DrugBank ID: db04540
DrugCentral: cholesterol
Synonymous :(3β,14β,17α)-cholest-5-en-3-ol | cholest-5-en-3beta-ol | cholesterin

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of cholesterol gene in 95 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32191676 We focus on the role of lipid structures, such as lipid rafts and cholesterol, involved in the process, mediated by endocytosis, by which viruses attach to and infect cells.
32340551 The results show high to a moderate binding affinity for the phytoestrogens (Diadiazin, Genistein, Formontein, and Biochanin A), chlorogenic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, hydroxytyrosol, cis-p-Coumaric acid, cinnamaldehyde, thymoquinone, and some physiological hormones such as estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, and cholesterol to the HSPA5 SBDβ.
32375002 Cholesterol, a major constituent within LNPs, contributes to their morphology that influences gene delivery. […] Herein, we examine the structure of LNPs containing cholesterol derivatives using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and membrane fluidity assays. […] LNPs formulated with C24 alkyl derivatives of cholesterol show a polymorphic shape and various degrees of multilamellarity and lipid partitioning, likely due to phase separation. […] The addition of methyl and ethyl groups to the C24 alkyl tail of the cholesterol backbone induces multilamellarity (>50% increase compared to cholesterol), while the addition of a double bond induces lipid partitioning (>90% increase compared to cholesterol).
32402109 We thank Dr Mansur for his interest in our editorial in which we highlighted the association between northern latitude and increased COVID-19 mortality1 and for his helpful comments about the potential importance of vitamin D effects on cathelicidin and on the renin-angiotensin system, which could be important in protecting against severe COVID-19.2 Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone, derived like cortisol and sex hormones from cholesterol, so not surprisingly it has a broad range of actions reflecting the several hundred or more genes that are vitamin D-responsive.3,4.
32430154 In this study, we aimed to investigate the pathological alterations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and total cholesterol (TC) in COVID-19 patients and their relationships with the disease severity.
32457038 SARS-CoV-2 shares extensive structural and functional conservation with SARS-CoV-1 including engagement of the same host cell receptor (ACE2) localized in cholesterol-rich microdomains.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32536672 High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), creatinine, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, and D-dimer levels in the severe COVID-19 with CVD group were higher than in the non-severe COVID-19 with CVD group (P<0.05).
32537481 Further study on different cell membranes demonstrates that the selectivity results from the presence of cholesterol in mammalian but not in bacterial membranes, as the cholesterol can condense the hydrophobic region of membrane, preventing the penetration of the molecular agents.
32556213 Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of (1) cardiometabolic factors [diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking and body mass index (BMI)]; (2) 25(OH)-vitamin D; (3) poor diet; (4) Townsend deprivation score; (5) housing (home type, overcrowding) or (6) behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status.
32567003 Serum albumin, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured and compared among these three groups.
32570882 It has been shown that high cholesterol levels are associated with more lipid rafts, subdomains of the plasma membrane that can harbour angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. […] Evidence of the importance of cholesterol for viral entry into host cells could suggest a role for cholesterol-lowering therapies in reducing viral infectivity. […] In this review, we elaborate on the role of cholesterol level in the process of the coronavirus infection and provide a critical appraisal on the potential of statins in reducing the severity, duration, and complications of COVID-19.
32589755 In addition, the proportion of patients with abnormal total cholesterol increased as the severity of disease increased, and the proportion in critically severe patients was significantly higher than that in moderate patients. […] With the progression of COVID-19, the abnormal proportion of total white blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, IL-2, IL-4 and total cholesterol increased. […] In addition, the change in the total cholesterol level suggested that COVID-19 would induce some liver function damage in patients.
32592716 At the membrane level, GLR induces cholesterol-dependent disorganization of lipid rafts which are important for the entry of coronavirus into cells. […] We used molecular docking to characterize further and discuss both the cholesterol- and HMG box-binding functions of GLR.
32636061 Levels of albumin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, small and dense low density lipoprotein and CD4+T lymphocyte counts in severe patients were lower than those in non-severe patients (P<0.05).
