DrugBank ID: db00640
DrugCentral: adenosine
Synonymous :(2r,3r,4s,5r)-2-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol | 6-amino-9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-9h-purine | 9-beta-d-ribofuranosidoadenine | 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-9h-purin-6-amine | 9-β-d-ribofuranosyl-9h-purin-6-amine | ade-rib | adenin riboside | adenine deoxyribonucleoside | adenogesic | adenosin | adenosina | adénosine | adenosine | adenosinum | ado | beta-d-adenosine

Drug Sentece Context

Table 1. Analysis of context sentence of adenosine gene in 48 abstracts.

pmid sentence
32171193 IL-37 performs its immunosuppressive activity by acting on mTOR and increasing the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) kinase.
32239125 Among them, remdesivir, an analogue of adenosine, is what seems to have a more promising future.
32253888 It is hoped that certain drugs, such as CoV-19 receptor blockers, anti-inflammatories (against rheumatic diseases), monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6, the remdesevir drug (analogue adenosine, effective against ebola), hydroxychloroquine (for the treatment of malaria) and vaccines, will open up new strategies and new therapeutic ways to combat this terrible virus.
32388390 In this article, we provide a novel hypothesis to describe how an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (c-ATP) can potentially improve the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems to either prevent or fight off COVID-19.
32461703 Specifically, the focus of this work is on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the widest group of transmembrane proteins in animals, which regulate specific cell processes through chemical signalling pathways involving a synergistic balance between the cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) produced by active GPCRs in the intracellular environment and its efflux, mediated by the Multidrug Resistance Proteins (MRPs) transporters.
32488835 Through this paper, we provided the list of possible chemical ligands (Meglumine, Vidarabine, Adenosine, D-Sorbitol, D-Mannitol, Sodium_gluconate, Ganciclovir and Chlorobutanol) and peptide drugs (combination of isoleucine, lysine and proline) from the databases to guide the experimental scientists and validate the molecules which can combat the virus in a shorter time.
32497535 Given the role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE) 4 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the inflammatory response, we hypothesize that selective PDE4 inhibition may attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19, through the upstream inhibition of pro-inflammatory molecules, particularly TNF-α, and the regulation of the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance.
32540603 Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, which in turn activate protein kinase, leading to a reduction in the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines to ultimately influence the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in vitro by inhibiting angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) expression.
32548259 The nanoparticles are made by conjugating squalene, a natural lipid, to adenosine, an endogenous immunomodulator, and then encapsulating α-tocopherol, as antioxidant. […] Selectively delivering adenosine and antioxidants together could serve as a novel therapeutic approach for safe treatment of acute paradoxal inflammation.
32567979 We performed homology modeling and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, in order to understand the molecular architecture of Guanosine-P3-Adenosine-5’,5’-Triphosphate (G3A) binding with C-terminal N7-MTase domain of nsp14 from SARS-CoV-2.
32579049 This characteristic can represent an important differential to change this process in the event of an imbalance in this system, through the photobiomodulation to increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using red and near-infrared radiation (R-NIR) and vitamin D using ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation.
32590324 Upon infection or cell damage, high amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are released from damaged cells, which serve as mediators of inflammation through purinergic cell surface receptor signaling. […] As a protective mechanism to prevent excessive damage to host tissue, adenosine counteracts ATP’s effects by adenosine receptor stimulation to suppress the pro-inflammatory response. […] Adenosine is seen as a major obstacle to the efficacy of immune therapies, and the adenosinergic axis components are critical therapeutic targets for cancer and microbial infections. […] Pharmacologic inhibitors or antibodies specific to adenosinergic pathway components or adenosine receptors in microbial and tumor therapy have shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies and are entering the clinical arena. […] In this review, we provide a novel hypothesis explaining the potential for improving the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems by targeting adenosinergic pathway components and adenosine A2A receptor signaling for the treatment of COVID-19.
32595613 Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a novel monophosphoramidate adenosine analog prodrug that exhibits potent antiviral activity against diverse RNA virus families, including positive-sense Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae and negative-sense Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Pneumoviridae.
32596474 We identify nucleotide changes that may be signatures of RNA editing: adenosine-to-inosine changes from ADAR deaminases and cytosine-to-uracil changes from APOBEC deaminases.
32650197 Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), expressed by a wide range of immune cells, as well as endothelial cells and platelets, exert cAMP-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that potentially could be highly protective in this regard. […] The venerable drug pentoxifylline (PTX) exerts both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that reflect its ability to boost the responsiveness of A2AR to extracellular adenosine. […] The platelet-stabilizing drug dipyridamole (DIP) blocks intracellular uptake of extracellularly-generated adenosine, thereby up-regulating A2AR signaling in a way that should be functionally complementary to the impact of PTX in that regard.
