DrugBank ID: db11109
DrugCentral: chlorine
Synonymous :chlor | chlore | cloro | dichlorine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of chlorine gene in 31 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32107909 Objective: To explorethe proper protective measures for pancreaticdiseases treatment during theoutbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease(COVID-19). Method: Clinical data of four cases of patients that suffered COVID-19from February 2(nd), 2020 to February 9(th), 2020 in pancreatic surgery were reviewed.After the first patientscuffednosocomial infection of COVID-19, the general protective measures in our department wereupdated.Only one patient was admitted to each room alone, with no more than one caregiver.The body temperature of care givers was measuredtwice a day.Primary protections were applied to all staff.The floor was sterilized using disinfectant with an effective chlorine concentration of 1000 mg/L.The protective measures for interventional procedures were as follow.Primary protection was applied to the operators ofcentral venipuncture catheter, percutaneous abdominal/pleural drainage, percutaneous retroperitoneal drainage, percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage and other surgical procedures with local anesthesiaand epidural anesthesia.Secondary protection was applied to the operators of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and surgical procedures with general anesthesia. Results: During Feb 2(nd), 2020 to Feb 9(th), 2020, four patients in our department were diagnosed with COVID-19, of which one was died of COVID-19, two were cured, and one is still in hospital for COVID-19.
32232986 The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively.
32311449 Surfaces of objects were routinely wiped with 1000mg/L chlorine containing disinfectant.
32361598 The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments.
32443202 Liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet irradiation disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastewater disinfection.
32470186 Age, heart rate, chlorine, ALT, AST, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8).
32497459 Second, to summarize the scientific evidence in support of solutions of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and its daughter compounds, chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide, as potential targets for said prophylactic use. […] Third, to propose a regimented protocol using commercially available solutions of ASC having sufficient concentrations of chlorine dioxide for virucidal activity to support safe and effective prophylactic use.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32599407 Current recommended disinfection strategy (free chlorine ≥0.5 mg/L after at least 30 min suggested by World Health Organization; free chlorine above 6.5 mg/L after 1.5-h contact by China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) needs to be reevaluated to completely remove SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in non-centralized disinfection system and effectively deactivate SARS-CoV-2.
32649988 Viability of CoVs such as SARS-CoV-2 decreases in wastewater - due to temperature, pH, solids, micropollutants - but high inactivation in WWTPs can be obtained only by using disinfection (free chlorine, UVC light).
32655532 Specifically, we focused on the effects of alcohols, povidone iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), peroxyacetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide, ozone, ultraviolet light, metals, and plant-based antimicrobials.
32828268 Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
32845869 The final search recognized that five groups of disinfectants include: chlorine containing disinfectants, alcohol, UV irradiation, Hydrogen peroxide, and other disinfectant were used against SARS-CoV-2 in different environments. […] Among these groups, bleach (chlorine containing disinfectants) has the most applicability.
32877308 These include alcohols, aldehydes, quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorhexidine, and chlorine-based disinfectants, among others.
32921917 Employing some emerging disinfectants (peracetic acid, performic acid, sodium dichloro isocyanurate, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, benzalconium chloride) shows prospects in terms of virucidal properties.
32936948 The interventions included in these trials are ArtemiC (artemisinin, curcumin, frankincense and vitamin C), Citrox (a bioflavonoid), cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, essential oils, hydrogen peroxide, hypertonic saline, Kerecis spray (omega 3 viruxide - containing neem oil and St John’s wort), neem extract, nitric oxide releasing solution, povidone iodine and saline with baby shampoo.
32952690 It is sensitive to ultraviolet rays and heat and is inactivated by lipid solvents including ether (75%), ethanol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, peroxyacetic acid and chloroform (except for chlorhexidine) (4) Genomic analyses suggest that SARS-CoV-2 probably evolved from a strain found in bats.
32969789 There were 3408 (42%) calls related to bleaches; 2015 (25%) to hand sanitizers; 1667 (21%) to disinfectants; 949 (12%) to chlorine gas; and 148 (2%) to chloramine gas.
32984255 Use of 1,000-2,000 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant in the isolation ward was effective.
33011225 The World Health Organization has claimed that the current disinfection process of drinking water could effectively inactivate most of the bacterial and viral communities present in water, especially SARS-CoV-2 (more sensitive to disinfectant like free chlorine).
33014385 All parts of the sampling equipment were completely disinfected by hot water, ethanol (70%), chlorine solution (1000 ppm), hot water (70 °C for 1 min) and washed with distilled water.
33153744 It was revealed that, chlorine-containing disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants in this field of research.
33206913 These analyzed use of 70% alcohol, detergent, detergent containing iodine, household bleach, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier. […] The effectiveness of treating sewage with sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide was also evaluated. […] Viral inactivation was achieved using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde, iodine-containing detergents, hydrogen peroxide compounds and household bleaches. […] In sewage, sodium hypochlorite had better action than chlorine dioxide.
33210488 In group A the goggles were first soaked with 2000 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant and then cleaned manually; goggles in other two groups were sterilized using pre-programmed automatic spray cleaning and disinfection machine, the disinfection program was set to 90 ℃ for 5 min in group B and 70 ℃ for 30 min in group C.
33232602 Flushing rapidly restored the total chlorine (as chloramine) residual and decreased bacterial gene targets to building inlet concentrations within 30 min. […] During the postflush stagnation period, the residual chlorine dissipated within a few days and bacteria rebounded, approaching preflush concentrations after 6-7 days.
33295321 DEVELOPMENT Currently available evidence indicates that SARSCoV-2 seems to have variable stability in different environments and is very sensitive to oxidants, such as chlorine.
33341771 Reviewed N95 mask disinfection strategies included using hydrogen peroxide, autoclaving, moist heat, dry heat, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, chlorine and ethanol.
33438943 There were 3408 (42%) calls related to bleaches; 2015 (25%) to hand sanitizers; 1667 (21%) to disinfectants; 949 (12%) to chlorine gas; and 148 (2%) to chloramine gas.
33510320 Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively.
33564215 Moreover, public concerns about contracting COVID-19 from food led to almost doubling the number of Tunisians using cleaning agents for washing fresh fruits and vegetables (e.g., soaps, non-food grade chlorine bleach) besides a 16% and 26.1% increase in use among the Jordanian and Lebanese, respectively.
33566898 To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of chlorine dioxide solution and chlorine derivatives used in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. […] Neither published nor pre-print studies evaluating the use of chlorine dioxide or derivatives on SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified. […] To date, there are no scientific evidence to uphold the use of chlorine dioxide or derivatives as preventive or therapeutic agents against COVID-19.
33595464 In this article, we briefly cover commonly used chemical disinfectants in ophthalmic practice like Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Alcohol), Chlorine-based solution (mainly Sodium Hypochlorite), Glutaraldehyde, Hydrogen Peroxide, Formaldehyde, Iodophors, and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.