32653486 Compared with the healthy controls, the patients had sharply decreased concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001). […] Among the patients, HDL-cholesterol concentration in severe groups was significantly lower than the common groups [1.01 (0.88-1.20) vs 1.21 (1.02-1.48) mmol/l, P < 0.001]. […] The lipid profile of a severe patient showed that serum cholesterol concentration significantly decreased in the early stage and returned to be normal in the recovery period. […] Moreover, the change of HDL-cholesterol in this patient was consistent with the results of nucleic acid tests and chest CT scans. […] In correlation analysis, HDL-cholesterol concentration was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP, r = -0.396, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with lymphocytes (r = 0.336, P < 0.001). […] The area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of HDL-cholesterol was 0.732 (P < 0.001), and, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) of HDL-cholesterol was 0.023 (95% CI 0.002-0.227). […] Decreased serum HDL-cholesterol is associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection.
32663789 To undertake a review and critical appraisal of published/preprint reports that offer methods of determining the effects of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer, kidney issues, and high-cholesterol on COVID-19 disease severity. […] It was observed that diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol levels possess an apparent relation to COVID-19 severity.
32677918 Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . […] Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.
32683320 However, benefit-risk ratio of its complex interaction with MYD88 gene expression on outcomes in COVID-19, and the putative role of low serum LDL cholesterol in increasing severity of SARS-CoV2 infection need further clarification.
32717282 This includes the encapsulation and transport of specific drugs, as adjuvants to stabilize proteins, vaccines or other molecules involved in the infection, as cholesterol trappers to destabilize the virus envelope, as carriers for RNA therapies, as direct antiviral drugs and even to rescue blood coagulation upon heparin treatment.
32758903 Statins are among the most widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs. […] As competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA-reductase, the key enzyme of the “mevalonate pathway” through which essential compounds, not only cholesterol, are synthesized, statins decrease the levels of cholesterol, and thus LDLs, as an innate defense mechanism, with controversial results in decreasing mortality from cardiovascular disease.
32788355 This gradient was little affected after adjustment for a wide range of covariates; however, controlling for biomarkers, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin, led to a greater degree of attenuation.
32810737 Specific side-chain cholesterol oxidation products of the oxysterols family have been shown to inhibit a large variety of both enveloped and non-enveloped human viral pathogens.
32825713 The lipid composition of caveolae largely matches that of lipid rafts microdomains that are particularly enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids.
32837747 5.46 mmol·L-1 (IQR: 5.00-6.46)), blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.21 mmol·L-1 (IQR: 1.67-2.76) vs. 
32839670 On the contrary, HCQ and azithromycin were both found to substantially reduce cardiac mortality and also decrease thrombosis, arrhythmia and cholesterol in treated patients in recent peer-reviewed studies and meeting presentations.
32842269 Results: There was statistical significance in age, respiratory frequency, systolic blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea, previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease history, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, platelet counting, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, D-dimer, CD3+, CD4+, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of CO2, blood oxygen saturation, other organ injury, clinical outcome and prognosis between patients with myocardial injury and without myocardial injury (all P<0.05).
32857620 Interestingly, numerous genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated as part of a potential process named drug-induced phospholipidosis (DLP). […] Finally, azithromycin may also decrease available cholesterol in lipid rafts which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32858131 These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio.
32870376 Statins are first-line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), particularly in heterozygous patients. […] FH is undertreated, with > 80% of statin-treated FH patients failing to attain LDL cholesterol treatment targets. […] Statin treatment from childhood may reduce the need for stringent cholesterol targets.
32878290 Here, we review the role of cholesterol and other lipids in ssRNA+ infection.
32880929 The lysosomal membrane protein NPC1 (Niemann-Pick type C1) and NPC2 (Niemann-Pick type C2) are main players of cholesterol control in the lysosome and it is known that the mutation on these proteins leads to the cholesterol trafficking related neurodegenerative disease, which is called the Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) disease. […] The mutation R518W or R518Q on the NPC1 is one of type of disease-related mutation that causes cholesterol transports to be cut in half, which results in the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of the cell. […] Even though there has been significant progress with understanding the cholesterol transport by NPC1 in combination with NPC2, especially after the structural determination of the full length NPC1 in 2016, many details such as the interaction of the full length NPC1 with the NPC2, the molecular motions responsible for the cholesterol transport during and after this interaction, and the structure and the function relations of many mutations are still not well understood. […] In this paper, we report the extensive molecular dynamics simulations in order to gain insight into the structure and the dynamics of NPC1 lumenal domain for the cholesterol transport and the disease behind the mutation (R518W). […] Also, the simulation indicates the possible re-orientation of the NTD with both the wild and the R518W mutated NPC1 after receiving the cholesterol from the NPC2, that align to form an internal tunnel, which is a possible pose for further action in cholesterol trafficking. […] We believe the current study can provide a better understanding of the cholesterol transport by NPC1 especially the role of NTD of NPC1 in combination with NPC2 interactions.
32883951 Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is activated by cytokines or pathogen, such as virus or bacteria, but its association with diminished cholesterol levels in COVID-19 patients is unknown. […] We confirmed that SREBP-2-induced cholesterol biosynthesis was suppressed by Sestrin-1 and PCSK9 expression, while the SREBP-2-induced inflammatory responses was upregulated in COVID-19 ICU patients.
32892746 The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. […] Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P < 0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P < 0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032].
32922517 Corticosteroids are substances derived from cholesterol metabolism that interfere with multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis.
32926319 Our results reconfirmed several well-recognized risk factors, such as age, gender (male), and comorbidities, as well as provided novel laboratory indications (e.g., cholesterol) and TCM-specific phenotype markers (e.g., dull tongue) that were relevant to COVID-19 infections and prognosis.
32929007 Furthermore, gene expression analyses demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in myelin debris clearance, lipid and cholesterol recycling, and promotion of oligodendrocyte function.
32938758 Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions.
32940180 Cholesterol-rich parts of cell membranes serve as docking places of host cells for the viruses. […] In vitro cell models have shown that depletion of cholesterol by cyclodextrin, and particularly methyl beta cyclodextrin disturb the host cell membrane lipid composition this way reducing the attachment of the virus to the protein receptors.
32944968 Here, we report that one of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H), is induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in COVID-19-infected patients. […] CH25H converts cholesterol to 25-hydrocholesterol (25HC) and 25HC shows broad anti-coronavirus activity by blocking membrane fusion. […] Mechanistically, 25HC inhibits viral membrane fusion by activating the ER-localized acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) which leads to the depletion of accessible cholesterol from the plasma membrane. […] Altogether, our results shed light on a potentially broad antiviral mechanism by 25HC through depleting accessible cholesterol on the plasma membrane to suppress virus-cell fusion.
32970772 High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particles chiefly known for their reverse cholesterol transport function, also display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory or antioxidant functions. […] HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decrease during bacterial sepsis, and an association has been reported between low lipoprotein levels and poor patient outcomes.
32971895 Peptides identified in silico were synthesized and tested for membrane-modifying activity in the presence of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), sphingomyelin and cholesterol.
32973697 Over the years, beneficial strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been successfully used to treat gastrointestinal, oral, and vaginal infections, and some can also effect a reduction in serum cholesterol levels.
32974243 Based on clinical findings of significant proteinuria (urine protein and creatinine ratio of 11.4), hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin of 2 g/dl), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol of 384 mg/dl), he was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome.
32975484 Mechanistically, fluoxetine induced both impaired endolysosomal acidification and the accumulation of cholesterol within the endosomes.
33006622 Visit type (office-based or telemedicine), overall and stratified by patient population and geographic region; assessment of blood pressure or cholesterol measurement; and initiation or continuation of prescription medications. […] Decreases occurred in blood pressure level assessment (50.1% decrease, 44.4 million visits) and cholesterol level assessment (36.9% decrease, 10.2 million visits) in Q2 of 2020 compared with Q2 2018-2019 levels, and assessment was less common during telemedicine than during office-based visits (9.6% vs 69.7% for blood pressure; P < .001; 13.5% vs 21.6% for cholesterol; P < .001).
33024735 A history of dyslipidemia is likely to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection, but the contrary is the case for cholesterol levels at hospitalization.
33034780 We summarized five kinds of substances, including peptide P6, griffithsin, hr2p analogs, EK1, vaccine, monoclonal antibody, cholesterol-depleting agents, and extracts from traditional Chinese medicine.