32707842 The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 regulate immune responses by balancing extracellular ATP and adenosine in inflammation and are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19.
32715661 It is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor and through Adenosine A2A Receptor-mediated pathways reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferon gamma and may act to reduce tissue damage during the cytokine storm host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
32821086 Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine C-nucleoside. […] The nucleoside analog inhibits the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by competing with the usual counterpart adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
32861965 Available data identifies remdesivir as an adenosine analogue that can target the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis.
32921216 Abbreviations: ICU: An intensive care unit; 2019-nCoV: 2019 novel coronavirus; ACEI: ACE inhibitor; ACS: Acute coronary syndrome; ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; AT1R: Ang II type 1 receptor; ATP: Adenosine triphosphate; ACC: American College of Cardiology; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ang II: Angiotensin II; ARB: Angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV block: Atrioventricular block; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; CT: Computerized tomography; CHF: Congestive heart failure; CHD: Coronary heart disease; CK-MB: Creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB; CRP: C-reactive protein; cTnI: Cardiac troponin I; EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue; ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; HFrEF: HF with a reduced ejection fraction; synhACE2: Human isoform of ACE2; IL: Interleukin; IABP: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: Mitochondrial assembly receptor; MCP1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MIP1a: macrophage inflammatory protein 1a: MOF: Multiple organ failure; MI: Myocardial infarction; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; MYO: Myohe-moglobin; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCPS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary assistance; rhACE2: Recombinant human ACE2; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Th: T helper; RAS: Renin-angiotensin system; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; WHO: World Health Organization.
32936689 In this review we have outlined various target directed approaches which include microbubbles, extracellular vesicles including exosomes, adenosine nanoparticles, novel bio-objects, direct aerosol targeted pulmonary delivery and catheter-based drug delivery with reference to their relative effectiveness for the specific lesions.
32942131 The modulation of glucose availability for activated M1 macrophages by means of a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD) could represent a possible metabolic tool for reducing adenosine triphosphate production from aerobic glycolysis in the M1 macrophage phenotype during the exudative phase.
32964796 Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor); AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase; BMM: bone marrow macrophage; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary/cell line; CoV: coronaviruses; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; DMV: double-membrane vesicle; EAV: equine arteritis virus; EDEM1: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HCoV: human coronavirus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HSV: herpes simplex virus; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; IFN: interferon; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCoV: mouse coronavirus; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (autophagy receptor that directs cargo to phagophores); nsp: non-structural protein; OS9: OS9 endoplasmic reticulum lectin; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLP: papain-like protease; pMEF: primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; Vps: vacuolar protein sorting.
32967358 Since currently no resolutive therapy for ARDS has been found and given the scientific literature regarding the use of adenosine, its application has been hypothesized. […] Through its receptors, adenosine is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory process, increase the protection capacity of the epithelial barrier, and reduce the damage due to an overactivation of the immune system, such as that occurring in cytokine storms. […] Considering these hypotheses, a COVID-19 patient with unresponsive respiratory failure was treated with adenosine for compassionate use.
32981460 The molecular basis for alternate ligand binding was also examined by determining a structure of one of the hits, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, with atomic resolution.
33011243 Being a highly selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors (PDE4i), roflumilast acts by enhancing the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), that probably potentiates its anti-inflammatory action via increasing neprilysin (NEP) activity.
33020707 Notably, only SFG could electrostatically interact with the 2’-OH and N3 of RNA’s adenosine moiety, mimicking the methyl transfer reaction of S-adenosyl-l-methionine substrate.
33031409 Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage. […] This off label-treatment was based on preclinical studies in mice with LPS-induced ARDS, where inhaled adenosine/A2AR agonists protected oxygenated lungs from the deadly inflammatory damage. […] The treatment was allowed, considering that adenosine has several clinical applications. […] Fourteen consecutively enrolled patients with Covid19-related interstitial pneumonitis and PaO2/FiO2 ratio<300 received off-label-treatment with 9 mg inhaled adenosine every 12 hours in the first 24 hours and subsequently, every 24 days for the next 4 days. […] Fifty-two patients with analogue features and hospitalized between February and April 2020, who did not receive adenosine, were considered as a historical control group. […] A significant increase (> 30%) in the PaO2/FiO2-ratio was reported in 13 out of 14 patients treated with adenosine compared with that observed in 7 out of52 patients in the control within 15 days. […] 464 ± 136, P = 0.0002) in patients receiving adenosine and no change in the control group (210±75 vs. 250±85 at 120 hours, P>0.05). […] A radiological response was demonstrated in 7 patients who received adenosine, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA load rapidly decreased in 13 cases within 7 days while no changes were recorded in the control group within 15 days. […] Our short-term analysis suggests the overall safety and beneficial therapeutic effect of inhaled adenosine in patients with Covid-19-inflammatory lung disease suggesting further investigation in controlled clinical trials.
