DrugBank ID: db01373
DrugCentral: calcium
Synonymous :calcio | calcium, elemental | elemental calcium | kalzium

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of calcium gene in 115 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32340096 Two patients took calcium channel antagonist (CCB), one patient took angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and one patient took angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB).
32356628 We assessed the relation between previous treatment with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics and the likelihood of a positive or negative result on Covid-19 testing as well as the likelihood of severe illness (defined as intensive care, mechanical ventilation, or death) among patients who tested positive.
32396134 Herein we provide pragmatic advice on the management of commonly encountered calcium problems and osteoporosis.
32401673 We argue for inhibition of the TRPV4 calcium-permeable ion channel as a strategy to address this issue, based on the rationale that TRPV4 inhibition is protective in various preclinical models of lung edema, and that TRPV4 hyperactivation potently damages the alveolo-capillary barrier, with lethal outcome.
32405454 Also, a few supplements were also given after ATN development including daily Rocaltrol and Nephrovit (as a multivitamin appropriate for patients with renal failure), Folic acid and Calcium carbonate.
32411566 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB) are typically used agents in the clinical management of hypertension.
32434635 Continuous blood pressure monitoring in the resting state during hospitalization showed that blood pressure was above the 95% reference interval of normal value for children of the same age, and the two boys were given calcium channel blockers or β-receptor blockers and were then recovered.
32436995 Memantine, a moderate affinity, uncompetitive N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist which prevents excess calcium entry into cells is commonly utilized in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and may inhibit the neurotoxicity induced by SARS-CoV-2 in the medullary brain stem to avoid development of ARDS.
32463308 Azithromycin also can cause modest QT interval prolongation, but not through potent hERG channel blockade, rather when used chronically through an increase in peak and late cardiac sodium current to cause potential loading of cardiomyocytes with sodium and calcium to produce calcium overload.
32495915 In an osteoporosis clinic, we advocate the following suggestions to prevent and control osteoporosis during the pandemic period: (1) specialized diagnosis and treatment techniques for osteoporosis patients in the outpatient care, including enhancing the prevention for outpatient medical staff, strengthening awareness of COVID-19 prevention, strictly screening outpatients with COVID-19 infection, and insistent administration of anti-osteoporosis drugs during outbreaks; (2) home prevention for osteoporosis patients including keeping windows open, exposing them to sunlight, supplementing them with enough protein, exercising regularly, and administrating calcium supplements; and (3) simplifying the follow-up and evaluation of osteoporosis using online platforms.
32522282 For atrial fibrillation/flutter, select according to the Cardiovascular National Treatment Guide (NBV): Calcium antagonist, Beta blocker, direct current (DC) conversion or amiodarone.
32532356 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
32546437 Mortality was associated with those that were admitted to ICU (19% vs 0; p=0.009), mechanically ventilated (31% vs 0; p=0.001), had DM (20% vs 2.3%; p=0.032), older (62 vs 47 years; p=0.045), had high total bilirubin (43% vs 2.3%; p=0.007) and those with high C-reactive protein (186 vs 90mg/dL; p=0.009) and low corrected calcium (15% vs 0%; p=0.047). […] ICU admission, those on mechanical ventilation, the elderly, those with high total bilirubin and low corrected calcium were associated with high mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32582740 Anemia, decreased activated partial thromboplastin time, calcium, and albumin, and increased D-dimer and interleukin-6 were more frequent in severe disease.
32582749 Compared with the short-term group, patients in the long-term group had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.000), troponin I (P = 0.002), myoglobin (P = 0.037), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.005), lactic dehydrogenase (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.030), fibrinogen (P = 0.000), and D-dimer (P = 0.006), but had significantly lower levels of lymphocyte count (P = 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.017), albumin (P = 0.001), and calcium (P = 0.000).
32589164 The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] In this retrospective study, serum calcium levels, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters on admission were recorded. […] The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, and median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. […] The serum calcium levels were significantly positively correlated with VD levels (P =0.004) but negatively correlated with PTH levels (P =0.048). […] Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidences of organ injury and septic shock, and higher 28-day mortality. […] In conclusion, serum calcium was associated with the clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
32597045 Among patients who showed complete compliance, there was a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 for those prescribed angiotensin II receptor blockers (relative risk [RR], 0.751; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.587-0.960) or calcium channel blockers (RR, 0.768; 95% CI, 0.601-0.980).
32622796 We retrospectively investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of severe COVID-19 patients. 107 patients were divided into hypocalcemia group and normal serum calcium group. […] Serum calcium levels were negatively correlated with leukocytes, CRP, PCT, IL-6 and D-dimer, while positively correlated with lymphocytes and ALB. […] Median serum calcium levels were significantly lower in the patients with poor outcome (2.01(1.97-2.05) vs 2.10(2.03-2.20), p<0.001), and it could predict the prognosis with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.73(95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.83, p<0.001).
32629995 Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of calcium-regulated enzymes that are phylogenetically conserved and cause post-translational deimination/citrullination, contributing to protein moonlighting in health and disease.
32633594 Moreover, in the present study we investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin receptor blockers versus calcium channel blockers on clinical outcomes as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admissions, heart injury, and death in 62 patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.
32637999 Whether pulmonary artery (PA) dimension and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as assessed by chest computed tomography (CT), are associated with myocardial injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not known.
32649272 Mechanisms include its “calcium-channel blocking” effects that lead to downstream suppression of nuclear factor-Kβ, interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, and other related endocrine disrupters; its role in regulating renal potassium loss; and its ability to activate and enhance the functionality of vitamin D, among others.
32662982 Studies have shown that the calcium ion (Ca2+) plays important roles both in Alzheimer’s dementia and SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion to host cell entry. […] An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis. […] Dysregulation of calcium has also been shown to increase the production of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein, the hallmark of Alzheimer’s dementia. […] Reversely, deposition of Aβ is also responsible for calcium dysregulation. […] Viruses can also hijack the host cell calcium channels and pumps to release more intracellular Ca2+ to utilize for their life cycle. […] Furthermore, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as nimodipine, memantine, etc., have been reported to be effective in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as well as have shown inhibition in various virus infections.
32679784 Vitamin D is responsible for regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton.
32687223 To evaluate the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) vs calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on the progression of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension in Wuhan.
32710674 Considering anti-hypertensive drugs, receiving diuretics (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.90-1.67; P = .205), calcium channel blockers (HR: 1.29; 95%CI: 0.91-1.82; P = .148), beta-blockers (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37; P = .844), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.61-1.13; P = .238) did not significantly alter the risk of PCR-confirmed COVID-19, whereas receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers was associated with an almost statistically significant reduction risk (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44-1.01; P = .054).
32729826 From March 2019 to March 2020, there was a 39% increase in angiotensin II antagonist prescriptions, a 33% increase in lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, a 32% increase in calcium channel blocker (CCB) prescriptions, a 30% increase in beta blocker prescriptions, a 27% increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist (VKA), and oral antidiabetic prescriptions, a 24% increase in diuretic prescriptions, and an 18% increase in insulin prescriptions.
32755466 Using fluorescent indicators, action potential duration, Ca2+ alternans, and spontaneous calcium release (SCR) incidence were determined. […] Compared with nonfailing hMSCs, failing hMSCs prolonged action potential duration by 24% (P<0.001, n=15), increased Ca2+ alternans by 300% (P<0.001, n=18), and promoted spontaneous calcium release activity (n=14, P<0.013) in human cardiac myocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. […] IL-1β or IL-6 in the absence of hMSCs prolonged action potential duration but only IL-6 increased Ca2+ alternans and promoted spontaneous calcium release activity in human cardiac myocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, replicating the effects of failing hMSCs.
32758873 A NCBI pBlast analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 surface spike protein contains key two calcium-dependent fusion domains that are almost identical to those that were recently discovered SARS-CoV-1. […] These viral calcium-dependent binding domains can facilitate membrane fusion only after cleavage by the host surface protease TMPRSS2. […] Importantly, TMPRSS2 also requires calcium for its SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich) domain and itsLDLRA(LDL receptor class A) domain. […] EDTA warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in consideration of the new calcium requirements for virus infection and the regular presence of EDTA excipients in common asthma medications such as Metaproterenol.
32759101 We explored the effects of long-term treatment by calcium channel blockers on the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients with high blood pressure during in-patient hospital stays using two sources of information: data available strictly from structured electronic health records (EHRs) and data available through structured EHRs and text mining. […] In our study, use of calcium channel blockers was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.
32763956 Arthrocentesis of his left ankle revealed mild inflammatory fluid without monosodium urate or calcium pyrophosphate crystals.
32784543 We suggest that linkage between the specific gene defects identified in GS and BS and the myriad of distinctive and frequently overlapping clinical findings may be the result of aberrant glycosylation of ACE2 driven by altered TGN/endosome system acidification caused by the metabolic alkalosis brought about by these salt-losing tubulopathies in addition to their altered intracellular calcium signaling due to a blunted second messenger induced intracellular calcium release that is, in turn, amplified by the RAS system.
32795330 Calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors stabilize the pulmonary endothelium and block proinflammatory cytokine release, potentially mitigating respiratory complications observed in patients with COVID-19.
32802622 The majority of the patients received zinc and calcium supplements as well.
32811354 An arguable role in autophagy or apoptosis control has been suggested for VD through calcium signaling at the mitochondrial and ER levels.
32815099 Several lines of evidence collected from experimental studies older than three decades have pointed out the fact that inhibiting calcium entry into cells can affect vital steps in the lifecycle of viruses. […] Hence, calcium channel blockers may be considered as an effective measure in the containment of the viruses.
32835124 Consequently, the use of ion channel inhibitors, such as Calcium Channel blockers or Potassium Channel blockers, can prevent cellular transfection early in the course of the illness.
32841654 Part II of the study evaluated survivability and rate of adverse events for teeth that received partial or full root canal debridement and placement of calcium hydroxide before shutdown.
32852721 The aim of this large-scale, retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether prior exposure to ACEIs and/or ARBs was associated with all-cause mortality among over 40,000 hospitalised COVID-19 patients compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), a potential therapeutic alternative.
32853469 Plus, NAD acts as a signalling molecule, being a cosubstrate for several enzymes such as sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and some ectoenzymes like CD38, regulating critical biological processes like gene expression, DNA repair, calcium signalling and circadian rhythms.
32870735 Vitamin D is pleiotropic, mediating bone metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and immune functions, whereas VDD is associated with inflammatory reactions and immune dysfunction, predisposing individuals to severe infections.
32879082 The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05).
32904987 Baseline levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride were assessed and the effects of abnormalities in these electrolytes on requirement for intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation, hospitalization duration and treatment outcome were evaluated.
32910830 Individuals with hypertension taking calcium channel blockers had significantly increased risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3) of manifesting symptoms of COVID-19, whereas those taking angiotensin receptor blockers and diuretics had significantly lower disease risk (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.58, respectively).
32913696 Interestingly, both of these patients were treated with calcium channel blockers and this class of medications is utilized to prevent HAPE as well. […] In a separate study, vasodilatation with calcium channel blocker (CCB) therapy has been associated with improved mortality in COVID-19 and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms were previously presented.
32923299 Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b), calcium and phosphorus were assessed at the same time points. […] Serum calcium and phosphorus did not differ among the time points (p=0.516 and p=0.358, respectively).
32926424 This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of low serum calcium and phosphorus in discriminative diagnosis of the severity of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] The discriminative power of low calcium and phosphorus regarding the disease severity was evaluated. […] Low calcium and low phosphorus are more prevalent in severe or critical COVID-19 patients than moderate COVID-19 patients (odds ratio [OR], 15.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-143.18 for calcium; OR, 6.90; 95% CI, 2.43-19.64 for phosphorus). […] The specificity in detecting the severe or critical patients among COVID-19 patients reached 98.5% (95% CI, 92.0%-99.7%) and 84.8% (95% CI, 74.3%-91.6%) by low calcium and low phosphorus, respectively, albeit with suboptimal sensitivity. […] Calcium and phosphorus combined with lymphocyte count could obtain the best discriminative performance for the severe COVID-19 patients (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80), and combined with oxygenation index was promising (AUC = 0.71). […] Similar discriminative performances of low calcium and low phosphorus were found between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patient. […] Low calcium and low phosphorus could indicate the severity of COVID-19 patients, and may be utilized as promising clinical biomarkers for discriminative diagnosis.
32928868 More studies reported upregulation than downregulation with ACE-I (n=22), ARBs (n=55), insulin (n=8), thiazolidinedione (n=7) aldosterone agonists (n=3), statins (n=5), oestrogens (n=5) calcium channel blockers (n=3) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists (n=2) and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=2).
32930523 In this hypothesis paper, we argue that the bisbenzylisoquinoline and calcium channel blocker tetrandrine, originally extracted from the plant Stephania tetrandra and utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, may have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and should be further investigated.
32935064 We propose that intracellular calcium homeostasis is an alternative mechanism for CQ/HCQ pharmacology, which should be considered when evaluating the risks and benefits of therapy in these patients and other perspective applications.
32964796 Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor); AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase; BMM: bone marrow macrophage; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary/cell line; CoV: coronaviruses; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; DMV: double-membrane vesicle; EAV: equine arteritis virus; EDEM1: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HCoV: human coronavirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSV: herpes simplex virus; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; IFN: interferon; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCoV: mouse coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (autophagy receptor that directs cargo to phagophores); nsp: non-structural protein; OS9: OS9 endoplasmic reticulum lectin; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLP: papain-like protease; pMEF: primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; Vps: vacuolar protein sorting.
32965360 A total of 142 patients(84%) were using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), 91 (53.8%) were using diuretics, 69 (40.8%) were using calcium channel blockers (CCBs), 66 (39.1%) were using beta-blockers, 12 (7.1%) were using alpha-blockers, and 5 (2.9%) were using mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs).
32965525 Fahr’s syndrome (or Fahr’s disease) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by bilateral calcification in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex as a result of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder.
32967126 As immune cells in infected patients are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D-deficient individuals with an infectious disease may extend beyond the impact on bone and calcium homeostasis.
32971532 Pre-hospital use vs. non-use of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR 2.02, CI 1.03-3.96) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR 1.91, CI 1.03-3.55) were associated with death.
32998607 Thirty-day mortality and risk of admission to the intensive care unit in ACE-Is/ARBs users was compared with nonusers and with users of calcium channel blockers. […] Of 568 019 patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia, 100 278 were ACE-I/ARB users and 37 961 were users of calcium channel blockers. […] In propensity score-weighted analyses, ACE-I/ARB users had marginally lower 30-day mortality than users of calcium channel blockers (13.9% versus 14.5%; RD, -0.6%; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.1; RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and a lower risk of admission to the intensive care unit (8.0% versus 9.6%; RD, -1.6%; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.2; RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.87).
33002827 Mechanistically, RH repressed calcium store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) induced by LPS, which is due to downregulation of stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM-1) following upregulating microRNA-185 (miR-185).
33005518 Vitamin D levels obtained were also low (7 ng/dL), phosphorus was at 5.8 mg/dL with albumin of 2.9 g/dL, and calcium level was normal at 9.2 mg/dl. […] He was also started on calcium acetate 1,334 mg three times a day for hyperphosphatemia.
33024460 Mechanistically, a number of ion channels can be adversely affected in COVID-19, leading to alterations in cardiac conduction and/or repolarization properties, as well as calcium handling, which can predispose to cardiac arrhythmogenesis.
33025652 Some antihypertensive drugs affect ACE2 expression or activity (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs]), suggesting use of other hypertensives might be preferable, such as calcium channel blockers (CCBs).
33028754 The counts of leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils and the levels of chloride and calcium in blood of COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those of non-COVID-19 patients.
33041811 Predictors of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission were the previous use of calcium-channel blockers (P = 0.005), proton pump inhibitors (P = 0.017), low oxygen saturation (P = 0.002), high leukocyte count (P = 0.011), and high D-dimer values (P = 0.005).
33046291 After adjusting for multiple comparisons and controlling numerous confounders, quantile regression revealed that the laboratory indexes of non-survivors were significantly higher in C-reactive protein (CRP; QS = 0.835, p < .001), white blood cell counts (WBC; QS = 0.743, p < .001), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST; QS = 0.735, p < .001), blood glucose (BG; QS = 0.608, p = .059), fibrin degradation product (FDP; QS = 0.730, p = .080), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and lower in oxygen saturation (SO2; QS = 0.312, p < .001), calcium (Ca2+; QS = 0.306, p = .073), and pH.
33067522 To this end, we develop a machine learning model using five serum chemistry laboratory parameters (c-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, serum calcium, serum albumin, and lactic acid) from 398 patients (43 expired and 355 non-expired) for the prediction of death up to 48 h prior to patient expiration.
33080571 Denosumab, zoledronate and calcium were negatively associated with COVID-19 incidence.
33119046 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), with its expansive membranous system and a vast network of chaperones, enzymes, sensors, and ion channels, orchestrates diverse cellular functions, ranging from protein synthesis, folding, secretion, and degradation to lipid biogenesis and calcium homeostasis.
33155630 The regression analysis showed that the crude infection rate has been increased by raising consuming fruits (Beta: 0.237; P=0.006) and calcium (Beta: 0.286; P=0.007) and was decreased with rising consuming beans and legumes (Beta: -0.145; P=0.038).
33168337 Cohort studies and case-control studies that contain information on the association of antihypertensive agents including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), β-blockers, and diuretics with the risk and severity of COVID-19 were selected.
33169107 On the other hand, furin expression is negatively regulated via 1-α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), that belongs to vitamin-D pathway and controls cellular calcium levels.
33220171 Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and anticoagulant medications were not associated with COVID-19 severity.
33222020 Of them, 248 patients were chronically treated with ACEi, 181 with ARBs, and 161 with other drugs (O-drugs) including beta blockers, diuretics and calcium-channel inhibitors.
33229732 Peptidylarginine deiminases are a family of calcium-activated enzymes with multifaceted roles in physiological and pathological processes, including in the central nervous system.
33232865 Altogether, the current study has highlighted possible role of calcium and other divalent ions in RGD-integrins interaction for virus invasion into host cells and suggested that lowering divalent ion in lungs could avert virus-host cells attachment.
33249093 A panel of experimental and FDA-approved compounds targeting calcium channels and PIKfyve at the endosomal membrane caused potent reductions of entry up to 90% in SARS-CoV-2 S-protein pseudotyped retrovirus.
33252122 Objective: We investigated COVID-19 patients with different serum calcium levels. […] We checked the serum calcium level of the patients based on days after symptom onset as well as the severity of COVID-19. […] Both mild/moderate and severe critical cases we observed showed low calcium level in the early stage of viral infection, while the severe/critical cases showed significant lower calcium level than mild/moderate cases in the early stage. […] We also found that low calcium level related to severe/critical multi-organ injuries especially in the mild/moderate population. […] Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 also correlated to calcium change in both mild/moderate and severe/critical cases. […] Our finding indicates that calcium balance is a primal hit of COVID-19 and a biomarker of clinical severity at the beginning of symptom onset. […] Calcium is closely associated with virus-associated multiple organ injuryes and the increase of inflammatory cytokines. […] Our results provide a new, important indicator of COVID-19 patients from mild/moderate to severe/critical: serum calcium.
33263384 Both nsp2 and nsp4 interactors are strongly enriched in proteins localized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes suggesting a new functional role for modulating host processes, such as calcium homeostasis, at these organelle contact sites.
33278624 Calcium is an essential ion for pathogen survival and virulence and is involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. […] Data regarding levels of calcium in SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. […] We performed a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and included all patients who had any serum calcium measurement in the first 72h since hospital admission. […] The main objective was to investigate the relation of low serum calcium with adverse outcome, measured by the requirement of high oxygen support - defined as high flow nasal cannula oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation and/or invasive ventilation - intensive care unit admission or death. […] More studies are needed to understand the role of calcium metabolism in SARS-CoV-2 infection and to address the clinical implications and therapeutic interventions it might have.
33293279 We estimated confounder-adjusted ORs for a positive test among all SARS-CoV-2 tested, and inverse probability of treatment weighted 30-day risk and risk ratios (RRs) of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality comparing current ACE-I/ARB use with calcium channel blocker (CCB) use and with non-use.
33295455 Systolic-diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were found to be lowest in group IV and significantly lower than in other groups (< 0.05). […] It was determined that increased heart rate, calcium, D-dimer, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels were significantly related to Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc.
33298897 Multivariate logistic regression was conducted in patients with comorbid hypertension to examine the potential association between clinical outcomes, disease severity, and clinical characteristics with the use of ACEI, ARB, calcium-channel blockers (CCB), beta-blockers (BB), and thiazide diuretics.
33301018 Receipt of statins (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65; P < .001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.46-0.60; P < .001), and calcium channel blockers (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79; P < .001) was associated with decreased odds of death. […] Use of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers were associated with decreased odds of death.
33302976 It is isolated by lung lavage and, by weight, is a mixture of: phospholipid (75% phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol, 3% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1% phosphatidylinositol and 1% sphingomyelin), 5% cholesterol, 1% lipid-soluble surfactant-associated proteins (SP-B and SP-C), very low levels of free fatty acid, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, water and 0.3% calcium.
33306725 For the management of Covid-19 related symptoms, paracetamol, antihistamines, antibiotics, and mineral (zinc and calcium) supplements were used most often.
33307964 Use of no antihypertensive medication was significantly associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection compared with calcium channel blockers/beta blockers/TD (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.56).
33308159 Among 94 laboratory test variables in 82 survivors and 25 non-survivors with COVID-19, white blood cell count, neutrophil count/percentage, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, platelet-large cell percentage, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrin (ogen) degradation product, middle fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, immature reticulocyte fraction, lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lymphocyte count/percentage, monocyte percentage, eosinophil percentage, prothrombin activity, low fluorescent reticulocyte percentage, plasma carbon dioxide, total calcium, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, albumin-globulin ratio, cholinesterase, total cholesterol, nonhigh-density/low-density/small-dense-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased in non-survivors compared with survivors (P < 0.05), in both first and last tests.
33326412 The lockdown brought a significant drop in the prescription of vitamin D/calcium supplements from 81.6% (n=40) to 58.0% (n=29) (P=.02); of bone-sparing medications from 60.7% (n=17) to 18.2% (n=4) (P=.004), and DEXA scan requests from 40.1% (n=9) to 3.6% (n=1) (P=.003). […] Following the implementation of our mnemonic, there was a significant increase in the prescription of vitamin D/calcium supplements to 85.7% (n=42) (P=.003), bone-sparing medications to 72.4% (n=21) (P<.001 and dexa scan requests to> </.001>
33331072 Univariate analysis showed there were significant differences in gender, age, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophil, percentage of lymphocyte, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, creatinine, calcium ion, rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, cough, expectoration, chest tightness, gastrointestinal discomfort and dyspnoea between the two groups.
33342753 In this international, open science, cohort analysis, we used electronic health records from Spain (Information Systems for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]) and the USA (Columbia University Irving Medical Center data warehouse [CUIMC] and Department of Veterans Affairs Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership [VA-OMOP]) to identify patients aged 18 years or older with at least one prescription for ACEIs and ARBs (target cohort) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics (THZs; comparator cohort) between Nov 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020.
33348292 The examined list included drugs from different categories such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, anti-cancers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), calcium channel blocker compounds, and some others.
33349633 Here, we report that calcium channel blockers (CCBs), a type of antihypertensive drug that is widely used in clinics, inhibited the post-entry replication events of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, while no in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect was observed for the two other major types of antihypertensive drugs, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
33350580 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), miR-802 gene expression, NF-κB, and calcium levels are up-regulated, while Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor-2 (Nrf2), Hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and gene expressions, as well as, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), NAD(P)H-Quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and miR-122 gene expressions are down-regulated in the livers of intoxicated animals.
33371905 These outcomes are assessed at baseline, day 14, and day 28, together with the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, creatinine, calcium, and albumin at baseline and day 7.
33378060 Results showed the following: dyspnea; increased white blood cell count; decreased platelets; lowered albumin levels; increased urea nitrogen; increased levels of myocardial enzymes Creatine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase, MB Form (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased lactate, and lowered blood calcium tests.
33378410 CAC (coronary calcium score) and clinical outcome (need for intensive care treatment or death) data were calculated following a standardized protocol.
33404127 Higher percentages of prescribed angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (β, 95% confidence interval [CI]; -0.02 [-0.04 to -0.0012]; p = .042) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (β, 95% CI; -0.023 [-0.05 to -0.0028]; p = .0304) were associated with a lower first 3-week SARS-CoV-2-related death rate, whereas a higher percentage of prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) (β, 95% CI; 0.03 [0.0061-0.05]; p = .0103) was associated with a higher first 3-week death rate, even when adjusted for age and metformin use.