33038926 We observed a negative effect on 85% of the EQA indicators in March and 68% in April. 90% of the control indicators had a negative effect, highlighting the control of LDL cholesterol with a reduction of - 2.69% (95%CI - 3.17% to - 2.23%) in March and - 3.41% (95%CI - 3.82% to - 3.01%) in April; and the control of blood pressure with a reduction of - 2.13% (95%CI - 2.34% to - 1.9%) and - 2.59% (95%CI - 2.8% to - 2.37%).
33047740 Here, we consider mechanisms by which dyslipidaemia and the use of cholesterol-modifying drugs could influence the virus-host relationship. […] Cholesterol is essential for the assembly, replication and infectivity of enveloped virus particles; we highlight several cholesterol-modifying drugs with the potential to alter the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle that could be tested in in vitro and in vivo models. […] Although cholesterol is an essential component of immune cell membranes, excess levels can dysregulate protective immunity and promote exaggerated pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses. […] We highlight antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of cholesterol-modifying drugs that merit further consideration in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33067719 Endothelial cells are exposed to high levels of the cholesterol oxidation product, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and this process is thought to mediate pathological inflammation.
33120281 They also variably affect cholesterol content of cell membranes and interfere with certain coronavirus enzymes involved in receptor-binding.
33122929 Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is an indicator of insulin resistance.
33147445 Using single-cell RNA-sequencing, we identify shared transcriptional changes in cholesterol biosynthesis upon loss of top-ranked genes.
33157278 Cholesterol is being recognized as a molecule involved in regulating the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host cell. […] However, the data about the possible role of cholesterol carrying lipoproteins and their receptors in relation to infection are scarce and the connection of lipid-associated pathologies with COVID-19 disease is in its infancy. […] Herein we provide an overview of lipids and lipid metabolism in relation to COVID-19, with special attention on different forms of cholesterol. […] Cholesterol enriched lipid rafts represent a platform for viruses to enter the host cell by endocytosis. […] Generally, higher membrane cholesterol coincides with higher efficiency of COVID-19 entry. […] Inversely, patients with COVID-19 show lowered levels of blood cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins. […] Due to inverse roles of membrane cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol in COVID-19 infected patients, treatment of these patients with cholesterol lowering statins needs more attention. […] In conclusion, cholesterol and lipoproteins are potential markers for monitoring the viral infection status, while the lipid metabolic pathways and the composition of membranes could be targeted to selectively inhibit the life cycle of the virus as a basis for antiviral therapy.
33159981 We also emphasize the role of BMP in lipid sorting and degradation, especially cholesterol transport in cooperation with Niemann Pick type C proteins (NPC 1 and 2) and with some oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) as well as in sphingolipid degradation.
33173052 We then compared gene expression patterns of COVID-19-affected lung tissues and SARS-CoV-2-infected cell-lines and mapped those to known lung-related molecular networks, including hypoxia induced responses, lung development, respiratory processes, cholesterol biosynthesis and surfactant metabolism; all of which are suspected to be downregulated following SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the observed symptomatic impairments.
33181413 The time of nucleic acid turning negative: no fever group was longer than fever group, diabetes group was longer than no comorbidity group, elevated levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), or GLU (fasting blood glucose) group, decreased levels of ALB (albumin) group or HDLC (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) group was longer than it’s normal group separately (P < 0.05).
33216772 Since 1920, a decrease in serum cholesterol has been identified as a marker of severe pneumonia. […] We have assessed the performance of serum apolipoprotein-A1, the main transporter of HDL-cholesterol, to identify the early spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in the general population and its diagnostic performance for the Covid-19.
33235616 COVID-19 caused early liver renal damage, with 52.9% of patients displaying elevated D-dimer levels, 98.7% of patients displaying elevated IL-6 levels and 80.8% of patients displaying a reduced level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
33239446 Internalized 25HC accumulates in the late endosomes and potentially restricts SARS-CoV-2 spike protein catalyzed membrane fusion via blockade of cholesterol export.
33241838 LNPs are composed of ionizable cationic lipids, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, and are produced using rapid-mixing techniques.
33244168 We find that the S1 subunit of SARS-2-S binds to cholesterol and possibly to HDL components to enhance viral uptake in vitro. […] Blockade of the cholesterol-binding site on SARS-2-S1 with a monoclonal antibody, or treatment of cultured cells with pharmacological SR-B1 antagonists, inhibits HDL-enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection.
33262790 We conducted multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the observational associations between obesity traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]), quantitative cardiometabolic parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP], serum glucose, serum glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TG]) and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the UK Biobank cohort. […] Observationally, higher BMI, WC, HbA1c and lower HDL-cholesterol were associated with higher odds of COVID-19 infection. […] One-sample MR analyses found causal associations between higher genetically determined BMI and LDL cholesterol and increased risk of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.15, confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.26 and OR: 1.58, CI: 1.21-2.06, per 1 standard deviation increment in BMI and LDL cholesterol respectively). […] Cox models indicated that individuals in the higher genetic risk score quintiles of BMI and LDL were more predisposed to COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24, CI: 1.03-1.49 and HR: 1.37, CI: 1.14-1.65, for the top vs the bottom quintile for BMI and LDL cholesterol, respectively). […] We identified causal associations between BMI, LDL cholesterol and susceptibility to COVID-19.
33302976 It is isolated by lung lavage and, by weight, is a mixture of: phospholipid (75% phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol, 3% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1% phosphatidylinositol and 1% sphingomyelin), 5% cholesterol, 1% lipid-soluble surfactant-associated proteins (SP-B and SP-C), very low levels of free fatty acid, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, water and 0.3% calcium.
33308159 Among 94 laboratory test variables in 82 survivors and 25 non-survivors with COVID-19, white blood cell count, neutrophil count/percentage, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, platelet-large cell percentage, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrin (ogen) degradation product, middle fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, immature reticulocyte fraction, lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lymphocyte count/percentage, monocyte percentage, eosinophil percentage, prothrombin activity, low fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, plasma carbon dioxide, total calcium, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, albumin-globulin ratio, cholinesterase, total cholesterol, nonhigh-density/low-density/small-dense-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased in non-survivors compared with survivors (P < 0.05), in both first and last tests. […] Prothrombin time, prothrombin international normalized ratio, nucleated red blood cell count/percentage, high fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, plasma uric acid, plasma urea nitrogen, cystatin C, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, myoglobin, creatine kinase (isoenzymes), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, triglyceride were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and eosinophil count, basophil percentage, platelet count, thrombocytocrit, antithrombin III, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, total carbon dioxide, acidity-basicity, actual bicarbonate radical, base excess in the extracellular fluid compartment, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1/ B were significantly decreased in non-survivors compared with survivors (P < 0.05), only in the last tests.
33314316 Compared with healthy cases, the differences in general biochemical results in patients with COVID-19 were statistically significant (p < 0.01), the value differences in direct bilirubin (DBIL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), and nitrogen (urea) were statistically significant among different severity of COVID-19 (p < 0.05).
33333024 Additionally, we identified phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis as critical host pathways supporting infection by all three coronaviruses. […] Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol kinases and cholesterol homeostasis reduced replication of all three coronaviruses.
33333472 Statin-induced up-regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may also be beneficial, whereas cholesterol reduction might significantly suppress SARS-CoV-2 by either blocking its host-cell entry through the disruption of lipid rafts or by inhibiting its replication.
33336770 The levels of NLR, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly lower in subjects admitted to the CCU during March-April 2020 compared to subjects admitted in March-April 2019.
33350580 The data of the current study represents that treatment of rats with either APAP-overdose, or gamma-irradiation (R) induces hepatotoxicity, results in significant increases of the hepatic-enzymes activities (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, LDH, and MDH), as well as enhancement of triglycerides, total cholesterol levels, combined with declines in albumin and total protein contents.
33357464 This approach yielded several insights, including potential virus-specific differences in Rab GTPase requirements and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis, as well as identification of multiple pan-coronavirus factors involved in cholesterol homeostasis.
33363465 Notably, our results identified ACE/ACE2-ATR1-Cholesterol-HDAC axis signals that also matched with some available clinical data.
33435273 These drugs are often applied with analgesics or non-steroid anti-inflammatory compounds, and co-morbid patients may also be treated with anticancer, cholesterol-lowering, or antidiabetic agents.
33444201 Higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were both associated with lower risk (RR 0.84 and RR 0.83 per SD increase, respectively).
33446099 EBS should be performed by Family Doctors in a primary care setting and concern prevalent diseases in adults, such as: obesity (BMI), hypertension (BP measurement), diabetes (glycaemia), dyslipidemia (cholesterol/lipids), colon cancer (FOBT/colonoscopy), breast cancer (mammography), STIs (chlamydia, syphilis), HIV, HBV, HCV (i.e. serology or other rapid tests), HPV (swabs), cervical cancer (test Pap). depression (i.e., PHQ-9), and smoking (i.e., Fagerstrom).
33453245 Pathway and network enrichment analyses revealed that the 92 DEPs were mostly associated with metabolic, complement and coagulation cascades, lysosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways, and the 375 COVID-19 only proteins were mainly enriched in amino acid degradation (Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine degradation), amino acid metabolism (beta-Alanine, Tryptophan, Cysteine and Methionine metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, phagosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways.
33455862 Furthermore, lipid metabolism, cholesterol synthesis and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activation correlates with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced cytokine storm. […] High fructose consumption result in SREBPs activation, altered cholesterol and lipid synthesis and may establish an innate immune memory in the cells, leading to severe COVID-19 in patients with obesity.
33464672 Here we describe the use of a novel amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile.
33469977 In contrast, cholesterol may expose the receptor-binding domain by destabilizing the closed structure, preferentially binding to a different site in the hinge region of the open structure.
33503446 Evidence for testicular injuries includes reduced Leydig cells, suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis, and sperm mobility.
33505149 The viral interest is cholesterol- and lipid raft-dependent molecules.
33506652 Every cell in vertebrates possesses the machinery to synthesise cholesterol and to metabolise it. […] The major route of cholesterol metabolism is conversion to bile acids.
33524862 For each patient, fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the triglyceride values are obtained from the laboratory tests required at the admission to hospital. […] Finally, compared to the survivor group, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C values are lower (p = 0.004, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and triglyceride levels are higher (p < 0.001) in deceased patients.
33529600 The emerging relationships of metabolic disorders to viral-induced immune responses and viral persistence, and the putative importance of adipose and islet ACE2 expression, glycemic control, cholesterol metabolism, and glucose- and lipid-lowering drugs is reviewed, with attention to controversies and unresolved questions.
33532128 Metabolic/obesity phenotypes were defined as a combination of metabolic components (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) and obesity.
33540179 Because in FH patients the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is elevated from birth and it correlates with the degree of systemic endothelial dysfunction, both heterozygous FH (HeFH) patients and, in particular, homozygous FH (HoFH) patients have a dysfunctional endothelium prone to further damage by the direct viral attack and the hyper-inflammatory reaction typical of severe COVID-19.
33541491 There were no statistically significant differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total cholesterol (TC) between the two groups at each time point.
33542640 Mean values of random blood sugar, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum ferritin, erythrocyte-sedimentation rate, LDH, CRP, D-dimer levels, and blood pressure were significantly higher in obese patients (165.6, 129.5, 105, 1,873, 26, 403, 56.45, 977.16 and 142/87, respectively) than in normal-weight (97.2, 103.5, 70.4, 479, 17.4, 252, 23.2, 612.4, and 118.6/76.8, respectively) and overweight patients (111.4, 106.3, 78.13, 491.3, 19.8, 269.27, 25.42, 618.4, and 120.3/79.3, respectively). […] Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density-lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, ferritin, CRP, and low relative lymphocyte count were significant risk factors in obese COVID-19 patients.
33550179 The nucleoside analogues assembled by cholesterol, polyethylene glycol, fatty acid and phospholipid would improve their bioavailabilities and bioactivities, or reduce their toxicities.
33553435 Moreover, advance age, blood glucose, gender, prothrombin time, and total cholesterol could be considered as risk factors for COVID-19 patients with diabetes through the multivariable logistic regression model in our study.
33569952 Moreover, the ability of IFP1 to induce hemifusion formation increases dramatically with growing cholesterol content in the membrane.
33571404 Eighty-six severe COVID-19 patients, 132 non-severe COVID-19 patients and 76 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited to measure triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) using enzyme-coupled colorimetry.
33571481 This work investigates how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modifies the effect of Cholesterol (Chol) on the structural and dynamical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane.
33572332 We have recently shown that surface exposition of mannose, incorporated in LNPs as stable cholesterol-amine conjugate, enhances the potency of self-amplifying RNA (SAM) replicon vaccines through augmented uptake by antigen presenting cells (APCs).