samples for Biochemical analysis of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK).
33481202 Higher creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were related to early death events, but univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed only LDH as an independent predictor of early death.
33494706 Compared to survival cases, patients who died during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels.
33494713 We did a comparative analysis of various parameters such as the pneumonia progression, length-of-stay in the hospital, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr), and creatine kinase (CK) between the day when these patients were admitted to the hospital and the day when the treatment ended.
33507974 Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that hemoglobin (Hb) <90 g/L (hazard ratio, 10.776; 95% confidence interval, 3.075-37.766; p<0.0001), creatine kinase (CK-MB) >8 U/L (9.155; 2.424-34.584; p = 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >245 U/L (5.963; 2.029-17.529; p = 0.001), procalcitonin (PCT) >0.5 ng/ml (7.080; 1.671-29.992; p = 0.008), and CT score >10 (39.503; 12.430-125.539; p<0.0001) were independent risk factors for the mortality of COVID-19.
33518653 Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors had higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, myoglobin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P < 0.05).
33544233 Laboratory parameters suggested multi-systemic involvement, with elevated creatine kinase (CK) (76.2%), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) (76.2%), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (71.4%) levels.
33545796 There were also significant differences between the patients in terms of the laboratory examination results including elevated urea nitrogen, creatinine, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, troponin I, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets, lymphocyte absolute value, and eosinophil absolute value (<0.05).
33548996 Some specific laboratory indicators implied the deterioration of disease, such as leucocytosis, lymphopenia, platelet, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), and D-dimer.
33557013 Among other features, PVFS could be accompanied by various irregularities in creatine metabolism, perturbing either tissue levels of creatine in the brain, the rates of phosphocreatine resynthesis in the skeletal muscle, or the concentrations of the enzyme creatine kinase in the blood. […] Furthermore, supplemental creatine and related guanidino compounds appear to impact both patient- and clinician-reported outcomes in syndromes and maladies with chronic fatigue. […] This paper critically overviews the most common disturbances in creatine metabolism in various PVFS populations, summarizes human trials on dietary creatine and creatine analogs in the syndrome, and discusses new frontiers and open questions for using creatine in a post-COVID-19 world.
33557911 Besides, C3 was positively related to direct bilirubin (r = 0.303, p = 0.004) and total bilirubin (r = 0.304, p = 0.005), MPO-DNA was positively related to lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.306, p = 0.003) and creatine kinase (r = 0.308, p = 0.004).
33557936 On day 9, the patient had elevated creatine kinase and myoglobin levels consistent with rhabdomyolysis (26,046 U/L and 3668 ng/mL, respectively). […] However, the patient had persistent fever and elevated creatine kinase levels.
33575135 Patients with peak total creatine kinase (CK) over 1,000 U/L were reviewed; 140 patients were included in the study. […] McMahon score, rather than isolated creatine kinase levels, was a statistically significant predictor of new-onset RRT.
33589865 Moreover, eosinophil levels significantly and positively correlated with platelet and D-dimer levels but significantly and inversely correlated with serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase.