DrugBank ID: db00207
DrugCentral: azithromycin
Synonymous :azithromycin | azithromycine | azithromycinum | azitromicina

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of azithromycin gene in 477 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32031570 Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]).
32205204 Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. […] Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. […] Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
32229706 Similarly, two proposed therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 infection are Azithromycin and Quercetin, both drugs with significant senolytic activity. […] As Azithromycin and Doxycycline are both commonly used antibiotics that inhibit viral replication and IL-6 production, we may want to consider this general class of antibiotics that functionally inhibits cellular protein synthesis as a side-effect, for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease.
32249257 Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19.
32276453 Two of these senotherapeutics, azithromycin and ruxolitinib, are currently undergoing testing for their efficacy in treating COVID-19.
32282982 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%.
32285930 The data sources included were 1) longitudinal clinical, pharmacokinetic, and virologic data from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who received HCQ with or without azithromycin (n=116), 2) in vitro viral replication data and SARS-CoV-2 viral load inhibition by HCQ, 3) a population pharmacokinetic model of HCQ and 4) a model relating chloroquine pharmacokinetics to QTc prolongation.
32289548 We conducted an uncontrolled non-comparative observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU).
32297988 Five studies reported either the safety or efficacy of HCQ + azithromycin.
32299753 This document attempts to provide reasonable guidance for the use of antimicrobials which have uncertain benefit but may increase risk of QT interval prolongation and ventricular proarrhythmia, notably, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
32302411 Azithromycin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic with a long half-life and a large volume of distribution.
32307245 Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro.
32307653 Studies suggest beneficial effects of azithromycin in reducing viral load of hospitalized patients, possibly interfering with ligand/CD147 receptor interactions; however, its possible effects on SARS-CoV-2 invasion has not yet been evaluated. […] In addition to the possible effect in invasion, azithromycin decreases the expression of some metalloproteinases (downstream to CD147), induces anti-viral responses in primary human bronchial epithelial infected with rhinovirus, decreasing viral replication and release.
32317402 Patients were managed with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32322397 Towards that initiative, potential drugs like hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin have been tested by diverse group of researchers worldwide for their potential against novel coronavirus. […] Azithromycin was found to act similar to the hydroxychloroquine as an acidotropic lipophilic weak base.
32327397 Combinations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin have been promoted as treatments for COVID-19 based on small, uncontrolled clinical trials that have not assessed potential risks. […] Queries extracted reports based on exposures of HCQ/chloroquine (CQ) alone, azithromycin alone, HCQ/CQ + azithromycin, amoxicillin alone, HCQ/CQ + amoxicillin alone. […] The PRRs and 95% CIs for TdP/QT prolongation was 1.43 (1.29-2.59) with HCQ/CQ use alone and 4.10 (3.80-4.42) for azithromycin alone. […] For the combined HCQ/CQ + azithromycin group, the PRR and 95% CI was 3.77 (1.80-7.87). […] However, azithromycin used alone was associated with TdP/QT prolongation events and should be used with caution.
32330277 The preliminary findings of this study suggest that the higher CQ dosage should not be recommended for critically ill patients with COVID-19 because of its potential safety hazards, especially when taken concurrently with azithromycin and oseltamivir.
32330343 Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids.
32330521 Given the media attention and claims of effectiveness, we chose chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin, as an area of COVID-19 research to examine. […] We found 6 studies, 3 randomized control trials and 3 observational studies, focusing on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (with azithromycin).
32336586 Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence.
32337139 Recent findings of an open-label study that investigated the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France, has garnered some optimism in scientific quarters and the general public alike in terms of finding a treatment regimen to control the rampant rise of COVID-19.
32337859 During the hospitalization period, the chest infiltrative lesion showed a wax and wane, but he successfully recovered by administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin.
32339248 The preliminary findings of this study suggest that the higher CQ dosage should not be recommended for critically ill patients with COVID-19 because of its potential safety hazards, especially when taken concurrently with azithromycin and oseltamivir.
32339832 Without much experience, currently, the medicines that are clinically being evaluated for COVID-19 include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir, ritonavir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids.
32342252 In a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients.
32344177 In vivo it showed efficacy, especially when combined with azithromycin in a preliminary clinical trial. […] Here we demonstrate that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
32344226 It was analyzed that a combination of antiviral drugs with hydroxyl-chloroquine and azithromycin (with the consultation of a medical practitioner) may be the best option to treat the patients, depending on the patient’s conditions and symptoms.
32347743 Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. […] Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods - Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. […] Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. […] Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. […] No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions - In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine {plus minus} azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported.
32351040 All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32352944 Interferon-alpha (5 million U twice daily by inhalation), lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100 mg twice daily orally), as well as chloroquine (500 mg twice daily orally for 10 days) and azithromycin (500 mg twice per day) cause a milder course of the disease and reduce the duration of treatment.
32354651 In the context of NM diseases, particular attention must be paid to two experimental COVID-19 treatments, hydroxycholoroquine and azithromycin: risk of exacerbation of myasthenia gravis and QT prolongation in patients with pre-existing cardiac involvement.
32356863 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Of those who received concomitant azithromycin, 11 of 53 (21%) had prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more and 7 of 53 (13 %) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32360581 Azithromycin has been shown to have a clinical efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; ivermectin has also demonstrated a remarkable experimental efficacy with a potential to be used for Coronavirus disease 2019. […] This article illustrates some structural and functional relationships that may gather these drugs and the author, basing on a combined pathophysiological and pharmacological approach, recommends the FDA-approved antidiarrhea drug; nitazoxanide, which has been previously suggested but unfortunately widely ignored, to be tested in combination with azithromycin for their potential activity against SARS CoV-2, soonest.
32363143 The patient was primarily treated with chloroquine and azithromycin.
32363221 The results of ongoing clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin alone or in combination and a new antiviral agent remdesivir may help to treat some of the infections.
32368483 He was started on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with no improvement of symptoms.
32372695 Many antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19, for instance azithromycin, can also prolong QT interval.
32375574 This study demonstrated the putative inhibitory potential of lopinavir, remdesivir, oseltamir, azithromycin, ribavirin, and chloroquine towards V-ATPase, protein kinase A, SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex and viral proteases. […] The amino acids Asp269, Leu370, His374, and His345 were predicted as the key residues for lopinavir binding to human SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex while His378, Tyr515, Leu73, Leu100, Phe32 and Phe40 for remdesivir and Tyr510, Phe504, Met62, Tyr50, and His378 were predicted for azithromycin as the key residues for binding to SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein/ACE-2 complex.
32387409 In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19.
32389720 A recent report identified significant reductions or disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients given a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The physicochemical properties of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are consistent with particularly high affinity for the intracellular lysosomal space, which has been implicated as a target site for antiviral activity. […] These predictions are consistent with previously reported experimentally measured cellular and extracellular concentrations of azithromycin. […] The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin produces very high local concentrations in lysosomes.
32391234 He positively responded to a 14-day course of Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Azithromycin, and Hydroxychloroquine.
32392007 Amoxicillin is first choice treatment for respiratory infections during the COVID-19 epidemic; there is lack of evidence to support azithromycin as a first choice.Respiratory rate > 24 / min or saturation <92-94% indicate imminent respiratory decompensation and may be reasons for referral.
32392282 Hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] To describe the association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and clinical outcomes among hospital inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. […] Receipt of both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Among 1438 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (858 [59.7%] male, median age, 63 years), those receiving hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both were more likely than those not receiving either drug to have diabetes, respiratory rate >22/min, abnormal chest imaging findings, O2 saturation lower than 90%, and aspartate aminotransferase greater than 40 U/L. […] The probability of death for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin was 189/735 (25.7% [95% CI, 22.3%-28.9%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 54/271 (19.9% [95% CI, 15.2%-24.7%]), azithromycin alone, 21/211 (10.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-14.0%]), and neither drug, 28/221 (12.7% [95% CI, 8.3%-17.1%]). […] In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with patients receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.76-2.40]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.63-1.85]), or azithromycin alone (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.26-1.21]). […] In logistic models, compared with patients receiving neither drug cardiac arrest was significantly more likely in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin (adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.12-4.05]), but not hydroxychloroquine alone (adjusted OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 0.96-3.81]) or azithromycin alone (adjusted OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.27-1.56]), . […] Among patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York with COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both, compared with neither treatment, was not significantly associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.
32394481 Questions on the controversial use of hydroxychloroquine and to a lesser extent concerning azithromycin have been the most consulted Q&As.
32395418 These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others.
32395788 Fifteen patients received both chloroquine and azithromycin.
32397399 Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin).
32398343 While novel drugs are being developed, azithromycin has been identified as a candidate treatment in the interim. […] To review the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of azithromycin in treating COVID-19. […] In vivo and in vitro studies were included assessing the safety and effectiveness of azithromycin for treatment of COVID-19, and/or the activity of azithromycin against SARS-CoV-2. […] The in vitro studies revealed conflicting results, with one finding anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity for azithromycin alone, while the other found activity against SARS-CoV-2 only when azithromycin was combined with hydroxychloroquine. […] A small trial of 36 patients, with high risk of bias, found superior viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 treated with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine combined, compared with hydroxychloroquine alone. […] There is no evidence to support the use of azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 outside of the context of clinical trials, unless it is used to treat bacterial super-infection. […] There is extremely limited evidence of a possible synergy between azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine. […] The adverse events profile of azithromycin in the context of COVID-19 has not yet been established.
32399456 A 52-year-old patient with SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia and treated with darunavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
32405156 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32405418 None of the infected nurses were hospitalized and all of them preferred to be quarantine at home and receive the necessary care and treatment (Oseltamivir, Azithromycin and Kaletra.
32405423 Minimum estimated costs of production were US $0.93/day for remdesivir, $1.45/day for favipiravir, $0.08/day for hydroxychloroquine, $0.02/day for chloroquine, $0.10/day for azithromycin, $0.28/day for lopinavir/ritonavir, $0.39/day for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and $1.09/day for pirfenidone.
32405877 At present, anti-IL-6, antiviral therapy, convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin among others are being investigated as potential treatments for COVID-19.
32407884 Initial reports suggesting the potential benefit of Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (HY/AZ) have resulted in massive adoption of this combination worldwide.
32409150 Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (chloroquine) plus azithromycin is considered as therapy for COVID-19. […] We compared risk of cardiac adverse events between combinations of chloroquine and azithromycin and chloroquine and amoxicillin. […] We included autoimmune disease patients aged ≥18 years initiating azithromycin or amoxicillin for ≥5 days during chloroquine treatment. […] The adjusted incidence of cardiac symptoms among azithromycin and amoxicillin users was 276 vs 254 per 10,000 person-years with an adjusted HR of 1.10 (95%CI, 0.62-1.95). […] Combination use of chloroquine and azithromycin at routine doses did not show pronounced increases in arrhythmias in this real-world population, though small sample size and outcome rates limit conclusions.
32412891 A number of pharmacologic regimens, including hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin, antiviral therapy (eg, remdesevir), and anti-IL-6 agents (e.g., toclizumab), have been highlighted by investigators over the course of the pandemic, based on the therapy’s potential to interrupt the viral life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 or preventing cytokine storm.
32418181 COVID-19 infection has shown rapid growth worldwide, and different therapies have been proposed for treatment, in particular, the combination of immune response modulating drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (antimalarials) alone or in combination with azithromycin.
32418730 Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. […] Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with “off-label” use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. […] In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%).
32419524 To obtain convincing recommendations, we referred to opinions from the US National Institute of Health regarding drugs repurposed for COVID-19 therapy.Expert opinion: Although strong evidence of well-designed randomized controlled studies regarding COVID-19 therapy is presently lacking, remdesivir, teicoplanin, hydroxychloroquine (not in combination with azithromycin), and ivermectin might be effective antiviral drugs and are deemed promising candidates for controlling SARS-CoV-2.
32425051 We describe here the protocol for a pragmatic, active comparator trial in as many as 300 patients comparing two current “off-label” treatments for COVID-19-hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin-in academic and non-academic hospitals in Utah.
32425199 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir are currently being studied in trials and show some promise.
32425246 The only FDA approved drug to treat COVID-19 is remdesivir, and other off-label medications used include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, convalescent plasma therapy, azithromycin, vitamin C, corticosteroids, interferon and colchicine.
32426230 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with improvement in mental status back to baseline after 6 days.
32426242 She was treated with intravenous fluids, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine.
32426812 We evaluated the potential antiviral effects of azithromycin on the nasopharyngeal virome of Nigerien children who had received multiple rounds of mass drug administration. […] We found that the respiratory burden of non-SARS coronaviruses was decreased with azithromycin distributions.
32428144 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32438446 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, atazanavir (ritonavir-boosted), tipranavir (ritonavir-boosted), ivermectin, azithromycin and lopinavir (ritonavir-boosted) were all predicted to achieve lung concentrations over 10-fold higher than their reported EC50 .
32439366 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy is often prescribed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). […] We performed 12‑lead ECGs and 12‑lead 24-h Holter ECG monitoring in all patients aged <80 years admitted to our medical unit for COVID-19, in oral therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice daily) and azithromycin (500 mg, once daily) for at least 3 days. […] Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prolongs QTc interval in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those with high levels of transaminases.
32442941 We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of longterm cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin.
32445484 Several drugs are being repurposed into clinical trials in COVID-19 patients, ranging from drugs already well established in other diseases, such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir+ ritonavir, azithromycin and tocilizumab/sarilumab, to those such as remdesivir still in development for their initial indication (1).
32446866 A combination such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc, all of which have previously been used topically in the eye and which work at least in part by blocking ACE2 receptors, may offer a safe, cost-effective and resource-sparing intervention.
32449128 Patients who combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin presented 3/18 deaths, regardless of age, staging, histology, cancer treatment and comorbidities (OR 0.02, p = 0.03). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin is presented as a good treatment option.
32458149 A number of anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, antibiotics such as azithromycin and doxycycline, and anti-parasite such as ivermectin have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment.
32458969 Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and outpatient trials results are not expected until September. […] Evidence about use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or of hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin in inpatients, is irrelevant concerning efficacy of the pair in early high-risk outpatient disease. […] Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been used as standard-of-care in more than 300,000 older adults with multicomorbidities, with estimated proportion diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias attributable to the medications 47/100,000 users, of which estimated mortality is <20%, 9/100,000 users, compared to the 10,000 Americans now dying each week.
32463308 Several pharmacological therapies have been suggested including repurposing of existing drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, sometimes co-administered with azithromycin. […] Azithromycin also can cause modest QT interval prolongation, but not through potent hERG channel blockade, rather when used chronically through an increase in peak and late cardiac sodium current to cause potential loading of cardiomyocytes with sodium and calcium to produce calcium overload. […] How should we proceed with the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially combined with azithromycin, for COVID-19 given that these agents bring some cardiac toxicity risk and their mechanisms for cardiac toxicity may not be the same?
32463348 Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected COVID-19. […] Methods and Results We performed a case series of COVID-19 positive/suspected patients admitted between 2/1/2020 and 4/4/2020 who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination. […] Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%. […] Changes in QTc were highest with the combination compared to either drug, with much greater prolongation with combination vs. azithromycin (17±39 vs. 
32468425 Some of the clinical studies demonstrated good virological and clinical outcomes with HCQ alone or in combination with azithromycin in COVID-19 patients, although the studies had major methodological limitations.
32469045 Dispensing of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, enoxaparin, and sedative medications increased substantially during the pandemic period (P < 0.01 for all comparisons).
32469614 Four patients were treated with azithromycin and a cephalosporin and two were also treated with hydroxychloroquine.
32471001 The main treatment combination was hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32471876 Additional mortality risk factors may include age, performance status, treatment with chemotherapy, and exposure to hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin.
32473681 In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded).
32476080 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32493475 Weight less than 40 Kg.Participant with any immunosuppressive condition or hematological disease.Treatment with drugs that may prolong QT in the last month before randomization for more than 7 days including: azithromycin, chlorpromazine, cisapride, clarithromycin, domperidone, droperidol, erythromycin, halofantrine, haloperidol, lumefantrine, mefloquine, methadone, pentamidine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, sotalol, sparfloxacin, thioridazine, amiodarone.Hereditary intolerance to galactose, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose or galactose malabsorption.Treatment with fluvoxamine.Treatment with benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine analogues such as zolpidem, zopiclone or zaleplon.Pregnancy.Breastfeeding.History of potentially immune derived diseases such as: lupus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis.Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Known history of hypersensitivity to the study drug or any of its components.Patients that should not be included in the study at the judgment of the research team.
32494896 One hundred fifty-five of 498 (31%) reported regular use of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZM); concomitant use of AZM was more common in the USA.
32496357 Eighty-percent received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin.
32501367 Co-administration of chloroquine with other drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, like azithromycin, can further increase the risk of QT prolongation and cardiomyopathy.
32505076 Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). […] Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment seems like a good treatment option.
32510734 Initial enthusiasm for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has abated. […] However, as a result of positive clinical experience with azithromycin used alone during the first few days of the flu-like illness caused by this coronavirus, we recommend formal clinical trials using azithromycin early in the course of a COVID-19 infection. […] There is one clinical trial initiated, the individually-randomized, telemedicine-based, “Azithromycin for COVID-19 Treatment in Outpatients Nationwide (ACTION)” based at the University of California San Francisco. […] This placebo-controlled trial is designed to determine the efficacy of a single 1.2 g dose of oral azithromycin to prevent COVID-19 patient progression to hospitalization. […] We recommend formal clinical trials of azithromycin in its prepackaged form at the first sign of COVID-19 infection in adults and children, using an initial adult dose of 500 mg followed by 250 mg per day for four days, a total cumulative dose of 1.5 g, and for children 5 to 18 years of age, 10 mg/kg on the first day followed by 5 mg/kg for four days.
32511867 Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic, is being investigated in patients with COVID-19. […] These data will better inform optimization of dosing regimens for azithromycin clinical trials.
32519281 The odds of mortality were significantly higher in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin than supportive care alone [2.34 (95% CI: 1.63, 3.34); I2 = 0%].
32522282 The aim of this randomised GCP-controlled trial is to clarify whether combination therapy with the antibiotic azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalisation duration for patients with COVID-19 (measured as “days alive and out of hospital” as the primary outcome), reduce the risk of non- invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit and death. […] Fertile women* must not be pregnant, i.e. negative pregnancy test must be available at inclusion • Informed consent signed by the patient *Defined as after menarche and until postmenopausal (no menstruation for 12 months) Exclusion criteria: • At the time of recruitment, the patient uses >5 LO2/min (equivalent to 40% FiO2 if measured) • Known intolerance/allergy to azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine or hypersensitivity to quinine or 4-aminoquinoline derivatives • Neurogenic hearing loss • Psoriasis • Retinopathy • Maculopathy • Visual field changes • Breastfeeding • Severe liver diseases other than amoebiasis (INR> 1.5 spontaneously) • Severe gastrointestinal, neurological and hematological disorders (investigator-assessed) • eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 • Clinically significant cardiac conduction disorders/arrhythmias or prolonged QTc interval (QTc (f) of> 480/470 ms). […] Immediately after randomisation to the intervention group, the patient will begin treatment with: Azithromycin: Day 1-3: 500 mg x 1 Day 4-15: 250 mg x 1 If the patient is unable to take the medication orally by themselves, the medication will, if possible, be administered by either stomach-feeding tube, or alternatively, temporary be changed to clarithromycin 500 mg x 2 (this only in agreement with either study coordinator Pradeesh Sivapalan or principal investigator Jens-Ulrik Stæhr Jensen). […] The patient will switch back to azithromycin when possible.
32522617 Some potential medications like chloroquine by itself or in combination with azithromycin, and some protease inhibitors used for the treatment of COVID-19 have cardiovascular adverse effects that should be kept in mind in order to close monitor of the patients receiving these medications.
32522674 Some of these drugs -particularly azithromycin and other macrolides, indomethacin and some other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors and fluoxetine - could provide additional therapeutic benefits in addition to the potential antiviral effect that is still to be confirmed by well-controlled clinical trials.
32523150 The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription.
32531808 We use a mechanistic lung model to demonstrate that accumulation of chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) in the lungs is sensitive to changes in lung pH, a parameter that can be affected in patients with COVID-19.
32532948 A 71-year old gentleman with history of arterial hypertension treated with valsartan presented on was hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Bologna (Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 200mg bid (400 mg bid the first day), azithromycin 400 mg qd, thrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparin 4000 UI qd and Venturi mask oxygen delivering FiO2 of 31%.
32533263 The co-administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin is proposed in COVID-19 therapy. […] Azithromycin is a substrate of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) which is localized in endosomes and lysosomes with a polarized substrate transport from the cell cytosol into the vesicle interior. […] Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that ABCB1 could be a possible enhancer by confining azithromycin more extensively than expected when the trapping is solely dependent on the passive diffusion. […] This additional mechanism may therefore explain the synergistic effect when azithromycin is added to hydroxychloroquine, leading to apparently more rapid virus clearance and better clinical benefit, when compared to monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine alone.
32534189 Since the most severe clinical manifestation of COVID-19 appeared to be a severe acute respiratory syndrome, azithromycin has been proposed as a potential treatment. […] Azithromycin is known to have immunomodulating and antiviral properties. […] In vitro studies have demonstrated the capacity of azithromycin to reduce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, TNF alpha, reduce oxidative stress and modulate T-helper functions. […] At the same time there are multiple clinical evidences of the role of azithromycin in acute respiratory distress syndrome and against MERS. […] Some preliminary evidences have demonstrated controversial results regarding efficacy of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. […] Firstly, a French trial demonstrated 100% of virological negativization of six patients treated with azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine vs 57.1% of patients treated with only hydroxychloroquine and 12.5% of the control group (p<0.05). […] Furthermore, there are some concerns regarding the association of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine because of the potential Qt prolongation. […] However, based on preclinical and clinical evidences and some preliminary results in COVID-19, azithromycin could have a potential in the fight against this new disease.
32534369 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against the use of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for Covid-19 outside of a hospital or a clinical trial setting due to the risk of QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and the increased risk of these complications when combined with some antibiotics such as azithromycin. […] Despite these warnings, in several developing countries the official guidelines for treatment of Covid-19 patients at the primary care level recommend Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, among other treatments, as the first-choice for mild symptomatic Covid-19 patients, asymptomatic contacts or for prophylaxis.
32537099 The results of a clinical trial comparing hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin to the standard of care for the treatment of COVID-19 were recently published by Philippe Gautret et al. […] This study provides outstanding results for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over the standard of care, but the evidence was deemed insufficiently robust to warrant a public health decision to widen the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
32538597 For children three months to three years of age, azithromycin or amoxicillin is recommended if pneumonia is suspected; for urinary infections, suggested antibiotics are cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
32546018 The initial clinical trials on hydroquinone in combination with azithromycin showed an admirable result in the reduction of COVID-19.
32546437 All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31).
32550056 There is no definitive treatment, although a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have shown good results, and passive immunization also shows promising results, their safety profile is yet to be studied in detail.
32550095 We report a case of a 65-year-old man with diabetes and severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation and treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, nafamostat, and prone positioning.
32554149 Although macrolides like azithromycin and clarithromycin etc., have been reported to act against respiratory infections but they lack the ability of immunity enhancement through defensins.
32554424 Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir.
32556649 His respiratory function deteriorated despite treatments with lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, azithromycin and meropenem at a regional hospital.
32557347 Hospitalization with supportive therapy (azithromycin) as well as non-invasive oxygenation led to a stabilization of the patient.
32562159 According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir. […] This study revealed the beneficial effect of the short-term use of low-dose prednisolone in combination with azithromycin, naproxen and lopinavir/ritonavir (regimen I), in decreasing ALOS compared to regimen II.
32563969 Currently available expert opinions suggest reduction of immunosuppression therapy for renal transplant recipients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection with either antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin.
32573882 All patients received a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; half of the patients received methylprednisolone.
32576712 Covariates were lymphocyte count, serum levels of albumin, C-Reactive Protein, D-Dimers and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), anticoagulation level, and exposure to the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combined therapy.
32578794 In severe cases, the use of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin or medication can be promising.
32580215 The patient was given NIMV (non-invasive mechanical ventilation), and hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir and azithromycin in isolation intensive care, with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia.
32581194 In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. […] These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or without azithromycin, is effective for severe cases of COVID-19, in which the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm are responsible for the pathogenesis.
32585765 Darunavir together with ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and favipiravir were initiated on the first day of admission at primary hospital.
32588427 Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2).
32593867 Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases.
32596085 The patient was managed pharmacologically with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] This case report provides anecdotal evidence for the effectiveness of the hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination currently being used across the nation to manage COVID-19, pending development of a definitive vaccine or antiviral treatment.
32602678 Azithromycin was given in 24 patients.
32605683 The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma. […] The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use has yet to be determined but was not without risks of corrected QT interval prolongation and arrhythmias in our cohort.
32606285 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were not initiated due to concerns about QT prolongation.
32607304 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, dobutamine, remdesivir, and ventilatory support.
32612804 A preliminary search identified the following drugs as being used to treat COVID-19 symptoms: atazanavir (ATV), azithromycin (AZI), chloroquine (CLQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCLQ), dipyridamole, famotidine (FAM), favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nitazoxanide, remdesivir, ribavirin and tocilizumab.
32615987 Due to the severity of the disease, invasive mechanical ventilation was instituted and SARS-CoV-2 treatment (azithromycin 250 mg once-daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg trice-daily) started.
32619669 In this context, this study aimed to evaluate in silico the molecular interactions of drugs with therapeutic indications for treatment of COVID-19 (Azithromycin, Baricitinib and Hydroxychloroquine) and drugs with similar structures (Chloroquine, Quinacrine and Ruxolitinib) in docking models from the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M-pro) protein. […] Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of baricitinib and quinacrine, in combination with azithromycin; however, these computer simulations are just an initial step for conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.
32621881 There is limited data regarding the electrophysiological abnormalities and arrhythmias in children with COVID-19, including those associated with treatment using potentially proarrhythmic hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZN).
32623082 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine therapy alone and in combination with azithromycin in hospitalized patients positive for COVID-19. […] Receipt of hydroxychloroquine alone, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin, azithromycin alone, or neither. […] Overall in-hospital mortality was 18.1% (95% CI:16.6%-19.7%); by treatment: hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin, 157/783 (20.1% [95% CI: 17.3%-23.0%]), hydroxychloroquine alone, 162/1202 (13.5% [95% CI: 11.6%-15.5%]), azithromycin alone, 33/147 (22.4% [95% CI: 16.0%-30.1%]), and neither drug, 108/409 (26.4% [95% CI: 22.2%-31.0%]). […] Hydroxychloroquine provided a 66% hazard ratio reduction, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin 71% compared to neither treatment (p<0.001). […] In this multi-hospital assessment, when controlling for COVID-19 risk factors, treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin was associated with reduction in COVID-19 associated mortality.
32627127 The race to prevent and treat this disease has led to “off-label” prescribing of medications such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir).
32627319 Eight of 53 have been handled as outpatients because of mild disease, on average with immunosuppression reduction and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; no patients required admission, developed ARDS, or died.
32634080 Several compounds, including remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, interferon-β, ribavirin, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and ivermectin, have emerged as promising alternatives.
32635353 The treatment was well-tolerated in conjunction with standard drug therapies for COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc).
32641163 Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to be susceptible in vitro to exposure to hydroxychloroquine and its effect has been found to be potentiated by azithromycin. […] We hypothesise that early administration of hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin can prevent respiratory deterioration in patients admitted to intensive care due to rapidly progressive COVID-19 infection. […] Patients will be randomised in 1:1:1 ratio to receive Hydroxychloroquine 800 mg orally in two doses followed by 400 mg daily in two doses and azithromycin 500 mg orally in one dose followed by 250 mg in one dose for a total of 5 days (HC-A group) or hydroxychloroquine + placebo (HC group) or placebo + placebo (C-group) in addition to the best standard of care, which may evolve during the trial period but will not differ between groups.
32641874 Right at the center of the debate is the use of drug “Hydroxychloroquine” as a prophylaxis as well as a treatment strategy against Covid-19 in conjunction with azithromycin.
32646502 Patients will be followed-up by specialist physicians and Primary Health Care professionals. - Men and women. - Age between 18 and 75 years old. - Diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, by PCR and/or IgM+ antibody test and/or antigen test. - Clinical diagnosis of lung involvement: (respiratory symptoms +/- pathological auscultation +/- O2 desaturation) - Chest X-ray with mild-moderate alterations or normal. - Patients who give their verbal informed consent in front of witnesses, which will be reflected in the patients’ medical records. - Oxygen desaturation below 93% or P02 < 62. - Moderate-severe dyspnea or significant respiratory or general deterioration that makes admission advisable. - Chest X-ray with multifocal infiltrates. - Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor control or glycaemia in the emergency room test greater than 300 mg/ml (fasting or not). - Other significant comorbidities: Severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min); cirrhosis or chronic liver disease, poorly controlled hypertension. - Heart rhythm disturbances (including prolonged QT). - Severe immunosuppression (HIV infection, long-term use of immunosuppressive agents); cancer. - Pregnant or breast-feeding women. - Patients under use of glucocorticoids for other diseases. - History of allergy or intolerance to any of the drugs in the study (prednisone, azithromycin or hydroxychloroquine). - Patients who took one or more of the study drugs in the 7 days prior to study inclusion. - Patients taking non-suppressible drugs with risk of QT prolongation or significant interactions. - Patients unwilling or unable to participate until study completion. - Participation in another study. […] Eligible patients will be randomized to receive standard outpatient treatment only (group 1) or standard outpatient treatment plus prednisone (group 2). - Group 1: paracetamol 1 g/8 h (on demand) + hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/12h the first day, 200 mg/12 h for 4 days + azithromycin 500 mg/24h for 5 days. - Group 2: paracetamol 1 g/8 h (on demand) + hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/12h the first day, 200 mg/12 h for 4 days + azithromycin 500 mg/24h for 5 days + prednisone 60 mg / 24 h for 3 days, 30 mg / 24 h for 3 days and 15 mg / 24 h for 3 days.
32646657 It is also important to pay attention to possible drug interactions, especially in the case of tacrolimus, with some of the treatments with antiviral effect given in the context of COVID 19 (lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin).
32649262 In particular, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, as well as antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir and lopinavir can all present potential ototoxic side effects.
32650197 When COVID-19 patients can be treated within several days of symptom onset, using PTX + DIP in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and an antibiotic - azithromycin (AZM) or doxycycline - might be warranted.
32650356 The patient was admitted to our department and treated with hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, darunavir, azithromycin and enoxaparin.
32654098 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin have been used for treatment of COVID-19, but may cause QT prolongation. […] Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and/or azithromycin were associated with QTc prolongation but did not result in fatal arrhythmias.
  1. Researchers’ claim that nutrition and immunity enhancers and treatment plans such as arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells and drugs including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and favipiravir are effective against COVID-19.
32664810 Results & methodology: Here we present two successful cases of tocilizumab administration in two COVID-19 patients with prior administration of antiviral therapy (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir and ritonavir) with adequate response and resolution of ARDS, septic shock and severe pneumonia within the first 72 h.
32667444 We do not recommend the routine use of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, corticosteroids, or tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19.
32668165 Second, many CF patients are treated with azithromycin, which suppresses viral infection and lung inflammation and inhibits the activity of furin, a serine protease.
32674206 Disease progression and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin ere associated with increased all-cause 30-day mortality in patients with cancer compared with patients either in remission or with no evidence of disease, according to data presented during a 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology Virtual Scientific Program press briefing.
32674929 In a recently published study by Gautret et al. the authors concluded that hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin reduced viral load.
32676695 To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. […] Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days.
32677113 Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin has been investigated for activity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but concerns about adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects have been raised. […] This study evaluated claims data to determine if risks for CV events were increased with hydroxychloroquine alone or combined with azithromycin. […] The number of CV events increased by 25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8, 42, p=0.005) per 1000 people per year of treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone compared with pretreatment levels and by 201 (95% CI: 145, 256, p<0.001) events per 1000 people per year when individuals took hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] These rates translate to an additional 0.34 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.58) CV events per 1000 patients placed on a 5-day treatment with hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.99, 3.51) per 1000 patients on a 5-day treatment with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] The rate of adverse events increased with age following exposure to hydroxychloroquine alone and combined with azithromycin. […] For females aged 60 to 79 years prescribed hydroxychloroquine, the rate of adverse CV events was 0.92 per 1000 patients on 5 days of therapy, but it increased to 4.78 per 1000 patients when azithromycin was added. […] These data suggest that hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin is likely safe in individuals under 60 years of age if they do not have additional CV risks. […] However, the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin should be used with extreme caution in older patients.
32678882 Azithromycin or doxycycline was prescribed at a similar rate among hospitalized and ambulatory patients (38% versus 40%).
32682360 Performed subgroup analysis, in the patients receiving azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine and other antibiotics plus hydroxychloroquine, the duration of hospitalization was shorter in azithromycin group (p=0,027). […] Combination therapy with azithromycin may be preferred in the first treatment choice because it can shorten the length of hospital stay.
32682788 Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials.
32683060 Recent publication of several observational studies has generated much discussion surrounding efficacy of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, stressing the need for high-quality prospective, randomized control trials in patients with COVID-19.
32685300 Later, their clinical course worsened despite ongoing treatment with multiple medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin until they were started on tocilizumab.
32686633 Hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin has been increasingly used for patients with coronavirus disease 2019, in both children and adults. […] We aimed to report our experience of QT interval evaluation associated with the use of hydroxychloroquine with concurrent azithromycin among children testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019.
32687485 She was also started on ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and subcutaneous heparin (5000 U every 8 h) for VTE prophylaxis. […] Ceftriaxone and azithromycin were discontinued the very next day because of low suspicion of bacterial infection while hydroxychloroquine was completed for 5 days.
32687630 This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from phase II and phase II/III clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a phase II/III study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination.
32687645 To assess clinical outcomes and adverse drug events in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 treated with off-label hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (Az).
32687917 Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32691699 We aim to discuss current clinical evidence regarding chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, and the cardiovascular burden of COVID-19. […] We found conflicting evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and remdesivir in COVID-19 despite promising early reports of in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. […] Some of the current studies have demonstrated adverse drug reactions to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] There is no convincing clinical evidence of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, and remdesivir use in COVID-19.
32695323 Most patients (80%) were treated with oral hydroxychloroquine for a median time of 6.5 days [interquartile range (IQR) 5-14.5] and 40% received azithromycin; two patients received a short course of antivirals and one received a single dose of tocilizumab.
32696108 Non-specific immune modulators include human immunoglobulin, corticosteroids such as dexamethasone, interferons, statins, angiotensin pathway modulators, macrolides (e.g. azithromycin, clarithromycin), hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, colchicine, and prostaglandin D2 modulators such as ramatroban.
32696429 Azithromycin, in association with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, has been proposed as one such medication. […] The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacological mechanism, clinical evidence and prescribing guidelines concerning azithromycin in COVID-19 patients. […] There is weak evidence on the antiviral and immunomodulating effects of azithromycin, which in addition is not based on results from COVID-19 patients specifically. […] After the initial expectations raised by a small trial, more recent evidence has raised serious safety concerns on the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with azithromycin to treat COVID-19 patients, as all these drugs have arrhythmogenic potential. […] The World Health Organization has not made recommendations suggesting the use of azithromycin with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as treatment for COVID-19, but some national organisations have taken a different position, recommending this as first-line treatment.
32698191 In macaques, we tested different treatment strategies in comparison to a placebo treatment, before and after peak viral load, alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZTH).
32701969 Co-administration of azithromycin was not associated with improved outcomes.
32706953 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have been used to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). […] Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive standard care, standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, or standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily plus azithromycin at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 7 days. […] As compared with standard care, the proportional odds of having a higher score on the seven-point ordinal scale at 15 days was not affected by either hydroxychloroquine alone (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 2.11; P = 1.00) or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.73; P = 1.00). […] Prolongation of the corrected QT interval and elevation of liver-enzyme levels were more frequent in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, than in those who were not receiving either agent. […] Among patients hospitalized with mild-to-moderate Covid-19, the use of hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, did not improve clinical status at 15 days as compared with standard care.
32707160 Thus, the aim of this study was to review and evaluate the literature data on the toxicity of the selected individual drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and umifenovir) and the available clinical data concerning the possible adverse effects of the selected drug combinations (lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir, lopinavir/ritonavir + interferon β, chloroquine + remdesivir, and chloroquine + azithromycin).
32708858 After treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, despite his low chances, he gradually recovered and survived.
32709838 The patient was initially started on oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32714705 Due to concerns of pneumonia, he received meropenem and azithromycin in addition to the infusion of γ-globulin and glycyrrhizin.
32715804 She received lopinavir/ritonavir and azithromycin as well as early methyl prednisolone therapy.
32717568 Interestingly, azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic in combination with hydroxychloroquine, might yield clinical benefit as an adjunctive.
32718127 In this case series, 13.2% patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, 64.9% with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 18.4% with regimens including favipiravir.
32723092 This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant.
32724028 He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and ceftriaxone, and was discharged home after five days of inpatient treatment.
32731139 During their treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin and favipiravir, ventricular tachycardia episodes were observed in in two COVID-19 patients during their hospitalization in the intensive care unit.
32735546 The top 10 candidates according to our algorithm are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, chloroquine, ritonavir, losartan, remdesivir, favipiravir, methylprednisolone, rapamycin, and tilorone dihydrochloride.
32735768 Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α- 2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone).
32738306 In addition, the effects of these drugs were improved by simultaneous administration of azithromycin (AZM).
32738843 Covid-19 patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin according to prevalent guidelines.
32750190 Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin enhances the reduction of the viral load in COVID-19 patients.
32752938 Currently, there are no clinically proven pharmacotherapies for coronavirus disease 2019, despite promising initial results obtained from drugs such as azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine.
32752944 However, some potential antimalarial drugs like hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, antifilarial drug ivermectin and antiviral drugs have been tested by many research groups worldwide for their possible effect against the COVID-19. […] Therefore, this review focuses on the current use of various drugs as single agents (hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, azithromycin, favipiravir, remdesivir, umifenovir, teicoplanin, nitazoxanide, doxycycline, and dexamethasone) or in combinations with immunomodulators additionally.
32753141 Among candidate drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) has received intense worldwide attention.
32754388 In this article, we have compiled comprehensive data on many candidate drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, umifenovir, arbidol, lopinavir, ritonavir, baricitinib, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, azithromycin, baloxavir, oseltamivir, losartan, and tocilizumab.
32754599 Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity.
32755653 Prescribed anti-infective agents were lopinavir-ritonavir (n=12), azithromycin (AZI) (n=28) and AZI combined with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (n=52).
32756065 Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed as an antiviral in 90% of cases, both as monotherapy (11.7%), and combined with protease inhibitors (43.6%) or azithromycin (36.2%).
32756980 He was diagnosed as incomplete KD with COVID-19 infection and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (2 g/kg), oral aspirin and azithromycin.
32760619 There was minimal improvement in her vestibular symptoms with the recommended COVID-19 treatment as of March 2020 (hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) and symptomatic management.
32762368 Recent reports have suggested an increased risk of QT prolongation and subsequent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsade de pointes, in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. […] Despite the correction of hypoxemia and the absence of reversible factors, such as adverse medication effects, electrolyte derangements, and usage of hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, the QT interval remained persistently prolonged compared with the baseline with subsequent degeneration into ventricular tachycardia and death.
32763357 To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin) in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. […] The primary end point was to assess the impact of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, on outcome, length of hospitalization, and time to clinical improvement. […] Finally, we observed a slight QTc prolongation from a baseline of 444 ± 26 ms to 464 ± 32 ms (mean±SD) among patients receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin.
32766537 Systemic steroid, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were concomitantly used for majority of the patients.
32768505 These include anti-viral agents (remdesivir, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, umifenovir), immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab, interferons, plasma transfusions), and adjunctive agents (azithromycin, corticosteroids), among other miscellaneous agents.
32768971 These include different classes of drugs such as antiviral agents (chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab), supporting agents (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, azithromycin, corticosteroids) and promising investigational vaccines.
32770825 Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). […] To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective.
32771032 To evaluate the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate (200 mg orally 8 hourly thrice a day for 5 days), versus oseltamivir (75 mg orally twice a day for 5 days), and versus Azithromycin (500 mg orally daily on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally twice a day on days 2-5) alone and in combination (in all seven groups), in clearing the coronavirus (COVID-19) nucleic acid from throat and nasal swab and in bringing about clinical improvement on day 7 of follow-up (primary outcomes). […] There will be a total of seven comparator groups: Each drug (Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate, Oseltamivir and Azithromycin) given as monotherapy (three groups); combinations of each of two drugs (three groups); and a final group on triple drug regimen.
32772069 Groups were similar except for hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use, which were more common in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone.
32773414 Majority of the patients were managed with supportive treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin given on a case-to-case basis.
32774271 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone; however, he remained febrile, hypoxemic, continued to require full mechanical ventilator support and his chest X-ray showed increased bilateral infiltrates.
32785135 Our objective was to develop and validate a strategy to assess risk for adverse drug events (ADE) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ), alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32790733 Among 2512 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 there have been 547 deaths (22%), 1539 (61%) discharges and 426 (17%) remain hospitalized. 1914 (76%) received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and 1473 (59%) received hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. […] After adjusting for imbalances via propensity modeling, compared to receiving neither drug, there were no significant differences in associated mortality for patients receiving any hydroxychloroquine during the hospitalization (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.22]), hydroxychloroquine alone (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]), or hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.75-1.28]). […] The 30-day unadjusted mortality for patients receiving hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, the combination or neither drug was 25%, 20%, 18%, and 20%, respectively. […] This observational cohort study suggests hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, was not associated with a survival benefit among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32802622 Multiple therapeutic options, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZI), were tried initially to treat moderate to severe COVID-19 and high-risk patients in LTCFs, but they were abandoned due to unfavorable reports.
32802983 Density functional theory (DFT) was performed in order to predict the structural, chemical descriptors and optoelectronic properties of the drugs Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using the wB97XD, O3LYP and B3LYP functional with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. […] Hence, the treatment of COVID-19 using Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in some patients as single dose and their combination in patients with Corona virus resistance can be more effective.
32804279 In addition, specific drugs for SARS-CoV2 infection under investigation impair neuromuscular function significantly; chloroquine and azithromycin are not recommended in myasthenia gravis without available ventilatory support and prolonged prone positioning may influence options for treatment.
32804802 Treatment for COVID-19 included frequently hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, high dose steroids, lopinavir/ritonavir and tocilizumab.
32804920 The patient had an untoward clinical course despite treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and corticosteroids, dying on the third day of hospitalization.
32807209 Azithromycin is an orally active synthetic macrolide antibiotic with a wide range of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. […] Azithromycin was widely used to treat severe SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but to date, no randomised data are available in any coronavirus infections. […] Other ongoing trials are exploring short courses of azithromycin either in early disease, within the first 7 days of symptoms, when azithromycin’s antiviral properties may be important, or late in disease when anti-bacterial properties may reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infection. […] ATOMIC2 is a phase II/III, multi-centre, prospective, open-label, two-arm randomised superiority clinical trial of azithromycin versus standard care for adults presenting to hospital with COVID-19 symptoms who are not admitted at initial presentation. […] Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to usual care or to azithromycin 500 mg orally daily for 14 days with telephone follow-up at days 14 and 28. […] This trial will determine the clinical utility of azithromycin in patients with moderately severe, clinically diagnosed COVID-19 and could be rapidly applicable worldwide.
32809050 In stable patients with oxygen treatment (stage I) HCQ (18.3%), azithromycin (16.9%) and Ig (9.9%) were most frequently used.
32809210 Based on our study, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, either alone or in combination with azithromycin, remdesivir, corticosteroids, convalescent sera, ritonavir/lopinavir, tocilizumab and arbidol were evaluated as therapeutic options.
32810081 A regimen of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and dexamethasone was initiated on admission in all cases.
32821381 But contradictory evidence exists on the clinical use of CQ/HCQ, either alone or in combination with azithromycin. […] As of now, there is no compelling clinical evidence on CQ, HCQ, and azithromycin in COVID-19 and the available evidence is limited to methodologically inferior non-randomised studies. […] Studies have also shown detrimental drug reactions to CQ and ‘HCQ plus azithromycin’, mainly cardiac side effects in hospitalised patients with coexisting cardiovascular comorbidities.
32827400 Repurposing of drugs from different pharmacological groups including antivirals like remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir, penciclovir, favipiravir, ganciclovir, and ribavirin; other antibiotics like azithromycin, ivermectin, eravacycline, valrubicin, streptomycin, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, caspofungin, and colistin; and other agents like hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, camostat, nafamostat, carfilzomib, interferon, aprepitant, and dexamethasone can be considered for COVID-19 therapy.
32827987 The combination of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin showed effectiveness as a treatment for COVID-19 and is being used widely all around the world. […] This study aimed to assess the impact of a 5-day course of HCQ and azithromycin combination on ECG in non-ICU COVID19(+) patients. […] All patients received 5-day protocol of HCQ and azithromycin combination.
32828120 Data further show that none of the medicines like remdesivir, hydroxy chloroquin, dexamethasone, or azithromycin improves survival and response to Covid in cancer patients.
32828896 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin treatment was associated with a lower ICU admission rate (P=0.008). […] This may be due to the care bundle used in our hospital (early hospitalisation, treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and/or corticosteroids, non-invasive respiratory support, etc).
32834942 A number of antiviral drugs such as Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Azithromycin and Doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients.
32835062 Although the association between Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin efficacy lack of solid evidence-base, several governments have adopted it for all virology confirmed Covid-19 cases even for those who are asymptomatic.
32835257 All patients were treated with the standard of care (ie, supplemental oxygen, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antiretrovirals, and low molecular weight heparin), and a non-randomly selected subset of patients also received tocilizumab.
32835316 Observational studies have suggested increased arrhythmic and cardiovascular risk with the combination use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
32837984 In terms of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy, although WHO has stopped all the clinic trials due to its strong side-effects in COVID patients, large scale clinical trials with a long-term outcome follow-up may warrant HCQ and azithromycin combination in combating the virus.
32838150 There are many reports available now, which are mostly observational or registry trial outcomes having varied results on coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients put on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination.
32838264 There are also pregnancy safety and placental transfer data for colchicine, steroids, oseltamivir, azithromycin, and some monoclonal antibodies.
32838355 Despite limited and conflicting evidence, hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with azithromycin, is widely used in COVID-19 therapy. […] Patients hospitalized within 24 h of diagnosis were classified based on their exposure to hydroxychloroquine alone (HC) or with azithromycin (HC+AZ) or no HC as treatments. […] Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, this retrospective study did not identify any significant reduction in mortality or in the need for mechanical ventilation with hydroxychloroquine treatment with or without azithromycin.
32839385 A prolonged QTc was independently associated with a higher mortality even after adjustment for age, comorbidities, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
32839670 We hypothesized that HCQ and azithromycin have not been reported to cause significant acute cardiac arrhythmic mortality. […] We performed a literature search for the effects of HCQ and azithromycin on the heart. […] No TDP or related deaths were found to have been reported as a result of HCQ and azithromycin receipt in the peer-reviewed literature. […] On the contrary, HCQ and azithromycin were both found to substantially reduce cardiac mortality and also decrease thrombosis, arrhythmia and cholesterol in treated patients in recent peer-reviewed studies and meeting presentations. […] HCQ and azithromycin do not cause TDP cardiac mortality; rather, HCQ decreases cardiac events.
32839756 Azithromycin is one such broad-spectrum therapeutic that is both included in the University of Oxford’s RECOVERY and excluded from the World Health Organization’s SOLIDARITY trials. […] Here we review azithromycin’s broad antibiotic, antimalarial, antiviral pharmacology and contextualise it against a broader history as the most disease-repositioned therapeutic of the macrolide class; we further evaluate azithromycin’s clinical and socio-economic propriety for respiratory pandemics and delineate a model for its combinatorial mechanism of action against COVID-19 pneumonia.
32843231 Patients had previously received combinations of azithromycin, hydroxy-chloroquine, and methyl-prednisolone.
32843598 In the first post-operative week the patient suffered COVID-19 pneumonia that was treated with immunosuppression minimization, oral Hydroxycloroquine and Azithromycin with favorable outcome.
32844224 In March 2020, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZI) were proposed as potential treatments of COVID-19, but with warnings concerning their possible toxicity.
32848446 Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment.
32849658 Here, we review the progress of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as anti-viral agents, failed clinical trials of chloroquine in treatment of dengue virus and influenza infection, and especially the mechanism of azithromycin in inhibiting viral replication, so as to shed light on the ongoing clinical trials and further researches of hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
32849934 The therapeutic effect of HCQ was established initially by two clinical trials; one of them showing a reinforcing effect by azithromycin but subsequent studies did not elicit any effectiveness rather increased rate of adverse events was reported.
32850082 Despite initiation of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin along with supplemental oxygen therapy, rapid disease progression consistent with cytokine release syndrome ensued, leading to initiation of mechanical ventilatory support.
32850261 Results Impact of various clinical treatments was assessed, showing no change in median overall survival (OS) of both hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or vitamin C with zinc.
32850924 The “Intervention group” received anti-malarial drugs with or without other drugs (Azithromycin) administered as an adjunct to the standard treatment/care. […] Compared to the control, HCQ plus Azithromycin (AZM) significantly increased mortality [(OR 2.84; 95% CI 2.19-3.69); four observational studies; N = 2,310]. […] Conclusions: As very low quality evidence suggests an increased risk of mortality and adverse event with HCQ plus Azithromycin combination (not HCQ alone), caution should be exercised while prescribing this combination for treatment of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 infection.
32852405 The symptomatic patients were treated with Hydroxychloroquine (83%), Azithromycin (89%) and Tocilizumab (23%).
32853038 Azithromycin exhibits both properties and therefore may play a role. […] This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of azithromycin in viral infections, with emphasis on COVID-19. […] Azithromycin presents in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and could act in different points of the viral cycle. […] Azithromycin use was associated with a reduction in mortality and ventilation days in other viral infections. […] Azithromycin has been assessed in retrospective observational studies mainly in combination with hydroxychloroquine, which has shown to provide no benefit. […] Upcoming clinical trials will determine the role of azithromycin in the COVID-19 (including the stage of the disease where it offers the greatest benefits and the effect of its combination with other drugs).
32853604 We found that Teicoplanin is about 10-20 fold more potent in inhibiting protease activity than other drugs in use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, atazanavir etc.
32853672 As no specific pharmacological treatment has been validated for use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we aimed to assess the effectiveness of azithromycin (AZM) in these patients at a referral centre in Iran.
32853675 All patients received therapy with HCQ in combination with azithromycin (AZM), and 95 (90%) also with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
32854774 Here, we present a case of 27-year-old, otherwise healthy man, who was successfully treated with chloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab and a standard of care.
32857620 We assessed azithromycin’s effect on the aforementioned genes and their associated pathways to evaluate its potential use as a possible treatment. […] Confirm the role azithromycin may play in the regulation of pathways and genes involved in inflammation and SARS-CoV-2 activation and cell-to-cell transmission. […] Primary airway nasal epithelial cells collected from nasal biopsies of three patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were primary cultured and treated or not with 10µg of azithromycin. […] Cell cultures treated with 10µg of azithromycin significantly downregulated receptor-mediated endocytosis canonical pathways involving TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS11D genes. […] This proof of concept demonstrates azithromycin downregulates pathways involving serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS11D required for SARS-CoV-2 activation and its cell-to-cell transmission while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, NDST-1 and their associated pathways. […] Finally, azithromycin may also decrease available cholesterol in lipid rafts which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32860038 Harvey Risch, that reviewed several papers and argued that using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) early to treat symptomatic COVID-19 cases in high-risk patients should be broadly applied.
32860962 Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without azithromycin have been widely promoted to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following early in vitro antiviral effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). […] The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin decreased COVID-19 mortality compared with the standard of care. […] We included published and unpublished studies comparing the mortality rate between patients treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and patients managed with standard of care. […] Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. […] All studies except one were conducted on hospitalized patients and evaluated the effects of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. […] After excluding studies with critical risk of bias, the meta-analysis included 11 932 participants for the hydroxychloroquine group, 8081 for the hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin group and 12 930 for the control group. […] Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin was associated with an increased mortality (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, n = 7 studies). […] Hydroxychloroquine alone was not associated with reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients but the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin significantly increased mortality.
32862840 Hydroxychloroquine (CLQ-OH)/azithromycin (ATM) combination therapy is currently being tested for the treatment of COVID-19, with promising results.
32864162 In this review, we summarized the pharmacogenomic literature available for COVID-19 drug therapies including hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, interferon beta-1b, tocilizumab, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and corticosteroids. […] We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also describe the complexity of the risk for QT prolongation in this setting because of additive effects of combining more than one QT-prolonging drug (i.e., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin), increased concentrations of the drugs due to genetic variants, along with the risk of also combining therapy with potent inhibitors.
32864192 In multivariate analysis of 216 patients with very severe COVID-19, treatment with azithromycin or low dose corticosteroids was associated with lower OM (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.2-0.89 and OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.87, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas the use of hidroxycloroquine did not show significant improvement in OM (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.37-1.1, P = 0.1). […] Use of azithromycin and low dose corticosteroids may be of value in very severe COVID-19.
32864627 We studied the safety of hydroxychloroquine, alone and in combination with azithromycin, to determine the risk associated with its use in routine care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. […] Separately, severe adverse events associated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (compared with hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin) were studied. […] The study included 956 374 users of hydroxychloroquine, 310 350 users of sulfasalazine, 323 122 users of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 351 956 users of hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin. […] Addition of azithromycin appeared to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 2·19 [95% CI 1·22-3·95]), chest pain or angina (1·15 [1·05-1·26]), and heart failure (1·22 [1·02-1·45]). […] The addition of azithromycin increases the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality even in the short term.
32869558 Among antibiotics for infection therapy, azithromycin was suggested.
32871238 All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days.
32871342 Azithromycin is one such broad-spectrum therapeutic that is both included in the University of Oxford’s RECOVERY and excluded from the World Health Organization’s SOLIDARITY trials. […] Here we review azithromycin’s broad antibiotic, antimalarial, antiviral pharmacology and contextualise it against a broader history as the most repositioned therapeutic of the macrolide class; we further evaluate azithromycin’s clinical and socio-economic propriety for respiratory pandemics and delineate a model for its combinatorial mechanism of action against COVID-19 pneumonia.
32871902 She was treated with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and the rash with topical corticosteroids.
32872629 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin despite the lack of conclusive evidence for their safety and efficacy. […] We evaluated the association between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin and hospital mortality as the primary outcome. […] We compared the hospital mortality of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or their combination to the mortality of patients who received neither drug. […] Five hundred and eighty-seven patients (42%) received azithromycin and 377 patients (27%) received hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination. […] After the adjusted analysis, azithromycin alone was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.85) compared to no treatment. […] Hydroxychloroquine alone (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.08) and the combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77-1.69) were not associated with hospital mortality. […] In this cohort of patients, azithromycin alone was associated with lower hospital mortality but hydroxychloroquine was not associated with increased or reduced mortality. […] While we await randomized clinical trials, these data support the use of azithromycin in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can contribute to better understanding of its role in further meta-analyses.
32876222 Although there are no large-scale studies regarding the use of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine, due to the global situation, its use has been authorized for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory effect, which can be potentiated with the use of azithromycin.
32876249 The rationale behind the prescription of macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin) for Covid-19 is obscure as well.
32877391 Regarding treatment with hydroxychloroquine associated or not with azithromycin, there is evidence of a higher risk with its use than clinical benefit and decreased mortality.
32881315 Patients received hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (75%), augmented steroids (44%), tocilizumab (19%), and remdesivir (9%). 11 patients (34%) died at a median time of 14 days from admission.
32881656 The most common under trial drugs for COVID-19 are Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like Amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
32881982 The objective of this study was to analyze whether there is an association between the use of azithromycin and the evolution of the pulmonary disease or the time to discharge, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. […] There were 239 patients treated with azithromycin. […] Of these, 29 patients treated with azithromycin could be matched with an equivalent number of control patients. […] In the analysis of these matched subcohorts, SAFI at 48h had no significant changes associated to the use of azithromycin, though azithromycin treatment was associated with a longer time to discharge (10.0 days vs 6.7 days; log rank: p = 0.039). […] However, in the unmatched cohorts, the increased hospital stay associated to azithromycin use, was no significant after adjustment using Multivariate Cox regression models: hazard ratio 1.45 (IC95%: 0.88-2.41; p = 0.150). […] We did not find a clinical benefit associated with the use of azithromycin, in terms of lung function 48 hours after treatment or length of hospital stay.
32888379 A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19. […] Estimators of LQTS risk levels indicated a very high or moderate risk for all COVID-19 repurposed drugs with the exception for azithromycin, although cases of TdP have been reported with this drug.
32890069 During hospitalization, COVID-19 patients received azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine in addition to their ongoing therapy.
32896292 The efficacy and safety of azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19 remain uncertain. […] We assessed whether adding azithromycin to standard of care, which included hydroxychloroquine, would improve clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19. […] Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg via oral, nasogastric, or intravenous administration once daily for 10 days) plus standard of care or to standard of care without macrolides. […] COVID-19 was confirmed in 397 patients who constituted the mITT population, of whom 214 were assigned to the azithromycin group and 183 to the control group. […] In the mITT population, the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the azithromycin and control groups (OR 1·36 [95% CI 0·94-1·97], p=0·11). […] In patients with severe COVID-19, adding azithromycin to standard of care treatment (which included hydroxychloroquine) did not improve clinical outcomes. […] Our findings do not support the routine use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19.
32898845 Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and steroids were the most frequently prescribed drugs.
32914465 Besides, symptoms of infection, adverse effects from the 600 mg hydroxychloroquine daily plus azithromycin, including insomnia, headaches, skin reactions, digestive upset with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, blurred vision, and local pain, may lead to increased anxiety and mental distress.
32920000 Improvement of COVID-19 clinical condition was seen in studies where combination of antiretroviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, as well as immunomodulant antimalaric, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine together with the macrolide-type antibiotic, azithromycin, was used for patient’s treatment. […] Thus, by using in silico toxicogenomic data-mining approach, we aimed to assess both risks and benefits of the COVID-19 treatment with the most promising candidate drugs combinations: lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin interacted with 6 genes (CCL2, CTSB, CXCL8, IL1B, IL6 and TNF), whereas chloroquine and azithromycin affected two additional genes (BCL2L1 and CYP3A4), which might be a reason behind a greater number of consequential diseases. […] In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6. […] As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases.
32923151 Amid controversial reports that COVID-19 can be treated with a combination of the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), a clinical trial (ONCOCOVID, NCT04341207) was launched at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus to investigate the utility of this combination therapy in cancer patients.
32924964 Among the proposed therapeutic regimen, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, remdisevir, azithromycin, toclizumab and cromostat mesylate have shown promising results, and limited benefit was seen with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19.
32926573 Conflicting evidence regarding the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection do exist. […] We recorded 146 deaths: 35 in no treatment, 7 in HCQ treatment group, and 102 in HCQ + azithromycin treatment group (log rank test for Kaplan-Meier curve P < 0.001). […] At multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.057, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.035-1.079, P < 0.001), mechanical ventilation/continuous positive airway pressure (HR 2.726, 95% CI 1.823-4.074, P < 0.001), and C reactive protein above the median (HR 2.191, 95% CI 1.479-3.246, P < 0.001) were directly associated with death, whereas use of HCQ + azithromycin (vs. no treatment; HR 0.265, 95% CI 0.171-0.412, P < 0.001) was inversely associated. […] In this study, we found a reduced in-hospital mortality in patients treated with a combination of HCQ and azithromycin after adjustment for comorbidities.
32930657 As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulphate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulphate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.Aim. […] To compare outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients ordered to receive hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc sulphate versus hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone.Methodology. […] Patients taking zinc sulphate in addition to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (n=411) and patients taking hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone (n=521) did not differ in age, race, sex, tobacco use or relevant comorbidities.
32932327 All patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and low-molecular-weight heparin at anticoagulant dose.
32936252 Administration of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the risk and degree of QT prolongation in patients with COVID-19 in association with their use of hydroxychloroquine with or without concomitant azithromycin. […] Change in QT interval after receiving hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; occurrence of other potential adverse drug events. […] Among 90 patients given hydroxychloroquine, 53 received concomitant azithromycin; 44 (48.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.5 (6.6). […] The overall median (interquartile range) baseline QTc was 455 (430-474) milliseconds (hydroxychloroquine, 473 [454-487] milliseconds vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, 442 [427-461] milliseconds; P < .001). […] Those receiving concomitant azithromycin had a greater median (interquartile range) change in QT interval (23 [10-40] milliseconds) compared with those receiving hydroxychloroquine alone (5.5 [-15.5 to 34.25] milliseconds; P = .03). […] Of those who received concomitant azithromycin, 11 of 53 (21%) had prolonged QTc of 500 milliseconds or more and 7 of 53 (13 %) had a change in QTc of 60 milliseconds or more. […] In this cohort study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc. […] Clinicians should carefully weigh risks and benefits if considering hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, with close monitoring of QTc and concomitant medication usage.
32947506 It was seen that hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZI) combination regimen increased the mortality rate in COVID-19 (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.36) patients, however, it also showed benefits associated with the viral clearance in patients (OR 27.18, 95% CI 1.29-574.32).
32948577 There are also at least 25 registered trials of azithromycin (n=53), convalescent plasma (n=38), lopinavir/ritonavir (n=30), stem cell treatments (n=29) and tocilizumab (n=25). 142 trials were registered in the first 3 months of 2020, and 488 trials were registered between 1 April and 1 May 2020.
32953343 Most patients were treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, zinc, and vitamin C.
32953968 Multivariate cox proportional hazards analysis showed that primary endpoint (mortality) was determined by overweight/obesity (OR 1.290, 95% CI 0.115-0.730; p = 0.009), ferritin levels (OR 1.001, 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p < 0.001), myocardial injury (OR 3.764, 95% CI 1.307-10.838; p = 0.014), septic shock (OR 4.104, 95% CI 1.142-14.132; p = 0.024), acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR 3.001, 95% CI 1.008-10.165; p = 0.040), and treatment with Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (OR 0.357, 95% IC 0.133-0.955; p = 0.040).
32954790 Some results from a limited number of trials of antiviral medications, along with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have been beneficial.
32956575 Increased use of azithromycin (AZ) in treating infections associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reports of increased incidence of prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval associated with AZ used with hydroxychloroquine prompted us to review the latest evidence in the literature, present additional analyses of human cardiovascular (CV) electrophysiology studies, and to describe sequential steps in research and development that were undertaken to characterize the benefit-risk profile of AZ.
32956782 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZT) have been proposed for COVID-19 treatment.
32958120 Combination therapy using chloroquine (CQ) and azithromycin (AZM) has drawn great attention due to its potential anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2.
32960100 Evidence from COVID-19 treatment suggests QT/QTc prolongation is of concern, particularly when used in combination with azithromycin, although disagreement exists across studies.
32961675 Combined hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir was found in 40% of protocols. […] The recommended treatment for patients with mild and moderate pneumonias was different antiviral combinations including hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (93.3%) or hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir/ritonavir (79.9%). […] Different combinations of hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir (46.7%) and triple therapy with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir (40%) were the most recommended treatments for patients with severe pneumonia.
32964098 In this article, we provide a brief overview of the protocol and then analyse the QT changes observed in a group of patients during their hospitalization and treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 81 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the protocol (age 63.4 SD 17.2 years; 70.3% men), while being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, both individually or combined.
32967849 These data support the concept that favipiravir could be paired with at least one more off-target antiviral agent (doxycycline, azithromycin, ivermectin) followed by corticosteroids and antithrombotics to prevent COVID-19 hospitalization and death in those over age 50 an or those with one or more comorbidities.
32968208 Later, under a limited emergency-use authorization from the FDA, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin was used to treat COVID-19 patients in the USA, although the mechanisms of the anti-COVID-19 effects remain unclear.
32968582 Initially, he was treated with IV anticoagulation, oral beta-blocker, azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, but he dramatically deteriorated within a week exhibiting a highly elevated cytokine level eventually resulting in multi-system organ failure.
32969125 Azithromycin (AZM) is a synthetic macrolide antibiotic effective against a broad range of bacterial and mycobacterial infections.
32969369 There are ongoing clinical trials on potential drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids tocilizumab, azithromycin, anakinra, etc. and other therapeutic modalities like convalescent plasma therapy.
32972196 In this review, we analysed the available clinical evidences regarding the potential anti-viral activity of macrolides, by focusing on erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin.
32974268 The drugs most actively tested in various centers include hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, azithromycin, tocilizumab, lopinavir chloroquine and ivermectin.
32978702 Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from “Solidarity,” an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir).
32981089 At the doses used, the two agents, given alone or with azithromycin (AZM), are not effective in COVID-19 infection.
32983701 Most of them were treated either by ivermectin plus azithromycin or ivermectin plus doxycycline.
32989427 She was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and doxycycline at an outside facility and finished the treatment 5 days prior to admission to our facility.
32997237 The following variables were extracted for this study: age, gender, temperature, and saturation of oxygen on admission, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, heparin, steroids, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, together with data on mortality.
32998618 The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir.
33003964 Hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin have been widely used to treat COVID-19 despite a paucity of evidence regarding efficacy. […] Methods - COVID-19 positive patients that received hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin across 13 hospitals between March 1st and April 15th were included in this study. […] Results - The primary outcome of TdP was observed in 1 (0.015%) out of 6,476 hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin. […] Sixty-seven (1.03%) had hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin held or discontinued due to an average QT prolongation of 60.5±40.5ms from a baseline QTc of 473.7±35.9ms to a peak QTc of 532.6±31.6ms. […] Of these patients, hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin were discontinued in 58 patients (86.6%), while one or more doses of therapy were held in the remaining nine (13.4%). […] Conclusions - The risk of torsade de pointes is low in hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin therapy.
33009770 In marginal structural model analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in odds of clinical improvement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.88-2.67, P = 0.132) nor risk of death (aOR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.35-1.20) when comparing the use of chloroquine/azithromycin versus other treatments.
33015819 The drug interactions involving drugs prescribed in dentistry are all moderate drug interactions and are (according to drug group): (1) antibiotics: azithromycin, clavulanate, doxycycline, erythromycin, levofloxacin; (2) antifungals: clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole; (3) non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NAIDS): celecoxib diclofenac, etodolac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, piroxicam.
33020340 Indonesian clinical practice guideline stated that (hydroxy)chloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin may be used to treat for COVID-19. […] However, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin all prolong the QT interval, raising concerns about the risk of arrhythmic death from individual or concurrent use of these medications.
33023552 Vancomycin, meropenem, azithromycin, voriconazole and co-trimoxazole were started from the first day of admission.
33024460 In addition, several antimicrobials that are currently used as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have uncertain benefit, and yet may induce electrocardiographic QT prolongation with potential ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects.
33029451 Based on available evidence, antivirals like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir specific medication like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma globulin, are not recommended, so early detection and supportive treatment is needed for an optimal outcome.
33031488 We sought to systematically evaluate the effect of CQ and HCQ with or without azithromycin on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. […] Six cohort studies examined the effect of the HCQ+azithromycin combination with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.00-1.75, I2 = 68.1%). […] Moderate certainty evidence suggests that HCQ, with or without azithromycin, lacks efficacy in reducing short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 or risk of hospitalization in outpatients with COVID-19.
33031729 Lopinavir-ritonavir combination and azithromycin treatments were given, and the patient’s symptoms regressed with treatment.
33031764 Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to either usual standard of care alone or usual standard of care plus lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) by mouth for 10 days or until discharge (or one of the other RECOVERY treatment groups: hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, or azithromycin) using web-based simple (unstratified) randomisation with allocation concealment.
33031797 So far, chloroquine, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ribavirin, darunavir, remdesivir, and umifenovir have been tested in COVID-19 clinical trials.
33033687 A total of 127 patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (95%).
33037151 Treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters with a low dose of favipiravir or hydroxychloroquine with(out) azithromycin resulted in, respectively, a mild or no reduction in virus levels.
33042826 In our series, hospitalization rate was 74%, 39% of patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the case-fatality rate was 35% (8/23). 87% of patients received anti-viral treatment (87% hydroxychloroquine, 74% lopinavir/ritonavir, 13% azithromycin), 43% corticosteroids, 26% interferon-β, 4% tocilizumab, and 82% of hospitalized patients received anticoagulation.
33044019 Although statistically insignificant, the HCQ/azithromycin (AZ) group had an overall mortality rate of 14.6% (n=199) compared with propensity matched no HCQ/+AZ cohort’s rate of 12.1% (n=199) (OR 1.24; 95% CI 0.70-2.22).
33045350 This paper highlights the potential of azithromycin and ambroxol to treat COVID-19. […] Azithromycin and ambroxol share lysosomotropic characteristics, i.e. they penetrate and accumulate inside the late endosomes and lysosomes and may possibly interfere with multiplication of the virus inside cells.
33054978 We report the effectiveness and adverse effects of triple therapy with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ciclesonide in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
33055313 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were the most involved. […] Conclusions Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin at dosages used for COVID-19 may be considered compatible and reasonably safe either in pregnancy and lactation.
33056942 According to the Moroccan recommendations, chloroquine and azithromycin were started.
33057434 Patients with moderate-severe disease received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, in line with evidence available at the time.
33058086 We sought to determine the effectiveness and safety of hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
33063447 The liberal administration of hydroxychloroquine-sulphate (HCQ) to COVID-19 patients has raised concern regarding the risk of QTc prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias, particularly when prescribed with azithromycin.
33064176 Upfront treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was started.
33064694 The pharmacological treatment was mainly based on azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and steroids.
33065103 Most patients in both groups also received hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, or both.
33065275 Age, gender, number of drugs daily taken, functional abilities, albuminemia, use of corticosteroids and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin or rovamycin), and hospitalization for COVID-19 were used as potential confounders.
33070913 He was treated with ciclesonide and azithromycin, but his respiratory condition deteriorated.
33075484 With increasing usage, there has been growing concern about the prolongation of QTc interval and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) with HCQ, especially in combination with azithromycin. […] This meta-analysis is planned to study the risk of QTc prolongation and Torsades de pointes (TdP) by a well-defined criterion for HCQ, CQ alone, and in combination with Azithromycin in patients with COVID-19.
33081817 The ProPac-COVID trial evaluates whether combination therapy with macrolide azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy, and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalization duration and reduce the risk of non-invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit, and death in patients with acute hospital admission and a positive test for 2019-nCoV and symptoms of COVID-19 disease.
33084144 Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were the most proposed antiviral strategies.
33094148 Finally, we address therapeutic aspects including perspectives of vaccines and some antimicrobial agents such as remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin and immunomodulators.
33097184 S protein binding to lipid rafts can be blocked by hydroxychloroquine, which binds to gangliosides, and by azithromycin, which binds to the NTD.
33098200 Therapies included hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (53%), protease inhibitors (37%), and interferon-β (5%), whereas immunomodulation was based on corticosteroids (41%) and tocilizumab (21%).
33098839 A combination of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZM) has been widely tried and discussed but its administration has also led to potential adversities in patients.
33101458 All patients received tocilizumab (8 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive days because of lack of improvement after hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir/ritonavir treatment.
33102533 Hundreds of trials are administering chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with/without azithromycin to COVID-19 patients.
33107292 Antibiotics were started in 38.6% of the patients and the most commonly used antibiotic was azithromycin (34.1%).
33108884 Subsequently a pharmacological therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was started.
33117441 Cardiac monitoring is warranted in people with established cardiac disease, and cardiac rhythm should be closely monitored when hydroxychloroquine is used with azithromycin, lopinavir, ritonavir or remdesivir.
33122096 The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the outpatient setting after early treatment with zinc, low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (triple therapy) dependent on risk stratification.
33130275 A widespread association of repurposed agents is the combination of the antimalarial drug Hydroxychloroquine and the macrolide antibiotic Azithromycin in the setting of clinical trials.
33132915 No data are provided about the effect of triple combination therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPN/RTN), hydroxychloroquine (HQ) and azithromycin (AZT) on corrected QT (QTc) interval and arrhythmic risk, in COVID-19 patients.
33133718 He was discharged from the emergency department with a 7-day course of azithromycin and quickly resumed his immunotherapies, but he experienced a flare in his myositis.
33137493 Ivermectin, azithromycin and oseltamivir did not substantially reduce risk further.
33138652 This review aims to provide recently presented techniques and protocols for efficient treatment of COVID-19 and investigate its morphology and treatment/prevention approaches, among which usage of antiviral drugs, anti-malarial drugs, corticosteroids, and traditional medicines, biotechnological drugs (e.g. combination of HCQ and azithromycin, remdesivir, interferons, novaferon, interferon-alpha-1b, thymosin, and monoclonal antibodies) can be mentioned.
33141805 The first era was characterized by the widespread use of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, and tocilizumab.
33147132 Ventricular tachycardia was rare (5%), nonsustained, and not associated with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin treatment.
33151895 We investigated Donald J Trump’s speeches and Twitter posts, as well as Google searches and Amazon purchases, and television airtime for mentions of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir. […] Following these tweets, at least 2% of airtime on conservative networks for treatment modalities like azithromycin and continuous mentions of such treatments were observed on stations like Fox News.
33152333 Based on the available studies, many with high risk of bias, relatively small sample sizes, and abbreviated follow-ups, HCQS is unlikely to be of dramatic benefit in COVID-19 patients and yet has the potential to cause harm, particularly when used in combination with azithromycin or other medications in high risk individuals with comorbidities.
33154234 The drugs used in the intervention group are Chloroquine (CQ)/Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with or without Azithromycin.
33155542 The most common treatments used were azithromycin (100%), hydroxychloroquine (66.7%), lopinavir/ritonavir (55.6%) and β-interferon (22.2%).
33155935 The drugs used for treatment of this disease (azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine) can prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram to increase the risk of pirouette tachycardia and sudden cardiac death.
33160408 Offspring whose father filled at least one prescription of the following medications in the 3 months preceding conception were considered exposed: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, losartan, azithromycin, naproxen, dexamethasone and prednisone. […] For azithromycin and naproxen, large numbers of offspring were exposed (> 1800 offspring), and we found no association with adverse birth outcomes. […] Our evidence suggests that azithromycin and naproxen are safe with respect to pre-term birth and birth defects.
33163895 We included studies that enrolled COVID-19 patients treated with CQ or HCQ, with or without azithromycin and reported on cardiac toxicities.
33164544 Combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) carries increased risk of corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias. […] To characterize the ventricular repolarization indexes which are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and concomitant azithromycin for COVID-19. […] A total of 81 patients who had hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy because of possible or reverse-transcription polymertase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study.
33166179 Early in the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were two such candidates. […] Assess the relative efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] We performed a randomized clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine vs. azithromycin among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] The estimated odds ratio for less favorable status on the ordinal scale for hydroxychloroquine vs. azithromycin from the primary analysis was 1.07, with a 95% credible interval from 0.63 to 1.83 with a posterior probability of 60% that hydroxychloroquine was worse than azithryomycin. […] Secondary outcomes displayed a similar, slight preference for azithromycin over hydroxychloroquine. […] Patients in the hydroxychloroquine arm received remdesivir more often than in the azithromycin arm (19% vs. […] While early termination limits the precision of our results, we found no suggestion of substantial efficacy for hydroxychloroquine over azithromycin. […] Acute kidney injury may be more common with hydroxychloroquine than azithromycin, although this may be due to the play of chance. […] Our results are consistent with conclusions from other trials that hydroxychloroquine cannot be recommended for inpatients with COVID-19; azithromycin may merit additional investigation.
33177406 Curves of the CT of all the cases, except case 2, concaved upward after prescribing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin. […] The timing of HCQ and azithromycin administration might be a key factor in the viral load reduction.
33186061 : Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and/or azithromycin was associated with QTp/TdP safety signals and their use should be monitored carefully.
33189890 A total of 116 (51.4%) patients received a course of oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) for ≥ 3 days; 47 (20.8%) died.
33190342 In addition, 64.8% of the patients had received azithromycin, 59.4% of the patients had received oseltamivir, and hydroxychloroquine was used in combination with azithromycin in 35.1% of the children.
33201863 The patient was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and supportive care.
33203811 Three of the selected compounds were carfilzomib, cyclosporine A, and azithromycin-the drugs that already are tested for COVID-19 treatment.
33204764 Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in combination with azithromycin, has raised safety concerns.