33049737 Pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, which in turn activate protein kinase, leading to a reduction in the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and immune cell migration.
33063092 PARP 1 activation leads to cell death mainly by depletion of NAD+ and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), especially when availability of these energy mediators is compromised.
33138721 Recently, antiviral studies investigating the broad-spectrum coronavirus protease inhibitor, GC376, and the adenosine nucleoside analogue GS-441524, have resulted in increased survival rates and clinical cure in many patients.
33225826 Cordycepin is under clinical trial (NCT00709215) and possesses structural similarity with adenosine except that, it lacks a 3’ hydroxyl group in its ribose moiety and hence it served as a poly(A) polymerase inhibitor and terminate premature protein synthesis.
33234239 In this brief review we describe three such human defense mechanisms, the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like proteins (APOBEC), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADAR), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and discuss their potential implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution.
33242917 Chemosensory sensation of taste is critically dependent on the salivary flow rate and its inorganic constituents, protein levels, specific 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, ghrelins, pH levels, and enzymes.
33254506 A recent study proved that coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 also uses dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4, also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2, CD26) as a co-receptor when entering cells.
33260103 The binding of RDV-TP showed that the position of phosphate groups was at the entry of the NTP channel and it was stabilized by the interactions with K551, R553, and K621, while the adenosine group on RDV-TP was pairing with U2 of the template strand.
33271226 Interestingly, we have previously shown that red blood cell mediated inhibition of platelet activation by adenosine diphosophate (ADP) is dramatically enhanced by illumination with far-red light that is likely due to photolysis of red cell surface bound NO congeners.
33299899 In particular, we focus on the interaction of the extracellular nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with its receptors P2X1, P2X4, P2X7, P2Y1, and P2Y2 and of adenosine (Ado) with A2A and A3 receptors, as well as their roles in host immune responses.
33324223 Adenosine and the key adenosine regulators adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine kinase (ADK), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 may play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. […] Here, we highlight 1) the non-enzymatic role of ADA by which it might out-compete the virus (SARS-CoV-2) for binding to the CD26 receptor, 2) the enzymatic roles of ADK and ADA to increase adenosine levels and ameliorate Advanced Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and 3) inhibition of adenosine transporters to reduce platelet activation, thrombosis and improve COVID-19 outcomes. […] Depending on the stage of exposure to and infection by SARS-CoV-2, enhancing adenosine levels by targeting key adenosine regulators such as ADA, ADK and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 might find therapeutic use against COVID-19 and warrants further investigation.
33347935 Desktop adenosine triphosphate monitoring did not predict the recovery of viral genomic materials on desks.
33352458 These viruses possess highly conserved viral macro domain A1pp having adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose binding and phosphatase activity sites. […] A1pp inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation in the host and promotes viral infection and pathogenesis. […] The root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent accessible surface (SASA), hydrogen bond formation, principle component analysis, and free energy landscape calculations for NA1 bound protein displayed stable complex formation in 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation, compared to unbound macro domain and natural substrate adenosine-5-diphosphoribose bound macro domain that served as a positive control.
33393898 During infection of an exposed host cell, viral-encoded protease cleaves the polyprotein that results from translation of 5’ open reading frame (ORF) of the genome, culminating in releasing of multiple nonstructural proteins such as helicase (Hel), adenosine triphosphate (ATPase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Rep).
33397209 In the present study, we aimed to discover the potential of β-adrenoceptor agonists and adenosine deaminase inhibitors which are used in asthma and cancer/inflammatory disorders, respectively, as repurposing drugs against protease inhibitor by ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening using COVID-19 protease-N3 complex.
33417674 Impedance aggregometry displayed no greater platelet aggregability in COVID-19 in comparison with healthy controls (area under the curve [AUC] in adenosine diphosphate test, 68 ± 37 U vs. 
33448184 Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification that regulates many biological processes, such as DNA damage repair.
33462776 In this perspective, given the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in neural intercommunication, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) acts on microglia cells and its inhibition may be able to reduce the inflammatory condition of neurodegenerative diseases.
33506983 Rapid adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test was used to determine contamination level using relative light units (RLU) of greater than 200 as a cutoff value.
33519814 Hypoxia signaling plays a diverse role in both acute and chronic lung inflammation, which could partially be explained by the divergent function of downstream target pathways such as adenosine signaling. […] Particularly, hypoxia signaling activates adenosine signaling to inhibit the inflammatory response in ARDS, while in chronic lung diseases, it promotes inflammation and tissue injury. […] In this review, we discuss the role of adenosine at the interphase of hypoxia and inflammation in ARDS and chronic lung diseases, as well as the current strategy for therapeutic targeting of the adenosine signaling pathway.