33404133 We measured the inhibitory action of CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with 30 μM azithromycin (AZ) on six ion currents (fast [INa] and late [INa,L] components of the sodium current, L-type calcium current [ICa,L], rapid [IKr/hERG], and slow [IKs] components of delayed rectifier potassium, and inward rectifier potassium [IK1]) over a wide range of concentrations using the automated patch-clamp system.
33412367 Spirulina-based nutraceuticals boost the adaptive and innate immunity, and bioactive compounds, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor peptides, phycobiliproteins, sulfated polysaccharides, and calcium-Spirulan, can serve as antiviral agents.
33423528 We examined whether COVID-19 risk differs according to antihypertensive drug class in patients treated by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs).
33434117 An increasing body of evidence argues for a direct implication of vitamin D deficiency, low serum calcium on poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. […] Total serum calcium by a colorimetric method, then, corrected for serum albumin levels.
33443816 A large number of studies have shown that ACE2 can reverse myocardial injury in various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as well as is exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anticardiomyocyte fibrosis effects by regulating transforming growth factor beta, mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium ions in cells and other major pathways.
33459077 Medical history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers and metformin were also risk factors. -statistic = 0.909).
33461602 Inhaled magnesium sulphate as a smooth muscle relaxant (natural calcium antagonist) can cause both bronchodilator and consequently vasodilator effects (via a direct effect on alveolar arterioles in well-ventilated areas) in the respiratory tract.
33469276 Both groups were supplemented with cholecalciferol and calcium.
33493853 The key exposure was hypocalcemia, defined as serum calcium below study-defined cut-off points.
33511171 Some patients switched from ACEIs/ARBs to calcium channel blocker (CCBs) after admission, while others continued using non-ACEIs/ARBs.
33512415 We investigated depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization by flow cytometry.
33522493 Laboratory test revealed moderate liver dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and severe hypocalcaemia (serum corrected calcium level: 5.7 mg/dL). […] She was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, third generation cephalosporin, anticoagulant, daily high-dose calcium acetate, vitamin D3, fresh frozen plasma and oxygen therapy. […] In addition to inflammatory markers, in COVID-19 patients it is crucial to check the level of vitamin D and calcium.
33522946 Chronic supplementation with pharmacological vitamin D; Current treatment with anticonvulsants; History of: ○ Sarcoidosis; ○ Malabsorption syndrome; ○ Known hypercalcemia or serum calcium >10.5 mg/dL; Life expectancy <6 months; Known allergy to study medication; Any condition at discretion of investigator impeding to understand the study and give informed consent. , invasive or non-invasive ventilation, up to 30 days or hospital discharge.
33522958 A low platelet count and low serum calcium concentration were also related to mortality.
33525206 Creatinine, C-reactive protein, Calcium and liver enzymes, were also pointing in that direction, although the differences were not significant.
33525218 Mortality was associated with older age(Odds ratio=1.148, 95%CI=1.032-1.276), lower calcium level (Odds ratio=0.087, 95%CI=0.010-0.788), lower serum albumin (Odds ratio=0.036, 95%CI=0.002-0.655), as well as increased level of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (Odds ratio=1.468, 95%CI=1.086-1.985), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (Odds ratio=1.004, 95%CI=1.000-1.007), and urea (Odds ratio=1.023, 95%CI=1.006-1.039). […] Conclusion Our study identified that decreased levels of O2saturation, platelet count, calcium, albumin, and increased NLR, LDH, urea, and old age were correlated with mortality.
33557936 A possible mechanism of malignant hyperthermia is hypersensitivity of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. […] These include mutations in or the activation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium release channel.
33576532 To further enhance the performance and economics of the process, cells of the CI-24 mutant were immobilized in calcium alginate beads and could retain an equivalent biotransformation capacity after three successive biotransformation cycles.
33577131 Whole blood levels of essential and/or toxic metal(loid)s were analyzed, including magnesium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, and lead according to the disease severity and outcome. […] Compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients, severe cases showed significant higher levels of whole blood calcium, chromium, and copper, but lower levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, thallium, and lead.
33595634 Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality during hospitalization; the number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit; the number of patients who required mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation; and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total calcium, creatinine, and C-reactive protein.