33205613 Here, we explored the potential effects on cardiac electrophysiology of four drugs proposed to treat COVID-19: lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, and azithromycin, as well as combination therapy involving these drugs.
33211371 Here, we identified azithromycin (AZ) as an effective inhibitor against multiple IAV and SARS-CoV-2 strains.
33211441 Hydroxychloroquine, sometines combined with azithromycin, has benefited for a while from a media buzz.
33219011 Median prescription: 13 active ingredients per patient (IQR 9-19). 73% (1093 patients) received hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or azithromycin, 81% as combination therapy.
33226664 PBPK model simulations suggest ELF exposure to attain a target concentration was adequate for most drugs, except for hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, atazanavir and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33227708 The preliminary in vitro studies on viral infection models showed potential antiviral activities of type I and III interferons (IFNs), chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZM); however, the clinical studies on COVID-19 patients treated with CQ/HCQ and AZM led to controversies in different regions due to their adverse side effects, as well as their combined treatment could prolong the QT interval.
33230404 Those were analgesics (paracetamol; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents); antibiotics (azithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole); antivirals (penciclovir); and immunomodulatory agents (hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids).
33231925 The goal of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety profile of the COVID-19 treatment protocol (containing both hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin) in an Iraqi specialised hospital. […] The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 were reduced significantly in response to a therapy regimen containing HCQ and azithromycin. […] This natural trial showed that the COVID-19 regimen containing both HCQ and azithromycin can be helpful to promote the recovery of most patients and reduced their signs and symptoms significantly. […] In the absence of FDA-approved medications to treat COVID-19, the repurposing of HCQ and azithromycin to control the disease signs and symptoms can be useful.
33235800 She was given isotonic saline and acetaminophen and prescribed azithromycin and acetaminophen and sent home for isolation.
33239282 The aims of this study were to describe prescribing practices of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin during the COVID-19 epidemic crisis (primary endpoint), then to characterise pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) targeted to these medications and evaluate the impact of these PIs on prescribers’ practices (secondary end-points). […] The analysed population excluded patients from intensive care units but included all other adult patients with COVID-19 who received at least one dose of lopinavir/ritonavir combination, hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin, while inpatients. […] This was accompanied by an increase in hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prescriptions until the end of March, followed by a decrease leading to the disappearance of these two medications in April. […] The pharmaceutical analysis of the prescriptions resulted in 59 PIs of which 21 were associated with lopinavir/ritonavir, 32 with hydroxychloroquine and 6 with azithromycin.
33240733 The rash started after he took azithromycin, oseltamivir, ribavirin, lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, interferon (IFN) beta, and ceftazidime for COVID-19.
33243134 Azithromycin has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for COVID-19 patients. […] We describe three patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who did not respond to the initial treatment but improved dramatically upon adding azithromycin with a successful outcome.
33244856 Widely used chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combinations, as well as lopinavir-ritonavir were shown to have less efficient treatment effects.
33245505 Patients treated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin were related to a higher chance of survival than those without pharmacological treatment. […] Treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was associated with lower mortality in these patients.
33250495 Out of 156 children, 78 (50%) children received Hydroxychloroquine-containing regimen, 15 of them were treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin + oseltamivir, 44 were treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin and 21 were only treated with hydroxychloroquine.
33251500 Hydroxychloroquine (HC) ± azithromycin (AZ) is widely used for Covid-19.
33257051 Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and umifenovir represent the major repurposed drugs used as potential experimental agents for COVID-19 whereas azithromycin, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, sarilumab, famotidine and ceftriaxone are some of the supporting agents that are under investigation for COVID-19 management.
33274249 Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir were used frequently; however, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use declined over time, while use of remdesivir increased.
33278301 Use of COVID-19-directed therapies, such as hydroxychloroquine (n = 76) or azithromycin (n = 59), was common.
33280207 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZM) are widely used in off-label treatment of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
33281315 Regarding the plan for use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 55% of the total respondents intended to use the drug in combination with azithromycin, even as 62% agreed that there was no clear evidence yet.
33282650 Although azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were promptly administered, she had a worsening of dyspnea even with a high-flow oxygen mask.
33283842 Data from all studies that focused on the effectiveness of HCQ with or without the addition of azithromycin (AZM) in confirmed COVID-19 patients, which were published up to 12 September 2020, were collated for analysis using CMA v.2.2.064.
33290969 Antiviral drugs such as; oseltamivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, lopinavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, ascorbic acid, corticosteroids, are mostly used for patients.
33291194 To assess and identify the risk of prolonged QT about hydroxychloroquine (HQ) and azithromycin (AZ) used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. […] Fifty-one (35.4%) patients were given hydroxychloroquine monoterapy (HQ), 93 (64.6%) were given hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (HA), and 70 (48.6%) were women. […] Both of hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin treatment regimens cause QTc measurement to increase at a statistically significant level. […] Key Words: COVID-19, QTc interval, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin.
33291642 Furthermore, this study showed that Azithromycin can selectively impair SARS-CoV-2 replication, but not the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). […] A virtual screening study illustrated that Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide bind to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Protein data bank (PDB) ID: 6lu7) in binding mode similar to the reported co-crystalized ligand. […] (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that Piroxicam should be prescribed in combination with Azithromycin for COVID-19 patients.
33293554 Ambulatory and not critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and/or antiretrovirals develop a significant, but not relevant, QT interval prolongation.
33294110 The average duration of hospitalization was 13.8 days, and the duration of hospitalization for patients managed with azithromycin + chloroquine (AZ+CQ) was 10.4 days, followed closely by those managed with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) only, 11.0 days.
33297704 The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin from day one of hospital stay.
33299775 During the COVID-19 pandemic, the effectiveness of the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin is widely discussed. […] The aim of this study is to describe the cardiovascular effect of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin by analyzing surface ECG in patients with COVID-19. […] Patients were treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least ten days. […] QT prolongation is a real risk with the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33300221 The repurposing of nitazoxanide, doxycycline and azithromycin may be effective to improve the symptoms in mild and moderate COVID-19 subjects. […] Subjects were treated with azithromycin or doxycycline, and nitazoxanide was added to the treatment if the subject had diarrhoea. […] Subjects were divided into four groups: Group 1: subjects treated with azithromycin (20 subjects); Group 2: subjects treated with doxycycline (20 subjects); Group 3: subjects treated with a combination of nitazoxanide and doxycycline (20 subjects); and Group 4: subjects treated with a combination of nitazoxanide and azithromycin (20 subjects).
33301018 Compared with patients with no hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin, patients with both azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine had increased odds of death (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31; P < .001).
33301232 Antivirals, antimalarials, azithromycin, and tocilizumab are most responsive drugs for adverse drug reactions, but antivirals especially in combination with antimalarial drugs are in the first step.
33306333 Numerous drugs including lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, neuraminidase inhibitors, remdesivir, umifenovir, azithromycin and chloroquine have been suggested for the management of COVID-19 although the exact treatment yet to be determined.
33307378 Administration of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prolongs QTc corrected interval (QTc). […] Our aim was to evaluate changes in QTc in patients receiving double (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin) and triple therapy (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin + Lopinavir/Ritonavir) to treat COVID-19. […] Addition of Lopinavir/Ritonavir on top of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin did not increase QTc compared to DT.
33309057 Around half were prescribed antibiotics, five children received antiviral treatments, four azithromycin and one additional corticosteroids.
33312066 Aim of our study was to identify pharmacogenes and pharmacogenomics markers associated with drugs recommended for COVID-19 treatment, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir and ritonavir, in population of Serbia and other world populations.
33312897 The tacrolimus blood level was determined and the elevation in creatinine was found to be related to an interaction between tacrolimus and azithromycin. […] Treatments used for COVID-19 therapy; azithromycin, atazanavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and tocilizumab, interact with immunosuppressive treatments, most importantly with calcineurin inhibitors.
33313926 Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were given to five patients (38%), Intravenous Immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone were administered to one patient (8%).
33314875 Risk factors for CDI in COVID-19 patients included: age, length of hospital stay, occurrence of diarrhea during hospitalization, antibiotics other than azithromycin, coexistence of nervous system disease, and chronic kidney disease - all had weak association with CDI development.
33315348 In multivariate logistic regression analysis; present malignancy (odds ratio [OR]= 4.817, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.107-20.958, p:0.036), dyspnea (OR=4.652, 95% CI=1.473-14.688, p:0.009), Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NRL) (OR=1.097, 95% CI=1.012-1.188, p: 0.025), the highest values of CRP (OR=1.006, 95% CI=1.000-1.012, p: 0.049), LDH (OR=1.002, 95% CI=1.001-1.004, p: 0.003) and creatinine levels (OR=1.497, 95% CI=1.126-1.990, p: 0.006), SpO2 values on admission (OR=0.897, 95% CI=0.811-0.993, p: 0.036) and azithromycin use (OR=0.239, 95% CI=0.065-0.874, p: 0.031) were independently associated with mortality. […] The presence of malignancy, symptoms of dyspnea, high NLR, highest CRP, LDH and creatinine levels, low saturation on admission predicted mortality, while the azithromycin use was found to be protective against mortality.
33316401 Treatment with azithromycin for ≥3 days was associated with the diagnosis of probable IPA (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.5, p = 0.02). […] Azithromycin, known to have immunomodulatory properties, may contribute to increase COVID-19 patient’s susceptibility to IPA.
33327924 Several drugs have been repurposed to treat COVID-19, including chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir combination, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, and EIDD-1931.
33334287 The development of vaccine or medicines for the same are under progress and this short review will summarize the most potential candidates such as Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin, Favipiravir, Umifenovir, and Ribavirin for its medicinal treatment.
33335973 To assess cardiac safety in COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using arrhythmia risk management plan. […] We retrospectively examined arrhythmia safety of treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in the setting of pre-defined arrhythmia risk management plan. […] We recorded a low incidence of QTc prolongation ≥ 500 ms and no ventricular tachycardia events in COVID-19 patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using cardiac arrhythmia risk management plan.
33336316 Remdesivir, dexamethasone, azithromycin, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir, hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta, ribavirin, tocilizumab, anakinra and sarilumab were identified as experimental drugs being used in COVID-19 trials as of November 2020.
33345848 Clinically, however, many drugs, including those currently used in COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir, may cause cardiotoxicity by acting on cardiac potassium channels, especially hERG channel through their off-target effects.
33347510 This study aimed to evaluate safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin as adjunctive antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing non-elective cesarean delivery in comparison with no macrolides, to adapt to azithromycin shortages in COVID-19 pandemic. […] Our study suggests that administration of clarithromycin for adjunctive surgical prophylaxis for non-elective cesarean deliveries may be a safe option that may provide suitable endometritis prophylaxis in cases where azithromycin is unavailable, as was the case during the start of COVID-19 pandemic, most especially for Black race women and women ages 18-29 years.
33354330 Treatment with azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine (AZT/HCQ) (46% of patients) were not associated with the composite outcome and with death in univariate and multivariate analyses.
33354381 He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin and received an IVIG transfusion.
33354753 The most frequently reported pharmacotherapeutic agents were azithromycin and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, followed by lopinavir-ritonavir, ceftriaxone, and tofacitinib. […] The most frequently reported clinical adverse events associated with azithromycin (as sole therapy or combined with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine) include electrocardiogram QT prolonged, drug interaction, hepatitis, diarrhea, and hepatitis acute. […] Regarding cardiac-related events, 19% (120/645) of azithromycin cases reported events associated with QT prolongation/torsade de pointes (which included seven fatal cardiac events).
33357185 While facing potentially high morbidity from COVID-19 without known effective therapies, the off-label use of several non-specific drugs has been advocated, including re-purposed anti-virals (e.g. remdesivir or the lopinavir/ritonavir combination), biologic agents (e.g. tocilizumab), and antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, in association with or without azithromycin.
33357637 Studies reported an increased risk of QTc interval prolongations influenced by different therapies based on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin.
33359949 The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), with or without concurrent administration of azithromycin (AZM), for treatment of COVID-19 has received considerable attention.
33361755 We included one randomized clinical trial that evaluated the use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine compared to hydroxychloroquine alone in hospitalized patients with COVID 19.
33369696 The most frequently used substances were hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33373435 The number of patients dispensed azithromycin increased from February to March 2020 then decreased.
33373642 In the absence of an effective treatment, different drugs with unknown effectiveness, including antimalarial hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), with or without concurrent administration with azithromycin (AZM), have been tested for treating COVID-19 patients with developed pneumonia.
33377451 We recommend against using hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir.
33378357 The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was shown to be associated with increased QT prolongation incidence (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.20, p = 0.003) and fatal cardiac complications in cardiac-impaired populations (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.00, p = 0.007). […] Hydroxychloroquine did not provide clinical benefits while posing cardiac safety risks when combined with azithromycin, especially in the vulnerable population.
33382685 Among the four selected market available drug candidates, Pralatrexate and Azithromycin were confirmed to effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro with EC50 values of 0.008μM and 9.453 μM, respectively.
33388006 At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment.
33402839 Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin produced no clinical evidence of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT).
33404133 We measured the inhibitory action of CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with 30 μM azithromycin (AZ) on six ion currents (fast [INa] and late [INa,L] components of the sodium current, L-type calcium current [ICa,L], rapid [IKr/hERG], and slow [IKs] components of delayed rectifier potassium, and inward rectifier potassium [IK1]) over a wide range of concentrations using the automated patch-clamp system.
33405302 TE caused by hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or other medications cannot be ruled out, and the global pandemic itself is a source of psychosocial stress.
33405402 Patients had signs of respiratory distress and were treated with hydroxychloroquine, darunavir, ritonavir, heparin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin.
33409334 Monthly azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and levofloxacin fills did not rebound significantly from April through July 2020.
33410987 The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for coadministration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir because of the risk of QT prolongation and TdP and cytochromes interactions.
33421743 We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2.
33427110 The use of anticoagulants and antibiotics, such as teicoplanin and azithromycin/hydroxychloroquine were reported to also play a leading role in the management of the disease.
33437137 Hence, we studied the combination and tricombination therapy between bioactive compounds which have the best binding affinity and some antiviral drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, simeprevir, baloxavir, lopinavir, and favipiravir to show the effect of combination and tricombination therapy to disrupt the stability of the three major viral targets that are mentioned previously.
33439937 The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33441373 Azithromycin has rapidly been adopted as a repurposed drug for the treatment of COVID-19, despite the lack of high-quality evidence. […] In this review, we critically appraise the current pharmacological, preclinical and clinical data of azithromycin for treating COVID-19. […] Interest in azithromycin has been fuelled by favourable treatment outcomes in other viral pneumonias, a documented antiviral effect on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and uncontrolled case series early in the pandemic. […] Currently, in vivo reports on azithromycin in COVID-19 are conflicting and do not endorse its widespread use outside of clinical trials. […] The effect size of azithromycin may depend on when it is started.
33445940 Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was given experimentally as monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (AZI) to 24 (45.3%) patients.
33449114 We use a susceptible-infected model to estimate the impact of delayed distribution of azithromycin treatment on the prevalence of active trachoma.
33451758 The first patient was a 30-year-old man who, despite being treated with hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, oseltamivir, and azithromycin therapy, died because of the presence of other comorbidities. […] The second case was a 58-year-old man who fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia with treatment with methylprednisolone, MMF, azithromycin, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, and reduction in immunosuppression dosage.
33454317 This study investigated the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) and other congenital anomalies (CA) associated with first trimester use of macrolide antibiotics (mainly erythromycin, spiramycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin) and lincosamides (clindamycin) using a case-malformed control design. […] The risk of atrioventricular septal defect was significantly raised with exposure to any macrolide (AOR 2.98; 95 %CI: 1.48-6.01), erythromycin (AOR 3.68, 95 %CI: 1.28-10.61), and azithromycin (AOR 4.50, 95 %CI: 1.30-15.58). […] Erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and clindamycin were associated with an increased risk of at least one other CA. […] Further research is needed on the risk of specific CA associated with macrolide and lincosamide use in the first trimester, particularly relevant for the potential use of azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19.
33465426 Between March and April 2020, 84 elderly patients with suspected COVID-19 living in two nursing homes of Yepes, Toledo (Spain) were treated early with antihistamines (dexchlorpheniramine, cetirizine or loratadine), adding azithromycin in the 25 symptomatic cases. […] Although clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of both drugs in the treatment of COVID-19, this analysis suggests that primary care diagnosis and treatment with antihistamines, plus azithromycin in selected cases, may treat COVID-19 and prevent progression to severe disease in elderly patients.
33476539 A subgroup analysis was performed to investigate the effect of different antiviral regimens (monotherapy, double therapy, or triple therapy) and whether interferon α-1b was used in combination with azithromycin on the length of hospital stay and the clearance time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. […] It is not recommended to use the routine combinations of antiviral drugs for children with SARS-COV-2 infection or combine with azithromycin for the purpose of antiviral therapy.
33476632 Azithromycin is widely used broad spectrum antibiotic recently used in treatment protocol of COVID-19 for its antiviral and immunomodulatory effects combined with Hydroxychloroquine or alone. […] Rat models showed that Azithromycin produces oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of myocardial tissue. […] This study aims to evaluate the probable protective effect of Rosuvastatin against Azithromycin induced cardiotoxicity. […] Twenty adult male albino rats were divided randomly into four groups, five rats each control, Azithromycin, Rosuvastatin, and Azithromycin +Rosuvastatin groups. […] Azithromycin 30 mg/kg/day and Rosuvastatin 2 mg/kg/day were administrated for two weeks by an intragastric tube. […] The results revealed that Rosuvastatin significantly ameliorates ECG changes, biochemical, and Oxidative stress markers alterations of Azithromycin. […] Histological evaluation from Azithromycin group showed marked areas of degeneration, myofibers disorganization, inflammatory infiltrate, and hemorrhage. […] We concluded that Rosuvastatin significantly ameliorates the toxic changes of Azithromycin on the heart.
33477522 Most of therapeutic options considered for SARS-CoV-2 treatment (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma) failed to confirm significant efficiency.
33478708 This study aimed to characterize corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in a cohort of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who were treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ/AZM).
33483755 The ambulatory action team also implemented several strategies to manage medication therapy associated with COVID-19-related shortages and implemented electronic decision support to guide prescribing of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33483756 Substantial efforts have been recently committed to develop COVID-19 medications, and Hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with Azithromycin has been promoted as a repurposed treatment. […] We found Hydroxychloroquine to have a low pro-arrhythmia risk, while Chloroquine and Azithromycin were associated with high risk. […] Polytherapy of Hydroxychloroquine plus Azithromycin and sequential application of these drugs were also found to influence pro-arrhythmia risk categorization. […] Hydroxychloroquine pro-arrhythmia risk changed to high when combined with Azithromycin at therapeutic concentration. […] However, Hydroxychloroquine at therapeutic concentration impacted the cardiac safety profile of Azithromycin and its pro-arrhythmia risk only at concentrations above therapeutic level. […] We also report that Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine, but not Azithromycin, decreased contractility while exhibiting multi-ion channel block features, and Hydroxychloroquine’s contractility effect was abolished by Azithromycin.
33484407 Co-administration of azithromycin had no effect on primary outcomes (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.82-8.85, P = 0.10).
33491234 Six proposed COVID-19 therapeutics were identified as possessing ototoxic side effects including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon, ribavirin, and ivermectin.
33492492 The pressure to produce drugs and vaccines against the ongoing pandemic has resulted in the use of some drugs such as azithromycin, chloroquine (sulfate and phosphate), hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
33502877 Azithromycin and clarithromycin are considered for the treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has a high similarity to previous colonic diseases. […] We aimed to determine whether azithromycin and clarithromycin, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein inhibitor used in the treatment of COVID-19, is effective against SARS Cov-2 in silico. […] The 503 analogues of azithromycin and clarithromycin were studied to target SARS-CoV-2 the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein inhibition. […] This analogue was an analogue of azithromycin (Tab.
33503163 The main drugs were hydroxychloroquine (59.5%), azithromycin (9.8%) and chloroquine (5.2%).
33506312 Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin/enoxaparin were used initially, while amiodarone/enoxaparin were used at a later phase.
33518854 One of the current treatment protocols involves the antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) alone or in combination with other compounds.
33519270 It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty.
33519272 Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved.
33521736 In particular, the overuse of azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 might impair one of the few remaining regimens against XDR.
33522213 Most prescribed drugs were hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin.
33524462 This prospective observational study compared QTc duration assessed by artificial intelligence (AI-QTc) (Cardiologs®, Paris, France) on smartwatch single‑lead electrocardiograms (SW-ECGs) with those measured on 12‑lead ECGs, in patients with early stage COVID-19 treated with a hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin regimen. […] Consecutive patients with COVID-19 who needed hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin therapy, received a smartwatch (Withings Move ECG®, Withings, France).
33525254 The combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin could represent a suitable treatment for SarS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies.
33526007 There are several approaches, have been put forward by many countries under the world health organization (WHO) recommendations and some trial drugs were introduced for possible treatment of COVID-19, such as Lopinavir or Ritonavir, Arbidol, Chloroquine (CQ), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and most important Remdesivir including other like Tocilizumab, Oritavancin, Chlorpromazine, Azithromycin, Baricitinib, etc.
33531828 After adjusting for patient and provider factors, a decline in hydroxychloroquine and an increase in azithromycin and dexamethasone were observed among COVID-19 patients during the 4-month study period.
33532070 Antibiotics such as azithromycin for six days was added.
33532594 Additionally, it showed hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin to be relatively ineffective.
33542445 These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide. […] The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in clinical efficacy include CQ/HCQ (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, ACE2, and HO-1); azithromycin (ABCB1); LPV/r (SLCO1B1, ABCB1, ABCC2 and CYP3A); NVP (ABCC10); oseltamivir (CES1 and ABCB1); remdesivir (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and OATP1B1); anakinra (IL-1a); and TCZ (IL6R and FCGR3A).
33545096 Azithromycin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19 on the basis of its immunomodulatory actions. […] We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of azithromycin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. […] Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to either usual standard of care alone or usual standard of care plus azithromycin 500 mg once per day by mouth or intravenously for 10 days or until discharge (or allocation to one of the other RECOVERY treatment groups). […] Between April 7 and Nov 27, 2020, of 16 442 patients enrolled in the RECOVERY trial, 9433 (57%) were eligible and 7763 were included in the assessment of azithromycin. […] The mean age of these study participants was 65·3 years (SD 15·7) and approximately a third were women (2944 [38%] of 7763). 2582 patients were randomly allocated to receive azithromycin and 5181 patients were randomly allocated to usual care alone. […] Overall, 561 (22%) patients allocated to azithromycin and 1162 (22%) patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·07; p=0·50). […] In patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, azithromycin did not improve survival or other prespecified clinical outcomes. […] Azithromycin use in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 should be restricted to patients in whom there is a clear antimicrobial indication.
33546986 Given the increased use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), chloroquine (CQ), and azithromycin (AZM) during the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a need to evaluate the associated safety concerns.
33548872 The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. […] The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum.
33550043 Recently several drugs have been used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Nafamostat mesylate and so on.
33550966 The present work is an effort for a computational target to block the spike proteins (S) and ACE2 receptor proteins with Macrolide antibiotics like Azithromycin, (AZM), Clarithromycin (CLAM) and Erythromycin (ERY) along with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
33552370 They were given mostly azithromycin 15mg/kg, zinc and chloroquine sulfate 5mg/kg. […] They were given mostly azithromycin 15mg/kg, zinc and chloroquine sulfate 5mg/kg.
33554209 There is limited data in children on the use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, monoclonal antibody, and convalescent plasma.
33556464 Standard of care (SOC) treatment was: hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants.
33559255 Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, and Linezolid were the major antibiotics dispensed to COVID-19 presumptive patients Azithromycin was given to ~40% of presumptive patients showing only mild or moderate symptoms for 5-10 days.
33563325 Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic, known for its immunomodulatory properties. […] DAWn-AZITHRO is a randomized, open-label, phase 2 proof-of-concept, multicenter clinical trial, evaluating the safety and efficacy of azithromycin for treating hospitalized patients with COVID-19. […] Patients are block-randomized (9 patients) with a 2:1 allocation to receive azithromycin plus standard of care versus standard of care alone. […] The treatment group receives azithromycin qd 500 mg during the first 5 consecutive days after inclusion. […] It will either provide support or else justify the discouragement of the current widespread, uncontrolled use of azithromycin in patients with COVID-19.
33569736 Among individuals without coronavirus infection from 2015 Q1 to 2020 Q1, increased risks for cardiac disorders were found for antiviral agents such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (ROR: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-1.70), lopinavir/ritonavir (ROR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.39-1.66), and antibiotics such as azithromycin (ROR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.30-1.44) and ceftriaxone (ROR: 1.92; 95% CI 1.80-2.05). […] Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin contributed to all the QT prolongation and cardiac arrest cases. […] Clinicians should closely monitor patients with COVID-19, especially those at high risk, using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.
33573530 Hydroxychloroquine (with or without azithromycin) was also not associated with mortality (RR = 1.09, 95%CI 0.98-1.20).
33574271 We found several drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, SLCO1A2, and SLCO1B1); azithromycin (ABCB1); ribavirin (SLC29A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3); and lopinavir/ritonavir (SLCO1B1, ABCC2, CYP3A). […] We also describe the complexity of the risk for QT prolongation in this setting because of additive effects of combining more than one QT-prolonging drug (i.e., hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and azithromycin), increased concentrations of the drugs due to genetic variants, along with the risk of also combining therapy with potent inhibitors.
33578014 The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multidrug-therapy consisting of Ivermectin, Azithromycin, Montelukast and Acetylsalicylic Acid (“TNR4” therapy) to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico.
33589175 The drugs used in the intervention group are Chloroquine (CQ)/Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with or without Azithromycin.